Jeff Allen

Jeff Allen
University of Toronto | U of T · School of Cities

Doctor of Philosophy

About

40
Publications
3,985
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
521
Citations
Citations since 2016
40 Research Items
521 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Introduction
I do not check ResearchGate regularly, so if you have any comments or questions about anything you see on my page, or if you just want to say hi! please email me at jeff.allen(AT)utoronto.ca

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
We compute a series of benchmarks and key performance indicators (KPIs) that describe the state of transport equity in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). These measures are designed to be simple to interpret, have clear normative interpretations, and be easily replicable in future survey waves or for other regions.
Article
Full-text available
Public transit agencies face a transformed landscape of rider demand and political support as the COVID-19 pandemic recedes. We explore people's motivations for returning to or avoiding public transit a year into the pandemic. We draw on a March 2021 follow-up survey of over 1,900 people who rode transit regularly prior to the COVID-19 pandemic in...
Article
There is growing body of research and practice assessing transportation equity and justice. Commuting is an especially important dimension to study since such frequent, non-discretionary travel, can come at the expense of time for other activities and therefore negatively impact mental health and well-being. An ”extreme commuter” is a worker who ha...
Preprint
There is growing body of research and practice assessing transportation equity and justice. Commuting is an especially important dimension to study since such frequent, non-discretionary travel, can come at the expense of time for other activities and therefore negatively impact mental health and well-being. An "extreme commuter" is a worker who ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transportation equity advocates recommend improving public transit in low-income neighbourhoods to alleviate socio-spatial inequalities and increase quality of life. However, transportation planners often overlook transit investments in neighbourhoods with "transit-captive" populations because they are assumed to result in less mode-shifting, conge...
Preprint
Public transit agencies face a transformed landscape of rider demand and political support as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. We explore people’s motivations for returning to or avoiding public transit a year into the pandemic. We draw on a March 2021 follow up survey of over 1,900 people who rode transit regularly prior to the COVID-19 pandemic i...
Preprint
Public transit is immensely important among recent immigrants for enabling daily travel and activity participation. The objectives of this study are to examine whether immigrants settle in areas of high or low transit accessibility and how this affects transit mode share. This is analyzed via a novel comparison of two gateway cities: Sydney, Austra...
Article
Public transit is immensely important among recent immigrants for enabling daily travel and activity participation. The objectives of this study are to examine whether immigrants settle in areas of high or low transit accessibility and how this affects transit mode share. This is analyzed via a novel comparison of two gateway cities: Sydney, Austra...
Article
Full-text available
The TransitCenter Equity Dashboard tracks how well public transit systems in seven densely populated urban regions in the United States serve their riders and how changes to transit service affect riders over space, time, and cost constraints. The dashboard presents a series of charts and interactive maps that can be used to evaluate variations in...
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings Millions of North Americans stopped riding public transit in response to COVID-19. We treat this crisis as a natural experiment to illustrate the importance of public transit in riders’ abilities to access essential destinations. We measured the impacts of riders forgoing transit through a survey of transpor...
Article
Full-text available
Food banks provide an essential lifeline for those experiencing food insecurity. In Toronto, Canada, 21 new food bank locations opened between February, 2020 and May, 2021 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we measure and map how this has improved public transit accessibility to food banks, with a focus on improvements among low...
Article
Dot maps are often used to display the distributions of populations over space. This paper details a method for extending dot maps in order to visualize changes in spatial patterns over time. Specifically, we outline a selective linear interpolation procedure to encode the time range in which dots are visible on a map, which then allows for tempora...
Article
Full-text available
Transportation equity advocates recommend improving public transit in low-income neighbourhoods to alleviate socio-spatial inequalities and increase quality of life. However, transportation planners often overlook transit investments in neighbourhoods with “transit-captive” populations because they are assumed to result in less mode-shifting, conge...
Article
Many cities have undergone spatial redistributions of low-income populations from central to suburban neighborhoods over the past several decades. A potential negative impact of these trends is that low-income populations are concentrating in more automobile-oriented areas, resulting in increased barriers to daily travel and activity participation,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Assessing whether the benefits of proposed public transit projects are fairly distributed across population groups is increasingly becoming an important part of transit planning practice. In this paper, we outline and exemplify a procedure for evaluating the equity impacts of a new transit line. Specifically, this procedure incorporates census-base...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many cities have undergone spatial re-distributions of low-income populations from central to suburban neighborhoods over the past several decades. A potential negative impact of these trends is that low-income populations are concentrating in more automobile oriented areas and thus resulting in increased barriers to daily travel and activity parti...
Article
Vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) has been widely used in regional planning as a key sustainability performance indicator. Many regional growth plans for reducing work trip VKT have been proposed, with a focus on land use development in employment centers. Despite the potential impact of urban form on the reduction of VKT, the fundamentals of how t...
Preprint
Social equity is increasingly becoming an important objective in transport planning and project evaluation. This paper provides a framework and an empirical investigation in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) examining the links between public transit accessibility and the risks of social exclusion, simply understood as the suppressed abi...
Article
Policymakers in cities worldwide are trying to determine how ride-hailing services affect the ridership of traditional forms of public transportation. The level of convenience and comfort that these services provide is bound to take riders away from transit, but by operating in areas, or at times, when transit is less frequent, they may also be fil...
Article
Full-text available
Social equity is increasingly becoming an important objective in transport planning and project evaluation. This paper provides a framework and an empirical investigation in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) examining the links between public transit accessibility and the risks of social exclusion, simply understood as the suppressed abi...
Preprint
Policymakers in cities worldwide are trying to determine how ride-hailing services affect the ridership of traditional forms of public transportation. The level of convenience and comfort that these services provide is bound to take riders away from transit, but by operating in areas, or at times, when transit is less frequent, they may also be fil...
Preprint
Policymakers in cities worldwide are trying to determine how ride-hailing services affect the ridership of traditional forms of public transportation. The level of convenience and comfort that these services provide is bound to take riders away from transit, but by operating in areas, or at times, when transit is less frequent, they may also be fil...
Article
Full-text available
Problem, research strategy, and findings: Bike lane projects on retail streets have proved contentious among merchant associations in North America, especially when they reduce on-street parking. A limited but growing number of studies, however, detect neutral to positive consequences for merchants following bike lane implementation. In 2016, the C...
Article
Public libraries strive to provide everyone in their surrounding communities the ability to access their information and services. However, previous research indicates that the closer someone lives to a library, the more likely they are to visit, while reduced proximity can dissuade or even prevent people from visiting. This study extends upon exis...
Preprint
Accessibility is now a common way to measure the benefits provided by transportation–land use systems. Despite its widespread use, few measurement options allow for the comparison of accessibility across multiple urban systems, and most do not adequately control for market competition between demand‐side actors and supply‐side facilities in localiz...
Preprint
Millions of Canadians rely on public transportation to conduct daily activities and participate in the labour force. However, many low-income households are disadvantaged because existing public transit service does not provide them with sufficient access to destinations. Limited transit options, compounded with socioeconomic disadvantage, can resu...
Article
Accessibility is now a common way to measure the benefits provided by transportation–land use systems. Despite its widespread use, few measurement options allow for the comparison of accessibility across multiple urban systems, and most do not adequately control for market competition between demand‐side actors and supply‐side facilities in localiz...
Article
Millions of Canadians rely on public transportation to conduct daily activities and participate in the labour force. However, many low-income households are disadvantaged because existing public transit service does not provide them with sufficient access to destinations. Limited transit options, compounded with socioeconomic disadvantage, can resu...
Article
Since the early twentieth century, thematic mapping techniques such as isochrones have been used for visualizing the accessibility and mobility provided by urban transportation networks. These maps typically depict the area accessible from a point within a certain time or distance threshold. This article details a design alternative to conventional...
Article
Success in postsecondary education is related to the amount of time spent on campus. The more often students attend class and access on-campus learning resources, the better their grades and the lower their dropout rates. Despite the importance of on-campus participation in student outcomes, some students living in large cities face tremendous tran...
Article
Studies employing 'activity space' measures of the built environment do not always account for how individuals self-select into different residential and non-residential environments when testing associations with physical activity. To date, no study has examined whether preferences for walkable residential neighborhoods predict exposure to other w...
Preprint
We create and release a publicly available dataset of neighbourhood level measures of access to employment for the eight largest urban regions in Canada. Measures of access to employment are key indicators for analyzing the characteristics of transport networks and urban form. Specifically, we generate cumulative measures (number of jobs reachable...
Preprint
Success in postsecondary education is related to the amount of time spent on campus. The more often students attend class and access on-campus learning resources, the better their grades and the lower their dropout rates. Despite the importance of on-campus participation in student outcomes, some students living in large cities face tremendous tran...
Article
en Performing longitudinal analysis of socio‐economic change in small‐area spatial units such as census tracts presents several methodological complications and requires significant data preparation. Unit boundaries are revised each census year because of changes in population and delineation methodologies. This limits cross‐year comparison since d...
Article
This paper reports on the effects of inaccessibility on Syrian refugees in Durham Region, a municipality abutting the City of Toronto. The transport and social exclusion framework is applied to determine whether transport poverty leads to inaccessibility, and how this impacts participation in daily activities and the wellbeing of recently landed re...
Article
Three maps are generated to visually compare the structure of transport networks, differences in travel times, and critical travel pathways for three travel modes in Calgary, Canada. The maps also highlight how the fractal-like structure of these urban transport networks are visually similar to natural phenomena.
Article
A healthy food environment is an important component in helping people access and maintain healthy diets, which may reduce the prevalence of chronic disease. With few exceptions, studies on healthy food access in urban regions typically ignore how time of day impacts access to food. Similarly, most extant research ignores the complexities of accoun...
Article
We describe a method for retroactively improving the accuracy of a General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) package by using a real-time vehicle location data set provided by the transit agency. Once modified, the GTFS package contains the observed rather than the scheduled transit operations and can be used in research assessing network performan...

Network

Cited By