Jeff Arnold

Jeff Arnold
United States Department of Agriculture | USDA · Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

About

350
Publications
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Publications

Publications (350)
Article
Full-text available
The latest version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) features several improvements compared to previous versions of the model, e.g. the definition of landscape units that allow for a better representation of spatio‐temporal dynamics. To evaluate the new model capabilities in lowland catchments characterized by near‐surface groundwater t...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of pesticide concentrations in surface water bodies with models is a critical component of the environmental and human health risk assessment process. The most recent version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) provides new features that are useful for pesticide exposure assessments. This research is the first SWAT+ pestici...
Article
Full-text available
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an ecohydrological watershed-scale model which was initially developed in the early 1990s to simulate the impacts of land use, management systems, and climate on hydrology and/or water quality. First adopted in the U.S., the use of the model then spread to Europe and then later to Asia and other regions....
Article
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An integrated hydro-economic agricultural land use model was developed with endogenous and spatially explicit crop planting, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). We used the model to quantify the effects of energy and N fertilizer prices on N runoff to the Gulf of Mexico. Results show a modest effect of e...
Article
Reflecting internal catchment hydrological processes in hydrological models is important for accurate predictions of the impact of climate and land‐use change on water resources. Characterising these processes is however difficult and expensive due to their dynamic nature and spatio‐temporal variability. Hydropedology is a relatively new discipline...
Article
LOADEST is a program for estimating constituent loads in rivers and streams developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), but it does not have a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that facilitates processing of large amounts of data. Therefore, we present the LOAD ESTimation (LOADEST) Parallel Data Processing Interface (LPDPI). LPDPI is unique as it...
Article
There is a critical need for a national agroecosystem model for conservation policy and environmental planning, driven by issues including harmful algal blooms, water scarcity, flooding, and other weather‐related extremes. In this study, we illustrate the feasibility of a national agroecosystem model that will downscale processes to individual fiel...
Article
Full-text available
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven watersheds can sometimes be poor due to a simplistic represen...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrologic modeling was used to estimate potential changes in nutrients, suspended sediment, and streamflow in various biomass production scenarios with conservation practices under different landscape designs. Two major corn and soybean croplands were selected for study: the South Fork of the Iowa River watershed and the headwater of the Raccoon R...
Article
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In this work, we developed a data-driven framework to predict near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture (SM) by mapping inputs from the Soil & Water Assessment Tool to SM time series from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite for the period 1 January 2016-31 December 2018. We developed a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) combining lon...
Article
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How anticipated climate change might affect long-term outcomes of present-day agricultural conservation practices remains a key uncertainty that could benefit water quality and biodiversity conservation planning. To explore this issue, we forecasted how the stream fish communities in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) would respond to increasing am...
Article
Full-text available
• Many aquatic ecosystems are experiencing multiple anthropogenic stressors that threaten their ability to support ecologically and economically important fish species. Two of the most ubiquitous stressors are climate change and non‐point source nutrient pollution. • Agricultural conservation practices (ACPs, i.e. farming practices that reduce runo...
Article
Accurate daily weather data are critical for hydrologic models simulating and predicting hydrologic processes. Many researchers have focused on the impacts of precipitation on hydrologic simulations, but few studies integrated both temperature and precipitation data for historical and forecast periods in hydrologic models and evaluated the weather...
Article
This paper presents a version of SWAT + that uses MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface interactions within a watershed system. The modeling code is applied to the 470 km² Middle Bosque River Watershed (Texas, USA) to demonstrate accuracy and differences with SWAT+. The model is tested against field-measured stream discharge,...
Poster
Full-text available
Soil moisture (SM) is a key component in water budgets and there is a well-documented need for near-real-time predictions for use is risk analyses including flooding and crop viability. Many well-known physics-based hydrologic models simulate and predict SM; however, they are structured to support calibration of streamflow discharges, not individua...
Article
Full-text available
For almost 30 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been successfully implemented to address issues around various scientific subjects in the world. On the other hand, it has been reaching to the limit of potential flexibility in further development by the current structure. The new generation SWAT, dubbed SWAT+, was released recentl...
Article
Full-text available
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is recognized as one of the top hydrological models applied for addressing hydrologic and environmental issues. This is the first review on the SWAT model studies in Southeast Asia, with an emphasis on its applications, current challenges and future research directions. A total of 126 articles were id...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a part of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) aimed to quantify the environmental and economic benefits of conservation practices implemented in the cultivated cropland throughout the United States. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model under the Hydrologic United Modeling of the United States (HUMUS) framewor...
Article
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In recent years, watershed modelers have put increasing emphasis on capturing the interaction of landscape hydrologic processes instead of focusing on streamflow at the watershed outlet alone. Understanding the hydrologic connectivity between landscape elements is important to explain the hydrologic response of a watershed to rainfall events. The S...
Article
Uncertainty in simulating hydrologic response to future climate is generally assumed to result from the combined uncertainties of the General Circulation Model (GCM), representative concentration pathway (RCP), downscaling method, and hydrologic model used. However, another source of uncertainty, the observed climate data source used to statistical...
Chapter
Pesticide residue runoff to surface water is of great concern to local stakeholders who seek to preserve or achieve good water quality. The Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely used to assess many environmental problems related to water resources and nonpoint-source pollution, including sediment and nutrient loads and pesticides. How...
Article
The Des Moines Lobe (DML) of north-central Iowa has been artificially drained by subsurface drains and surface ditches to provide some of the most productive agricultural land in the world. Herein we report on the use of end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) models and the numerical model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to quantify the contributi...
Preprint
The recent increase in global consumption of rice has led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module to be introduced to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the sustainability of paddy cultivation. The enhancements added to SWAT include: (1)...
Article
Full-text available
The recent increase in global consumption of rice has led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module to be introduced to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the sustainability of paddy cultivation. The enhancements added to SWAT include: (1)...
Preprint
Recent increase in global consumption of rice led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module in the SWAT model to evaluate sustainability of paddy cultivation. Enhancements added to SWAT are: 1) to modify water balance calculation for impounded fields, 2)...
Article
A Richards-equation-based soil moisture module was developed and integrated within the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Four years of daily soil moisture measurements from 10 monitoring stations at three depths (i.e., 5, 10, and 50 cm) in the Choptank River watershed, Maryland, were used to test the module performance. Results show that, as c...
Article
Quantifying Populus growth and the impacts on hydrology and water quality are important should it be widely planted. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) tree growth algorithms and parameters for hybrid poplar in Midwestern US and cottonwood in Southern US were improved. Tree growth representation led to SWAT2012 code changes including a new leaf...
Preprint
Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are popular conservation practices installed at the edges of agricultural fields to reduce losses of pollutants from agricultural areas to receiving waterbodies. The recent interest in using VFS areas as multifunctional landscapes necessitates an improved depiction of VFS in simulation models. This study is aimed to e...
Article
Full-text available
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river–reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservo...
Preprint
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservo...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have pointed out the importance of groundwater and surface water interaction (SW–GW) in a river system. However; those functions have rarely been considered in large scale hydrological models. The SWAT-LUD model has been developed based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model; and it integrates a new type of subbasin; wh...
Article
Full-text available
Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model...
Research
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Deep learning algorithms may be applied to create surrogate models for broadly applied hydrologic models, reducing computational time and inherent user biases to enhance real-time estimates used in risk evaluation scenarios. Remotely sensed parameters provide global, high resolution data sets with minimal data latency relative to in-situ observatio...
Article
Full-text available
Model-based water quality assessments are an important informer of conservation and environmental policy in the U.S. The recently completed national scale Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is being replicated using an improved model populated with new and higher resolution data. National assessments are particularly difficult as models...
Article
The ability to accurately simulate flow and nutrient removal in treatment wetlands within an agricultural, watershed-scale model is needed to develop effective plans for meeting nutrient reduction goals associated with protection of drinking water supplies and reduction of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The objectives of this study were to incorp...
Article
Tile drainage significantly alters flow and nutrient pathways and reliable simulation at this scale is needed for effective planning of nutrient reduction strategies. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely utilized for prediction of flow and nutrient loads, but few applications have evaluated the model's ability to simulate pathw...
Article
Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage rou...
Article
Full-text available
Gully erosion begins in streambanks and uplands as a consequence of adjustments in driving forces on the landscape imposed by changes in land use or climate. The deleterious effects of gullies worldwide have led to many site-specific studies of gully form and function. In the continental United States, gully erosion in agricultural land has destroy...
Article
Full-text available
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily climatic data are critical for accurate depiction of the hydrologic cycle, yet t...
Article
Hydrologic modeling outputs are influenced by how a watershed system is represented. Channel routing is a typical example of the mathematical conceptualization of watershed landscape and processes in hydrologic modeling. We investigated the sensitivity of accuracy, equifinality, and uncertainty of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling to c...
Article
The proper representation of conservation practices on agricultural lands is an important factor in large scale assessments of water quality in the US. Unfortunately, there are few publicly available data sources at the local level and even fewer at the national scale. In this research, randomly selected points within agricultural lands were examin...
Article
Rangelands of the Pampa biome, which cover regions of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (176,496 km² – 2.07% of Brazilian territory and 63% of Rio Grande do Sul State territory, southern region of Brazil) in South America (total area of 750,000 km²), are being substituted by crops and commercial eucalyptus, with potential impacts on ecological and hydr...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate discharge simulation is one of the most common objectives of hydrological modeling studies. However, a good simulation of discharge is not necessarily the result of a realistic simulation of hydrological processes within the catchment. We propose an evaluation framework that considers both discharge and water balance components as evaluati...
Article
Full-text available
Study region: The Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) in the Southern Coastal Plain Major Land Resource Area of the U.S.A. (N31°28′54″, W83°35′03″). Study focus: Separation of streamflow hydrographs into rapid stormflow and baseflow can vastly improve our understanding of watershed processes. The two parameter Eckhardt digital filter method...
Article
Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) is the most intensively farmed region of the Great Lakes. Because of the flat topography and poorly-drained soils many farmers rely on drainage management practices (e.g., subsurface tile drainage, ditch channelization) to maintain productive agriculture. However, these practices also facilitate the delivery of excess...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requirements instead of constant time series of demand were...
Article
Full-text available
Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern U.S. Tile drainage systems enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ha...
Article
SWAT+ is a completely restructured version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that was developed to face present and future challenges in water resources modeling and management and to meet the needs of the worldwide user community. It is expected to improve code development and maintenance; support data availability, analysis, and visual...
Article
This article presents SWATMOD-Prep, a graphical user interface that couples a SWAT watershed model with a MODFLOW groundwater flow model. The interface is based on a recently published SWAT-MODFLOW code that couples the models via mapping schemes. The spatial layout of SWATMOD-Prep guides the user through the process of importing shape files (sub-b...
Article
A comprehensive streambank erosion model based on excess shear stress has been developed and incorporated in the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). It takes into account processes such as weathering, vegetative cover, and channel meanders to adjust critical and effective stresses while estimating bank erosion. The streambank...
Article
Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool 2012 (SWAT2012) offers four sediment routing methods as optional alternatives to the default simplified Bagnold method. Previous studies compared only one of these alternative sediment routing methods with the default method. The proposed study evaluated the impacts of all four alternative sediment trans...
Article
Channel dimensions are important input variables for many hydrologic models. As measurements of channel geometry are not available in most watersheds, they are often predicted using bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships. This study aims at improving existing equations that relate bankfull width, depth, and cross-sectional area to drainage area...
Article
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is a robust watershed modeling tool. It typically uses the ArcSWAT interface to create its inputs. ArcSWAT is public domain software which works in the licensed ArcGIS environment. The aim of this paper was to develop an open source user interface for the SWAT model. The interface, QSWAT, is written i...
Article
As alluvial plains support intensive agricultural activities, they often suffer from groundwater nitrate pollution. Denitrification is recognised as an important process in nitrate pollution control in riparian zones. In shallow aquifer zones influenced by recharged surface water, denitrification efficiently attenuates nitrate in groundwater as wel...
Article
Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policymakers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and s...
Article
Investment in agricultural conservation practices (CPs) to address Lake Erie's re-eutrophication may offer benefits that extend beyond the lake, such as improved habitat conditions for fish communities throughout the watershed. If such conditions are not explicitly considered in Lake Erie nutrient management strategies, however, this opportunity mi...
Article
Hydrologic interaction between surface and subsurface water systems has a significant impact on water quality, ecosystems and biogeochemistry cycling of both systems. Distributed models have been developed to simulate this function, but they require detailed spatial inputs and extensive computation time. The SWAT model is a semi-distributed model t...
Article
Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical USGS water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were stat...
Article
A spatially distributed representation of basin hydrology and transport processes in hydrologic models facilitates the identification of critical source areas and the placement of management and conservation measures. Floodplains are critical landscape features that differ from neighboring uplands in terms of their hydrological processes and functi...
Article
Current nitrogen (N) models tend to neglect the contribution of the microbial population to the plant available N pool, resulting in an underestimation of yield and possible over or underestimation of N runoff from natural and agricultural landscapes. We used the measurement of microbial activity coupled with the measurement of their food source, w...