Jeff Diez

Jeff Diez
University of Oregon | UO · Department of Biology

PhD

About

63
Publications
13,819
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3,307
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - September 2013
ETH Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (63)
Preprint
Aims Soil legacy effects can have long-term impacts on soil microbial communities with implications for plant growth and community structure. These effects are well studied for invasive plants, particularly after removal of invasive species, however very little work has considered the soil legacy effects of native range expanding species. Methods W...
Article
Climate and competition interact to affect species’ performance, such as growth and survival, and help determine species distributions and coexistence. However, it is unclear how climatic conditions modulate frequency‐dependent performance ‐ i.e. how performance changes as a species becomes locally rare or common. This is critical because declines...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate and land use change are causing woody plant encroachment in arctic, alpine, and arid/semiarid ecosystems around the world, yet our understanding of the belowground impacts of this phenomenon is limited. We conducted a globally distributed field study of 13 alpine sites across 4 continents undergoing woody plant encroachment and sampl...
Article
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Climate change is known to affect regional weather patterns and phenology; however, we lack understanding of how climate drives phenological change across local spatial gradients. This spatial variation is critical for determining whether subpopulations and metacommunities are changing in unison or diverging in phenology. Divergent responses could...
Article
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Plant species migrations, or range shifts, in response to changing climate are one of many interacting factors influencing plant population and community dynamics in an era of global change. Range shifts may cause novel assemblages of competing species because species may respond to changing climate at different rates. Range-expanding species may d...
Article
To predict the threat of biological invasions to native species, it is critical that we understand how increasing abundance of invasive alien species (IAS) affects native populations and communities. The form of this relationship across taxa and ecosystems is unknown, but is expected to depend strongly on the trophic position of the IAS relative to...
Article
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For several hundred years, millions of fungal sporocarps have been collected and deposited in worldwide collections (fungaria) to support fungal taxonomy. Owing to large-scale digitization programs, metadata associated with the records are now becoming publicly available, including information on taxonomy, sampling location, collection date and hab...
Poster
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Climate change is altering soil microbial communities worldwide, particularly in arctic and alpine biomes where warming is accelerated. Concurrently, alpine plant communities are shifting, including the widespread expansion of woody shrubs into historically herbaceous alpine grasslands and fellfields. This is likely to h...
Article
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to under...
Article
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Species occurrence observations are increasingly available for scientific analyses through citizen science projects and digitization of museum records, representing a largely untapped ecological resource. When combined with open-source data, there is unparalleled potential for understanding many aspects of the ecology and biogeography of organisms....
Article
Climate change will likely reshuffle ecological communities, causing novel species interactions that could profoundly influence how populations and communities respond to changing conditions. Nonetheless, predicting the impacts of novel interactions is challenging, partly because many methods of inference are contingent on the current configuration...
Article
Despite the critical importance of fungi as symbionts with plants, resources for animals, and drivers of ecosystem function, the spatiotemporal distributions of fungi remain poorly understood. The belowground life cycle of fungi makes it difficult to assess spatial patterns and dynamic processes even with recent molecular techniques. Here we offer...
Article
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Phenology is an integrative science that comprises the study of recurring biological activities or events. In an era of rapidly changing climate, the relationship between the timing of those events and environmental cues such as temperature, snowmelt, water availability, or day length are of particular interest. This article provides an overview of...
Article
Understanding how species respond to climate change is critical for forecasting the future dynamics and distribution of pests, diseases and biological diversity. Although ecologists have long acknowledged species' direct physiological and demographic responses to climate, more recent work suggests that these direct responses can be overwhelmed by i...
Article
Mushrooms are amongst the most important of non-timber forest products, with growing economic value in many rural areas of the Mediterranean region. At the same time, the effects of climate variability on fungal ecology and productivity are insufficiently understood, because the belowground life cycle of fungi is mediated in many different ways and...
Article
Phenological events, such as the timing of flowering or insect emergence, are influenced by a complex combination of climatic and non-climatic factors. Although temperature is generally considered most important, other weather events such as frosts and precipitation events can also influence many species' phenology. Non-climatic variables such as p...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Climate change is causing widespread shifts in phenology, the timing of life cycle events such as flowering and spring leaf out. While these patterns have been fairly well characterized for plants using experiments and observational studies, the consequences of phenological shifts for demography, population dynamics an...
Article
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Invasive species distributions tend to be biased towards some habitats compared to others due to the combined effects of habitat-specific resistance to invasion and non-uniform propagule pressure. These two factors may also interact, with habitat resistance varying as a function of propagule supply rate. Recruitment experiments, in which the number...
Article
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As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to d...
Article
1.Mismatches between species distributions and habitat suitability are predicted by niche theory and have important implications for forecasting how species may respond to environmental changes. Quantifying these mismatches is challenging, however, due to the high dimensionality of species niches and the large spatial and temporal variability in po...
Article
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AimUnderstanding the conditions that promote biological invasions is a critical step to developing successful management strategies. However, the level of invasion is affected by complex interactions among environmental factors that might change across habitats and regions making broad generalizations uninformative for management. We aimed to quant...
Article
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Analysing how species niches shift between native and introduced ranges is a powerful tool for understanding the determinants of species distributions and for anticipating range expansions by invasive species. Most studies only consider the climatic niche, by correlating widely available presence-only data with regional climate. However, habitat ch...
Article
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SynthesisPrediction and management of species responses to climate change is an urgent but relatively young research field. Therefore, climate change ecology must by necessity borrow from other fields. Invasion ecology is particularly well-suited to informing climate change ecology because both invasion ecology and climate change ecology address th...
Article
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Although striking changes have been documented in plant and animal phenology over the past century, less is known about how the fungal kingdom's phenology has been changing. A few recent studies have documented changes in fungal fruiting in Europe in the last few decades, but the geographic and taxonomic extent of these changes, the mechanisms behi...
Article
1. Patterns of forest biodiversity are shaped by a complex set of processes operating over dif-ferent spatial scales. Climate may largely determine species richness at regional scales, but biotic interactions and disturbance events are known to be important at local scales. The interactions between these local and regional processes are poorly unde...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species distributions tend to be biased towards some habitats compared to others due to the combined effects of habitat-specific resistance to invasion and non-uniform propagule pressure. These two factors may also interact, with habitat resistance varying as a function of propagule supply rate. Recruitment experiments, in which the number...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and biological invasions are primary threats to global biodiversity that may interact in the future. To date, the hypothesis that climate change will favour non-native species has been examined exclusively through local comparisons of single or few species. Here, we take a meta-analytical approach to broadly evaluate whether non-nati...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Numerous studies have quantified the differences in performance between competing invasive and native species under future climatic scenarios. Here we have compiled these studies, which vary widely across systems and driving variables, and used effect size to estimate the sensitivity of these two groups of species to f...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Climate change and biological invasions are two primary threats to global biodiversity, and it has been hypothesized that these factors will operate synergistically in the future to favor, and thus facilitate the spread of, non-native species. To date, this hypothesis has primarily been developed based on local compari...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Phenology has proven to be an effective metric for assessing how climate change is impacting organisms around the world. In response to warmer temperatures and altered precipitation, plants and animals have adjusted their phenologies to various degrees. Here, we investigated how a suite of insect species from throughou...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Striking changes in plant and animal phenology have been observed over the past century (i.e. phenological events such as bud burst, insect emergence, or bird migrations). However, very little is known about whether (and how) the phenology of fungi has also been changing over time and in response to climatic variation....
Article
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Extreme climatic events (ECEs) - such as unusual heat waves, hurricanes, floods, and droughts - can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and these events are projected to become more frequent and more intense with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of ECEs for biological invasions remain poorly understood. Using...
Article
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Ecology Letters (2012) Shifts in species’ phenology in response to climate change have wide-ranging consequences for ecological systems. However, significant variability in species’ responses, together with limited data, frustrates efforts to forecast the consequences of ongoing phenological changes. Herein, we use a case study of three North Ameri...
Article
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Understanding why some introduced species become naturalized and invasive whereas others do not is a major focus of invasion ecology. Invasive species risk assessments address this same question, but are not typically based on the results from recent ecological studies. Applying results from the ecological literature to risk assessment is difficult...
Article
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Many non-native plants in the US have become problematic invaders of native and managed ecosystems, but a new generation of invasive species may be at our doorstep. Here, we review trends in the horticultural trade and invasion patterns of previously introduced species and show that novel species introductions from emerging horticultural trade part...
Article
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The strength and direction of phenological responses to changes in climate have been shown to vary significantly both among species and among populations of a species, with the overall patterns not fully resolved. Here, we studied the temporal and spatial variability associated with the response of several insect species to recent global warming. W...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Predicting the spread of invasive species and responses of species to climate change both face the challenge of predicting responses in climates and regions for which data on species performance is often unavailable. Moreover, in each case different types of data are available to inform how species may respond to variat...
Article
Studies of population dynamics are necessarily contingent on scale, both spatial and temporal extent and grain of study. Observed population dynamics may vary across scales, and different processes may drive these patterns at different scales. Habitat sources and sinks are driven by variation in demographic vital rates such as survival, growth, and...
Article
Species' phenological responses to climate change have large implications for future species distributions, trophic interactions, and ecosystem processes. Analyses of historical databases have shown that these responses are often species-specific and spatially variable. This variability makes predicting future responses more challenging. At the roo...
Article
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 803–809 The enemy release hypothesis is a common explanation for species invasions, suggesting that introduced species benefit from leaving behind natural enemies in the native range. However, any such advantage may attenuate over time. In this study, we test a prediction of this more dynamic enemy release hypothesis: tha...
Article
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Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilati...
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1. The distribution and abundance of invasive species can be driven by both environmental variables and land management decisions. However, understanding these relationships can be complicated by interactions between management actions and environmental variability, and differences in scale among these variables. The resulting ‘context-dependence’...
Article
Our understanding of broad taxonomic patterns of plant naturalizations is based entirely on observations of successful naturalizations. Omission of the failures, however, can introduce bias by conflating the probabilities of introduction and naturalization. Here, we use two comprehensive datasets of successful and failed plant naturalizations in Ne...
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The extent to which plant populations are seed vs. establishment limited can be understood by quantifying the recruitment function, describing the number of seedlings that establish as a function of the number of seeds added. Here, we derive a general equation for the recruitment function based on a mechanistic model describing how the availability...
Article
Darwin acknowledged contrasting, plausible arguments for how species invasions are influenced by phylogenetic relatedness to the native community. These contrasting arguments persist today without clear resolution. Using data on the naturalization and abundance of exotic plants in the Auckland region, we show how different expectations can be accom...
Article
Abiotic and biotic processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales to shape many ecological processes, including species distributions and demography. Current debate about the relative roles of niche-based and stochastic processes in shaping species distributions and community composition reflects, in part, the challenge of understanding...
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A fundamental challenge to understanding patterns in ecological systems lies in employing methods that can analyse, test and draw inference from measured associations between variables across scales. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) use advanced estimation algorithms to measure regression relationships and variance-covariance parameters in hierarch...
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Summary 1 The recruitment stage can be critical in determining plant population dynamics, as juveniles encounter a range of abiotic and biotic stressors in the environments where they land after dispersal, and often experience high mortality rates. Although both abiotic and biotic constraints on recruitment are often assumed to operate at multiple...
Article
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The influences of feedback and ascending and descending trial sequences on the ability of 135 college-aged subjects to detect phenyl ethyl alcohol odorant concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5.5) v/v were examined in a two-alternative forced-choice test paradigm. At the highest concentrations, ascending trial sequences produced better perform...
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Migratory species have critical habitat needs during both breeding and win-tering portions of the life cycle. Recent advances have made it possible to use satellite imagery and computer-assisted spatial analysis technology along with fieldwork to deter-mine estimates for these critical habitat needs for the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler, Dendro...

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Project (1)
Project
We are conducting a global study examining the impacts of alpine shrub expansion on soil bacterial and fungal communities. This idea is motivated by our findings that shrub range expansion in the White Mts of California has significant effects on belowground bacterial communities (Collins et al. 2016, Journal of Ecology) and fungal communities (Collins et al. 2018, Molecular Ecology). We will test the generality of these effects (or causes of interesting variation in effects among sites) through a coordinated sampling effort in alpine zones where shrub expansion has been documented over the last 50 years. We currently have sites sampled across 4 continents, including North America (California and Colorado), Europe (Switzerland, Italy, France, Spain, Sweden, Czech Republic) Asia (China, Japan) and Central/South America (Colombia, Mexico).