Jeanne C Watson

Jeanne C Watson
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development

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82
Publications
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Publications

Publications (82)
Article
A major challenge in offender therapy is to facilitate clients’ emotional engagement, especially with clients who over-regulate their affect. It has been suggested that treatments that focus on improving clients’ affect regulation (AR) and deepen client’s emotional experience during treatment may enhance treatment outcomes. In this systematic mixed...
Article
The research literature shows patients with alexithymia as having poorer outcomes in psychotherapy. We reflect upon psychotherapy with alexithymic patients presenting one case study, from a larger research project, throughout 12 sessions. This study used a mixed methods design with qualitative and quantitative methods exploring both client and ther...
Article
Objective: The current study is part of a multiple case study that investigated the emotional change in individuals who have committed sexual offenses (ISOs). This case study highlights how one client used sex as a maladaptive coping strategy to suppress negative emotions. Method: A mixed-methods design was used to track changes in the client's...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether changes in clients’ affect regulation capacity (AR) mediated the impact of therapists’ empathy on outcome and whether this relationship was stronger for more insecurely than securely attached clients. Method: The data set included 66 clients, who had participated in 16 weeks of either CBT or...
Article
Cognitive and behavioral treatment programs for individuals who have committed sexual offenses (ISOs) have shown significant but small effect sizes. A growing body of research points toward the importance of difficulties in affect regulation (AR) as a risk factor for sexual recidivism. On this basis, it seems important to target difficulties in AR...
Chapter
Empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. The chapter begins by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. It then reviews measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual problem of separating empathy from other relationship variables. Clinical examples illustrati...
Article
This commentary reviews the study by Lietaer and Gundrum that categorized Rogers’ responses in therapy using Hill’s Measure of Therapist Response Modes. This is an important study that reveals Rogers’ therapeutic style at a microscopic level. The evolution of Rogers’ approach across time is considered and contrasted with that of other therapists an...
Article
Affect regulation problems have been found to play an important role in the onset of problematic behavior, such as sexual abuse. The role of emotion and maladaptive coping has become relevant in both research and treatment interventions. Forensic treatments have been strongly influenced by conceptualizations of affect regulation that emphasize the...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia has been associated with poor outcomes in psychotherapy. This association has been attributed to a difficulty in patients expressing emotions, engaging in emotional tasks and also poor therapeutic alliances. This study aims to better understand alexithymic patients in psychotherapy. A multiple case study design was used. Cases were sele...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
Full-text available
Alexithymia has been associated with poor outcomes in psychotherapy. This association has been attributed to a difficulty in patients processing emotions and engaging in emotional tasks. The possibility of alexithymia being modified by psychotherapy remains a topic of great debate but with little empirical research. In this study a mixed methods lo...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy out...
Article
Research and theory over the past 15 years indicate that affect regulation problems may play a role in the onset of sexual abuse. Affect regulation is often described as a developmental task that can be disturbed by attachment problems or traumatic experiences, potentially leading up to different psychological and behavioral problems. This review i...
Article
Emotion-focused psychotherapy proposes that maladaptive emotional processing and a vulnerable sense of self is core to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This paper examined changes in clients’ maladaptive emotions and negative treatment of self in a good and a poor outcome case in emotion-focused psychotherapy. Transcribed sessions were coded usi...
Article
Objective: Although alexithymia has been associated with difficulties in emotional regulation, both constructs are complex and this association remains unclear. This research attempts to study the relation between both constructs to identify better ways to guide clinical intervention. Method: Emotion awareness, differentiation, and regulation we...
Chapter
This chapter provides an alternative framework for career counseling using an emotion-focused approach to psychotherapy. Emotion focused psychotherapy (EFT) is an integration of gestalt and humanistic approaches to facilitate clients’ emotional processing in psychotherapy so that they can resolve problems in living. EFT is an approach that works wi...
Chapter
This entry reviews humanistic, existential, and phenomenological approaches to psychotherapy. The emergence of these approaches is described as well as the influence and work of major contributors. Developments in theory and practice of humanistic and experiential psychotherapy are presented, including the ideas of Carl R. Rogers (1902–87), Eugene...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Over the past 25 years, humanistic psychotherapy (HP) researchers have actively contributed to the development and implementation of innovative practice-informed research measures and coding systems. Method: Qualitative and quantitative research findings, including meta-analyses, support the identification of HP approaches as evidence...
Article
Current literature highlights the importance of emotion in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Deficits in emotional processing skills in this population have been supported by numerous studies. The cycle of bingeing, purging, and starving are believed to be some of the maladaptive mechanisms of gaining control over inchoate affect...
Article
Abstract Objective: Over the past 25 years, humanistic psychotherapy (HP) researchers have actively contributed to the development and implementation of innovative practice-informed research measures and coding systems. Method: Qualitative and quantitative research findings, including meta-analyses, support the identification of HP approaches as ev...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Since Rogers identified empathy as an important variable in therapy, it has been found to be a consistent predictor of client change; less clear is how this occurs. The objective in this study was to test a mediation model to determine whether clients' self-reported experience of therapists' empathy contributed to changes in their attachme...
Article
Full-text available
The research literature repeatedly shows patients with alexithymia as having poorer outcomes in psychotherapy. Taking into account that the characteristics associated with the alexithymia construct reflect deficits in the emotional processing, not only with emotional regulation but also with other underlying processes, such as emotional awareness,...
Article
In this article we propose that the characteristics associated with the concept of alexithymia reflect deficits in emotional processing. These deficits include difficulties with emotional regulation as well as emotional awareness, experiencing, and the expression and differentiation of emotional experience. We propose that the analyses of specific...
Article
The research literature repeatedly shows patients with alexithymia as having poorer outcomes in psychotherapy. Taking into account that the characteristics associated with the alexithymia construct reflect deficits in the emotional processing, not only with emotional regulation but also with other underlying processes, such as emotional awareness,...
Chapter
The most central characteristics of humanistic approaches to psychotherapy are defined and sub-approaches within the humanistic approach are identified. The main characteristics of the family of humanistic experiential approaches are their focus on promoting an empathically attuned relationship, in-therapy experiencing, a commitment to a phenomenol...
Article
Reviews the book, The Real Relationship in Psychotherapy: The Hidden Foundation of Change by Charles J. Gelso (see record 2010-09297-000). Charlie Gelso's latest book brings together the output of 25 years of thinking, research, and writing on the real relationship by one of the top scholars in the field. The text is written in a wonderfully engagi...
Article
In this article, treatment failure in humanistic experiential psychotherapy is defined and explored. I outline several markers that indicate when treatment is not going well. Factors that contribute to failure include client factors, for example, emotional processing capacities, shame, and impoverished narratives, as well as therapist factors inclu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a good-outcome case of "Eloise," an individual drawn from the York II Depression study and treated with emotion-focused therapy (EFT) (Goldman, Greenberg, & Angus, 2006). Using the case comparison method, this study considers data from an observer-rated measure of emotional processing during therapy, the client's perceptions of...
Article
This paper extends Rogers' processing model and presents an integrative framework of human functioning that draws on recent developments in neuroscience and person-centered and experiential theory. Four developmental processes, including emotional processing, the differentiation of experience, the development of somatic markers, and the treatment o...
Article
After defining empathy, discussing its measurement, and offering an example of empathy in practice, we present the results of an updated meta-analysis of the relation between empathy and psychotherapy outcome. Results indicated that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of therapy outcome: mean weighted r = .31 ( p < .001; 95% confidence interva...
Article
Full-text available
It is essential that outcome research permit clear conclusions to be drawn about the efficacy of interventions. The common practice of nesting therapists within conditions can pose important methodological challenges that affect interpretation, particularly if the study is not powered to account for the nested design. An obstacle to the optimal des...
Article
Full-text available
After defining empathy, discussing its measurement, and offering an example of empathy in practice, we present the results of an updated meta-analysis of the relation between empathy and psychotherapy outcome. Results indicated that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of therapy outcome: mean weighted r = .31 (p < .001; 95% confidence interval...
Article
This study compared the effectiveness of process-experiential psychotherapy with one of its components, client-centered psychotherapy, in the treatment of (34) adults suffering from major depression. The client-centered treatment emphasized the establishment and maintenance of the Rogerian relationship conditions and empathic responding. The experi...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives were to examine the relationships among clients' affect regulation capacities, in-session emotional processing, outcome, and the working alliance in 66 clients who received either cognitive-behavioral therapy or process-experiential emotion-focused therapy for depression. Clients' initial level of affect regulation predicted their le...
Article
Full-text available
The authors developed two versions of a therapeutic presence measure, based on an earlier model of presence (Geller & Greenberg, 2002)-Therapeutic Presence Inventory-therapist (TPI-T) and client (TPI-C) versions-to measure in-session therapeutic presence. They explored their reliability and validity in two studies. In the first, items generated fro...
Article
This study examined the development of the working alliance in process-experiential (PE) and client-centered therapy of depression. Thirty-four randomly assigned individuals completed 16 to 20 sessions of manual-based therapy. Results revealed the size of the alliance-outcome relation to be dependent on alliance dimension (goal, task, or bond), out...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, each author gives a brief comment on similarities he or she sees throughout the case formulations captured in the articles by Watson (2010a), Silberschatz (2010), Goldfried (2010), and Caspar (2010). A systematic comparison is added. Overall, the impression is confirmed and maintained that if authors are ready to renounce the use o...
Article
A case formulation, for a client with depression, based on emotion-focused therapy treatment principles will be presented. The client was seen for 16 sessions in emotion-focused therapy. Based on information provided in the first interview, the therapist discusses how the client’s issues can be formulated in an emotion-focused treatment by attendin...
Article
A brief overview of the client, David, is presented. David participated in a short-term emotion-focused therapy for the treatment of depression. In this paper the client’s presenting problems and history are described to provide a context for the brief excerpt that follows. The excerpt is taken from his first session of psychotherapy and was used b...
Article
The author provides an overview of what transpired over 16 sessions of psychotherapy with a male patient seeking treatment for depression. In addition, she reflects on articles by four other authors who commented on the case. The client received emotion-focused therapy, and experienced a significant decline in his depressive symptoms at the end of...
Article
Full-text available
Th e study examined the role of emotional expression and ambivalence over emotional expression in romantic relationships. Self-report data from 156 participants in romantic relationships were used to predict participants’ levels of relationship satisfaction from their self-reported levels and type (i.e. positive vs. negative) of emotional expressio...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the current study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Client Task Specific Change Measure-Revised (CTSC-R), a measure of clients' in-session changes, and to determine whether the CTSC-R predicted outcome over and above the therapeutic alliance in a study of 66 clients treated with process-experiential psychotherap...
Article
Full-text available
This article illustrates the application of an adjudicated form of hermeneutic single-case efficacy design, a critical-reflective method for inferring change and therapeutic influence in single therapy cases. The client was a 61-year-old European-American male diagnosed with panic and bridge phobia. He was seen for 23 sessions of individual process...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and,...
Article
The authors of this volume offer a behind-closed-doors look at brief emotion-focused therapy (EFT) in the treatment of depression, capturing the state of the art of this important and widely used therapy. Six in-depth case studies--three that result in a good outcome and three in a poor outcome--exemplify the principles of EFT and show how treatmen...
Article
This paper provides an overview of my development as an integrative scientist-practitioner. Starting with the early life experiences that shaped my motivation to become a counselor, I trace my progress through graduate school to my current position at the University of Toronto. I have identified the important influences on my thinking and developme...
Article
This article provides a commentary on the article by Cepeda and Davenport (2006; see record 2006-05485-001) that proposes an integration of solution-focused and person-centered therapy. The commonalities of each approach are highlighted as well as the differences. The primary argument of the article is that the process orientation of person-centere...
Article
Full-text available
The authors compared clients' emotional processing in good and bad outcome cases in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and process-experiential therapy (PET) and investigated whether clients' emotional processing increases over the course of therapy. Twenty minutes from each of 3 sessions from 40 clients were rated on the Experiencing Scale. A 2x2x...
Article
Efforts to evoke emotion often bring into focus clients' means of preventing or interrupting emerging experience. As blocks to experience and expression emerge, therapists need to focus on them and help clients become aware of and experience how they interrupt their feelings or needs. Interventions need to explore the various ways clients block exp...
Article
This chapter explains the role and nature of case formulation in emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for depression. Case formulation is based on client processes, as opposed to the specific content of their narratives. Formulation is a complex process that continually seeks to integrate information from a number of different levels regarding the clients...
Article
Full-text available
In the first position paper of this chapter, William B. Stiles first discusses how scientific research provides quality control on theory. Then Stiles argues that, for research on psychotherapy, case studies offer an alternative strategy that is as valuable as statistical hypothesis testing. Both case studies and hypothesis-testing research can pro...
Article
In Emotion-Focused Therapy for Depression, Leslie S. Greenberg and Jeanne C. Watson provide a manual for the emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. Their approach is supported by studies in which EFT for depression was compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy and client-centered therapy. The approach has been refined to apply specifically...
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Full-text available
This paper presents an account of the experience of South Asian women of Pakistani descent who have immigrated to Canada within the last year. The purpose of the study was to explore the quality of life and personal stresses and strains that follow immigration to a different culture. Seven immigrant women from the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) were in...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined therapist and client behaviors in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and process experiential therapy (PET) in 24 high- and 24 low-alliance sessions. Sequential analyses revealed that client resistance was not a function of therapist directiveness in either therapy. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that overall, C...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relation among clients' ratings of the relationship conditions ( Relationship Inventory), outcome, and working alliance ( Working Alliance Inventory) in both cognitive - behavioral and process - experiential psychotherapy. It was hypothesized that the working alliance mediates the relation between the relationship condit...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, the authors address practical questions about the actual carrying out of process-experiential (PE) psychotherapy. These questions deal with details and come from personal experience with the authors' own clients and with their supervisees' questions and dilemmas. Questions addressed include those regarding client suitability and ad...
Article
Full-text available
The empty chair task for unfinished business is based on the gestalt principle that significant unmet needs do not fully recede from awareness (F. S. Perls, R. F. Hefferline and P. Goodman, 1951; E. Polster and M. Polster, 1973). Empty chair work is a therapeutic means for encountering the unfinished situation in imagination, especially if the othe...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared process-experiential and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in the treatment of major depression in a researcher allegiance-balanced randomized clinical trial. Sixty-six clients participated in weekly sessions of psychotherapy for 16 weeks. Clients' level of depression, self-esteem, general symptom distress, and dysfunctional at...
Article
This study (1) tested the 2-factor structure of the DEQ dependency scale (Neediness and Connectedness subscales) using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in a student sample, adult community sample, and a clinical sample of patients with major depression; (2) assessed the discriminant validity of these 2 subscales by comparing their differences in...
Article
Presents a view of empathy as an active ingredient of change that facilitates clients' meta-cognitive processes and emotional self-regulation. The author reviews the research on empathy and argues that it reveals that empathy is an essential component of successful therapy in every therapeutic modality. The author also discusses how empathy informs...
Article
Full-text available
The paradox of distress expression is that expression of negative feelings is both a sign of distress and a possible means of coping with that distress. This article describes research illustrating the paradox of distress expression. It reviews evidence concerning 3 possible mechanisms by which expression might alleviate distress, focusing on the r...
Article
The formation and maintenance of a positive working alliance is fundamental to the success of experiential therapy. Experiential therapists face a special challenge insofar as they must constantly consider whether to direct the therapeutic process more actively or remain more closely within the clients' own frame of reference. This requires that ex...
Article
Depression and maladaptive coping styles are important components of theories of pathological gambling and are frequently foci of treatment with individuals with gambling problems. The present study aimed to improve understanding and treatment of pathological gambling by comparing levels of depression and styles of coping in male and female members...
Book
“Expression is the link between internal experience and the outside world. It is intimately connected to who we are, how we feel, and how we relate to others,” write psychologists Eileen Kennedy-Moore and Jeanne C. Watson. With clinical sensitivity and empirical rigor, the authors describe the many forms of emotional expression and nonexpression an...
Chapter
Personality has been defined as the state of being a person, possessing traits or character. Alternatively, it is said to refer to the physiological, intellectual, emotional, and physical characteristics of the individual, especially those that are seen by others. Humanistic theories of personality include person-centered gestalt, and existential a...
Article
The relationships among clients' descriptions of external events, emotional arousal, and resolution of problematic reactions was examined. Clients (n = 12) explored problematic reactions with their therapists on 2 separate occasions. It was found that (a) resolution sessions, in contrast to nonresolution sessions, were characterized by high levels...
Article
Full-text available
Identified a pathway from in-session process, and problem resolution, to post-session change and final outcome. Two brief treatments for depression, one using client-centered (CC) and the other process-experiential (PE) interventions, were compared on client process and outcome. The PE group showed significantly higher levels of experiencing, vocal...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, 8 clients participated in interpersonal process recall interviews (N. Kagan, unpublished manuscript) to review therapy sessions in which they explored problematic reactions. The reports of their recalled experience during the sessions were analyzed qualitatively by means of the grounded theory method (B. G. Glaser and A. Strauss, 196...
Article
In this chapter we look at the role of the therapeutic relationship in emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for depression. We focus on both the client's and the therapist's contributions to the relationship. The two essential foci of an optimal therapeutic environment in EFT are (a) the relationship as an affect-regulating bond characterized by the thera...
Article
[examine] the development and maintenance of the collaborative and affective aspects of the alliance in experiential therapy / [explicate] the goals and tasks of experiential therapy / [illuminate] their impact on clients . . . by a study which examined clients' subjective experiences of participating in a specific experiential task / [argue] that...
Article
our primary objective in our approach to experiential therapy is the dialectical synthesis of reason and emotion / experiential techniques help people to apprehend, symbolize, and integrate information from both their rational and experiential systems—2 important parallel modes of processing information / the essence of dialectics is the splitting...
Article
This chapter focuses on the history of the practice of experientially oriented therapy. The authors trace its development historically and explicate its major current forms. They trace the development of experiential therapy through its client-centered, Gestalt, and existential roots to its most recent conceptualization and form. In the practice of...

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