Jeff Mckenzie

Jeff Mckenzie
McGill University | McGill · Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

PhD

About

143
Publications
36,035
Reads
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4,580
Citations
Citations since 2017
56 Research Items
3197 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost thaw leads to an increase in groundwater circulation and potential mobilization of organic carbon sequestered in deep Arctic sediments (e.g., 3 to 25 m below surface). Upon thaw, a portion of this carbon may be transported along new groundwater flow paths to surface waters or be microbially transformed or immobilized by in-situ biogeoche...
Article
It is of prime importance to understand feedbacks due to the release of carbon (C) stored in permafrost soils (permafrost‐climate feedback) and direct impacts of climatic variations on permafrost dynamics therefore received considerable attention. However, indirect effects of global change, such as the variation in soil nutrient availability and gr...
Article
Full-text available
Debris-covered glaciers are an important component of the mountain cryosphere and influence the hydrological contribution of glacierized basins to downstream rivers. This study examines the potential to make estimates of debris thickness, a critical variable to calculate the sub-debris melt, using ground-based thermal infrared radiometry (TIR) imag...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article provides a comprehensive hydrometeorological dataset collected over the past two decades throughout the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The data recording sites, located in the upper portion of the Rio Santa valley, also known as the Callejon de Huaylas, span an elevation range of 3738–4750 m a.s.l. As many historical hydrological stations me...
Article
Surface energy balance (SEB) strongly influences the thermal state of permafrost, cryohydrological processes, and infrastructure stability. Road construction and snow accumulation affect the energy balance of underlying permafrost. Herein, we use an experimental road section of the Alaska Highway to develop a SEB model to quantify the surface energ...
Article
Full-text available
Actively heated fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (aFO-DTS) measures soil moisture content at sub-meter intervals across kilometres of fiber-optic cable. The technology has great potential for environmental monitoring but calibration at field scales with variable soil conditions is challenging. To better understand and quantify the errors...
Article
Full-text available
As permafrost thaws in the Arctic, new subsurface pathways open for the transport of groundwater, energy, and solutes. We identify different ways that these subsurface changes are driving observed surface consequences, including the potential for increased contaminant transport, modification to water resources, and enhanced rates of infrastructure...
Article
The design and construction of a waste rock pile influences water infiltration and may promote the production of contaminated mine drainage. The objective of this project is to evaluate the use of an active fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (aFO‐DTS) protocol to measure infiltration and soil moisture within a flow control layer capping an...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain water resources are of particular importance for downstream populations but are threatened by decreasing water storage in snowpack and glaciers. Groundwater contribution to mountain streamflow, once assumed to be relatively small, is now understood to represent an important water source to streams. This review presents an overview of resea...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts of ongoing climate warming on cold‐regions hydrogeology and groundwater resources have created a need to develop groundwater models adapted to these environments. Although permafrost is considered relatively impermeable to groundwater flow, permafrost thaw may result in potential increases in surface water infiltration, groundwater rech...
Preprint
Full-text available
As permafrost thaws in the Arctic, new subsurface pathways open for the movement of groundwater, energy, and solutes. We identify different ways that these subsurface changes are driving observed surface phenomena, including the potential for increased contaminant transport, modification to water resources, and enhanced rates of infrastructure (e.g...
Article
As a result of climate warming and glacier recession, glacierized watersheds will experience a decrease in dry season discharge and an increase in wet season discharge, with negative consequences for water quality. The glacierized Rio Santa watershed in Peru provides the unique opportunity to study these concerns, because it drains the mountain ran...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has effects on hydrological change in multiple aspects, particularly in the headwaters of the Yellow River (HWYR), which is widely covered by climate-sensitive frozen ground. In this study, the annual runoff was partitioned into four runoff compositions: winter baseflow, snowmelt runoff, rainy season runoff, and recession flow. In ad...
Article
Recent waste rock pile designs have been proposed to incorporate a fine-grained layer to create a capillary barrier to prevent surface water from draining into the pile interior. This study analyses active fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) as a tool to measure the effectiveness a capillary barrier system following an infiltration...
Article
Full-text available
In northern regions, transportation infrastructure can experience severe structural damages due to permafrost degradation. Water infiltration and subsurface water flow under an embankment affect the energy balance of roadways and underlying permafrost. However, the quantification of the processes controlling these changes and a detailed investigati...
Presentation
The presence of permafrost strongly influences the storage and movement of groundwater by confining groundwater flow to the unfrozen zones above and below permafrost and in taliks (i.e. perennially unfrozen zones). Permafrost thaw due to climate warming modifies hydrological processes by increasing hydraulic conductivity by several orders of magnit...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerating mountain glacier recession in a warming climate threatens the sustainability of mountain water resources. The extent to which groundwater will provide resilience to these water resources is unknown, in part due to a lack of data and poorly understood interactions between groundwater and surface water. Here we address this knowledge gap...
Poster
Surface Energy Balance of Road Embankments in Permafrost Regions: A Data-Based Model Using 2008-2018 Thermal Monitoring of the Alaska Highway
Article
The dramatic loss of glacial mass in low latitudes is causing shifts in downstream water availability and use during the driest months of the year. The world’s largest concentration of tropical glaciers lies in the Cordillera Blanca range of Peru, where glacial runoff is declining and regional stresses are emerging over water resources. Throughout...
Article
Surface soil moisture is a critical but often neglected component of the hydrologic budget. Within mountain environments, surface soil moisture is highly heterogeneous and challenging to measure. Point measurements are often poorly representative of larger areas, while satellite pixels are generally too coarse in these topographically varied landsc...
Article
In recent years, thermal infrared (TIR) cameras have improved in resolution and accuracy while their cost has declined. By deploying a ground-based TIR camera to collect time-lapse images, it is now possible to acquire high-resolution stream temperatures through both space and time. However, while ground-based TIR is useful for qualitatively identi...
Presentation
In northern regions, transportation infrastructure is experiencing severe structural damage due to the degradation of permafrost. Water infiltration and subsurface water flow under an embankment alter the energy balance of roadways and of the underlying permafrost. However, the quantification of these processes and a detailed investigation of their...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of water moving between the atmosphere and aquifers has led to efforts to develop and maintain coupled models of surface water and groundwater. However, developing inputs to these models is usually time-consuming and requires extensive knowledge of software engineering, often prohibiting their use by many researchers and water manage...
Article
Fire frequency and severity are increasing in high-latitude regions, but the degree to which groundwater flow impacts the response of permafrost to fire remains poorly understood. Here we use the Anaktuvuk River Fire (Alaska, USA) as an example for simulating groundwater-permafrost interactions following fire. We identify key thermal and hydrologic...
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost thaw due to climate warming modifies hydrological processes by increasing hydrological connectivity between aquifers and surface water bodies and increasing groundwater storage. While previous studies have documented arctic river baseflow increases and changing wetland and lake distributions, the hydrogeological processes leading to thes...
Article
While stream temperature energy balance models are useful to predict temperature through time and space, a major unresolved question is whether fluctuations in stream discharge reduce model accuracy when not exactly represented. However, high frequency (e.g. sub‐daily) discharge observations are often unavailable for such simulations, and therefore...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrological responses to climate change are a widely concerning question, particularly for the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR), which is sensitive to climate change and is widely underlain by frozen ground. In considering climate change impacts on catchment properties, the traditional separation approach based on the Budyko framework was...
Article
Full-text available
The rapidly melting glaciers of Peru are posing new risks to regional dry season water supplies, and this is evident in the Cordillera Blanca, the mountain range with the world's largest concentration of tropical glaciers. Permanent ice loss is causing reductions to dry season streamflow, which is coupled with shifting demands and control over wate...
Article
In high-elevation, boreal and arctic regions, hydrological processes and associated water bodies can be strongly influenced by the distribution of permafrost. Recent field and modeling studies indicate that a fully-coupled multidimensional thermo-hydraulic approach is required to accurately model the evolution of these permafrost-impacted landscape...
Article
Full-text available
The source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) provides 35 % of the rivers annual discharge but is very sensitive to the climate change. The change in discharge from the SRYR has been attributed to both climatic and anthropogenic forces, and previous estimates of the impact of human activities on the change in discharge have been higher than 50 % of...
Preprint
Fire frequency and severity are increasing in high latitude regions, but the degree to which groundwater flow impacts the response of permafrost to fire remains poorly understood and understudied. Here, we use the Anaktuvuk River Fire (Alaska, USA) as an example to simulate groundwater-permafrost interactions following fire. We identify key thermal...
Article
Full-text available
Water flow through catchments sustains ecosystems and human activity, shapes landscapes, and links climate to the outermost layers of the solid Earth. The profound importance of water moving between the atmosphere and aquifers has led to efforts to develop and maintain coupled models of surface water and groundwater. However, developing inputs to t...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical glaciers constitute an important source of water for downstream populations. However, our understanding of glacial melt processes is still limited. One observed process that has not yet been quantified for tropical glaciers is the enhanced melt caused by the longwave emission transfer. Here, we use high-resolution surface temperatures obta...
Presentation
The Alaska Highway extends over 2200 km between central Alaska, U.S.A. and northern British-Columbia, Canada. This transportation corridor is crucial for the economy of Alaska as it is the only terrestrial link between mainland Alaska and the contiguous United States. Northern British Columbia and southwestern Yukon also greatly benefit from this h...
Article
Full-text available
La dramática pérdida de glaciares en la cuenca alta del río Santa en Ancash, Perú, tiene un impacto significativo en los sistemas hidrológicos proglaciales, con implicaciones para los factores estresantes aguas abajo en las actividades de uso humano del agua. Este estudio integra el análisis hidroquímico y la exploración espacial en múltiples escal...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this research is to characterize the variability of trace metals in the Rio Santa watershed based on synoptic sampling applied at a large scale. To that end, we propose a combination of methods based on the collection of water, suspended sediments, and riverbed sediments at different points of the watershed within a very limited pe...
Article
Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availab...
Article
Receding mountain glaciers affect the hydrology of downslope ecosystems with consequences for drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower production. Here we combined land cover derived from satellite imagery and other environmental data from the northern Peruvian Andes into a first differencing regression model to assess wetland hydrologic connect...
Article
Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection...
Article
Full-text available
Dramatic glacier loss in the upper Santa River watershed in Ancash, Peru has significant impact on proglacial hydrologic systems, with implications for downstream stressors on human water use activities. This study integrates hydrochemical analysis and spatial exploration across multiple scales with the aim of exploring patterns and controls of ino...
Presentation
The use of energy balance models for predicting stream temperature through time and space often focuses heavily on characterizing heat fluxes, while simplifying the hydrologic system by assuming constant discharge through time. However, some streams exhibit diurnal discharge fluctuations due to evapotranspiration, diurnal glacial melt water inputs,...
Poster
Tropical glaciers, which are particularly susceptible to global warming, are found in the lower latitudes of Asia and Africa, although 99% of the world’s tropical glaciers are located in the Andes of South America. The lack of seasonality in tropical temperatures, distinct wet and dry seasons, and year-round ablation of these glaciers give rise to...
Article
To investigate the biases and trends in observations of the permeability structures of fault zones in various geoscience disciplines, we review and compile a database of published studies and reports containing more than 900 references. The global data are categorized, mapped, and described statistically. We use the chi-square test for the dependen...
Article
Quantifying groundwater flow at seepage faces is crucial because seepage faces influence the hydroecology and water budgets of watersheds, lakes, rivers and oceans, and because measuring groundwater fluxes directly in aquifers is extremely difficult. Seepage faces provide a direct and measurable groundwater flux but there is no existing method to q...
Article
A myriad of downstream communities and industries rely on streams fed by both groundwater discharge and glacier meltwater draining the Cordillera Blanca, Northern Peruvian Andes, which contains the highest density of glaciers in the tropics. During the dry season, approximately half the discharge in the region’s proglacial streams comes from ground...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mountainous regions are integral components of the global hydrologic cycle, driving orographic rainfall patterns and storing water as snow, ice, lakes and groundwater. Within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru this hydrologic system is transforming as a result of increasing temperatures and consequent rapid glacier retreat. The potential impacts on the ti...
Article
There is great interest worldwide to reconnect floodplain wetlands to their rivers. Whilst the surface water connection between rivers and wetlands is fairly well understood, the linkages via groundwater are not well known. In this study, it is hypothesized that the significance of the groundwater pathways between rivers and wetlands is largely det...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Temperature is a powerful tracer to estimate vertical flows in the hyporheic zone. Temperature time series can be used to obtain estimates of fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates into plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of the use of heat as a tracer include that sensors are inexpensive, and that data can be collecte...
Article
Full-text available
Recent climate change has reduced the spatial extent and thickness of permafrost in many discontinuous permafrost regions. Rapid permafrost thaw is producing distinct landscape changes in the Taiga Plains of the Northwest Territories, Canada. As permafrost bodies underlying forested peat plateaus shrink, the landscape slowly transitions into unfore...
Poster
As tropical glaciers rapidly recede in response to climate change, the storage and discharge of groundwater will play an increasing role in regulating river baseflow, particularly during the dry season, when stream flow is currently sustained predominantly by glacial melt. Little is understood regarding the hydrogeologic processes controlling base...
Conference Paper
The experimental waste rock pile is 60 m long (with an additional 5.3 m toe) and is 32 m wide. The pile has a maximum and minimum thickness of 7 m and 4 m respectively, for a surface inclination of 5%. The coarse grained waste rock is covered by a 1 m thick compacted finer-grained layer: 75 cm of sand over 25 cm of non-reactive crushed waste rock....
Poster
Full-text available
Tropical glaciers constitute an important water resource for downstream populations. However, our understanding of their physical processes is limited due to their high elevation and remote location. In order to gain information on the processes driving the ablation of tropical glaciers, we acquired time-lapse (5-10 minute interval) high-resolution...
Article
Volcanoes play an important role in the global cycling of elements by providing a pathway from the deep Earth to its surface. Here, we have constrained the flux to the environment for most elements of the periodic table for the passively degassing, crater lake-hosting Kawah Ijen volcano in the Indonesian arc. Our results indicate that emissions of...
Poster
In the tropical Andes, glacial meltwater is an important water resource for downstream communities, especially during the dry season. Due to climate change, glacial retreat is accelerating and straining already limited water resources in the region. It is hypothesized that groundwater storage and discharge will play a critical role in sustaining fu...
Article
Full-text available
Vertical fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater can be estimated using diurnal signals from temperature time series methods based on amplitude ratios (A r), phase shifts (∆φ), or combined use of both (A r ∆φ). The A r , ∆φ, and A r ∆φ methods are typically applied in conditions where one or more of their underlying assumptions are vio...
Article
Full-text available
Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical glacier melt models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine glaciers. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal micro-scale processes at the glacier surfac...