Jean-Pierre Tremblay

Jean-Pierre Tremblay
Laval University | ULAVAL · Department of Biology

PhD

About

102
Publications
31,104
Reads
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3,464
Citations
Introduction
Mon programme de recherche est à l’interface de l’écologie animale et végétale et de la gestion des ressources. J'étudie comment les interactions entre les espèces, notamment les plantes et les herbivores, influence leur abondance et leur distribution. Les projets de recherche en cours dans mon laboratoire portent sur les effets du broutement par le cerf de Virginie, l’orignal ou le caribou sur leurs habitats et la relation entre l’abondance des ressources et la condition des animaux.
Additional affiliations
May 2007 - present
Laval University
Position
  • Professeur agrégé / Tenure professor
May 2007 - present
Centre D'Études Nordiques
Centre D'Études Nordiques
Position
  • Regular researcher
May 2007 - present
Laval University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Gap dynamics play a crucial role in forest regeneration by creating favourable regeneration and survival niches for some plant species. Nonetheless, potentially overriding factors, such as ungulate browsing, could limit or eliminate this gap dynamic–related regeneration. The deleterious effects of browsing may be exacerbated for slow-growing specie...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming has pronounced effects on tundra vegetation, and rising mean temperatures increase plant growth potential across the Arctic biome. Herbivores may counteract the warming impacts by reducing plant growth, but the strength of this effect may depend on prevailing regional climatic conditions. To study how ungulates interact with temperat...
Article
Full-text available
For species inhabiting areas at the limit of their environmental tolerance, extreme events often drive population persistence. However, because extreme events are uncommon, their effects on population dynamics of expanding species are poorly known. We examined how extreme climate events in winter and summer affected three populations of wild turkey...
Article
To promote the sustainability of forest ecosystems and maintain ecosystem services to human populations in the context of climate change, forest managers are considering several adaptation tools. One of those, assisted migration, consists of displacing tree species and/or populations to locations with suitable future climate conditions. Assisted mi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Les plantations, en raison de leur productivité élevée, contribuent à répondre aux besoins en matière ligneuse de la société. Toutefois, pour atteindre une productivité élevée, les plantations doivent habituellement être entretenues. Cet entretien est utile, notamment pour maitriser la végétation concurrente qui s’établit naturellement. Puisque l’u...
Article
Full-text available
Increased snow cover and attenuation of light due to shrub expansion can lead to changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food resources for migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus). To determine how vegetation is affected by snow accumulation and shade, we conducted an experiment that simulated the light and snow conditions created by incre...
Article
Full-text available
Forest vegetation management can improve planted seedling survival and growth and is thus widely used in plantation silviculture. In some jurisdictions, mechanical release using brushsaws has replaced the traditional use of chemical herbicides for forest vegetation management purposes. However, its associated costs and the increasing difficulty of...
Article
Terpenes are phytochemicals found in multiple plant genera, especially aromatic herbs and conifers. Terpene content quantification is costly and complex, requiring the extraction of oil content and gas chromatography analyses. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could provide an alternative quantitative method, especially if calibration can be develop...
Article
Aims Selective browsing can be a chronic disturbance that reduces the survival, growth and reproduction of individual species and shapes the composition and structure of plant communities. Along with other disturbances that perturb the forest ecosystem, browsing may thus affect forest regeneration and successional trajectories after an acute pertur...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivory has potential to modify vegetation responses to climatic changes. However, climate and herbivory also affect each other and rarely work in isolation from other ecological factors, such as plant‐plant competition. Thus, it is challenging to predict the extent to which herbivory can counteract, amplify or interact with climate impacts on ec...
Article
Aims When deciding whether or not to eat a plant, herbivores are influenced by the nutritional value of potential foods, but also indirectly by neighbouring plants (associational effects). We aimed to investigate how the abundance and nutritional quality of neighbours of balsam firs (Abies balsamea ) affects browsing on balsam firs by white‐tailed...
Article
Full-text available
A tradeoff between forage acquisition and predation avoidance contributes to shape space use by herbivores. The manipulation of structural components of the habitat, such as forage and forest cover may alter this tradeoff. The idea of influencing space use of herbivores is appealing for wildlife managers that aim to locally modify herbivore densiti...
Article
Full-text available
Non-nutritive phytochemicals (secondary metabolites and fibre) can influence plant resistance to herbivores and have ecological impacts on animal and plant population dynamics. A major hindrance to the ecological study of these phytochemicals is the uncertainty in the compounds one should measure, especially when limited by cost and expertise. With...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dans le nord-est de l’Amérique du Nord, les plantations d’épinettes sont des scénarios sylvicoles fréquemment appliqués dans les sapinières. Toutefois, nous ne savons pas si ces scénarios altèrent la résilience des peuplements. Dans un paradigme d’aménagement écosystémique, il est primordial de maintenir la biodiversité et les services écosystémiqu...
Article
Globally, there is an increasing demand for wood products. Because of their productivity, forest plantations will increasingly serve to meet this demand. A cumulative anthropogenic disturbance, such as a plantation scenario, could alter resilience of natural forests, thereby triggering alternative successional pathways towards a state that is predo...
Article
Full-text available
At high population size, migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are regulated by forage abundance in their summer range. Climate warming likely affects forage availability by increasing productivity and advancing phenology of vegetation. Our objective was to investigate the combined effects of browsing and climate warming on the availability of dwar...
Article
Full-text available
1.Considering intraspecific trait variability (ITV) in ecological studies has improved our understanding of species persistence and coexistence. These advances are based on the growing number of leaf ITV studies over local gradients, but logistical constraints have prevented a solid examination of ITV in root traits or at scales reflecting species'...
Article
Full-text available
Les herbivores transforment les écosystemes, particulièrement suite aux introductions en milieux insulaires. La plantation de sapins baumiers (Abies balsamea) est réalisée sur l’ile d’Anticosti (Québec, Canada) pour restaurer ou maintenir des composantes essentielles de l’habitat du cerf de Virginie (Odocoileus virginianus), une espèce faunique qui...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field‐based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade‐offs, trait–environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation...
Article
Full-text available
The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread shrub expansion has been observed at the circumpolar scale in response to climate change. This phenomenon could be inhibited by large herbivores through selective browsing that reduces shrub growth. Our objective was to assess the dynamics of shrub species in the Deception Bay area, in Nunavik (Québec, Canada), a region in the summer ran...
Article
Full-text available
The above mentioned article was originally scheduled for publication in the special issue on Ecology of Tundra Arthropods with guest editors Toke T. Høye . Lauren E. Culler. Erroneously, the article was published in Polar Biology, Volume 40, Issue 11, November, 2017. The publisher sincerely apologizes to the guest editors and the authors for the in...
Article
Questions The presence of a plant species can influence the selection of another plant species by herbivores. Natural communities encompass several plant species and in these multispecific environments, resource selection by herbivores could be partly explained by plant diversity. Our objective was to determine how winter consumption by a large her...
Article
Full-text available
Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might...
Article
High abundance of large herbivore has major impacts on the composition, structure, and functioning of forest ecosystems, which can result in regeneration failures. Reduction of large herbivore density, however, does not warrant the successful establishment of tree species sensitive to browsing. In such contexts, planting in combination with silvicu...
Article
Warmer summer temperatures and enhanced soil fertility increase shrub growth in tundra ecosystems, and these factors have likely contributed to shrub expansion at the circumpolar scale over the last decades. Conversely, large herbivores have the potential to counteract the positive impacts of climate change on shrub growth. Indeed, by stripping the...
Poster
Full-text available
La sapinière à bouleau blanc de l’Est est sujette à l’aménagement forestier et à des pressions de broutement élevées par l’orignal. Le broutement par les grands herbivores suite aux coupes forestières est susceptible de nuire à la régénération forestière et de mener le milieu, via différentes compositions floristiques initiales, vers des voies de s...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to predict as we know little about the drivers of current levels of invertebrate herbivory in tundra. We assessed the intensity of...
Article
The presence of neighbouring plants and predation risk can affect trophic interactions between plants and herbivores. We hypothesized that the relative preference for neighbouring species would determine winter herbivory and that predation risk would modulate browsing pressure. We tested these hypotheses using feeding trials in two regions with hig...
Article
Full-text available
Global declines in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer) populations have drawn attention to the myriad of stressors that these arctic and boreal forest herbivores currently face. Arctic warming has resulted in increased tundra shrub growth and therefore Rangifer forage quantity. However, its effects on forage quality have not yet been addressed although...
Article
Full-text available
Temperate species occupying habitats at the northern limit of their geographical distribution are limited by weather and climatic conditions. Such conditions often directly affect population dynamics, and thus, influence shifts in distribution via changes in demographic parameters. We examined this question by following three distinct populations o...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy browsing pressure from large ungulates is a multicontinent phenomenon that causes regeneration failure of many palatable tree species and induces important socioeconomic and ecological impacts in forest ecosystems. The development of forest management practices that address adequately this issue, however, remains scarce and challenging becaus...
Article
Full-text available
Resources whose abundance is not affected by the density of the consumer population, namely donor-controlled resources, are ubiquitous. Donor-controlled resources can act as food subsidies when they sustain consumer populations at higher densities than what would be predicted without donor-controlled dynamics. Herbivore populations that have access...
Article
In vitro digestion assays provide useful data for wild ruminant ecologists. It remains highly constraining, however, to conduct these assays in the field. We evaluated various proxies for in vitro digestion assays that use ruminal liquor from wild ruminants. The ruminal liquor of freshly killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was used to...
Article
Full-text available
There is high variability in the level of herbivory between individual plants from the same species with potential effects on population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem structure and function. This variability can be partly explained by associational effects (i.e., the impact of the presence of neighboring plants on the level of herb...
Article
Many herbivores exhibit phenotypic variations of their digestive system in response to changes in quality of food resources. This digestive plasticity is considered an adaptive trait for individuals to help them cope with variation in food resources and to fulfill nutritional needs. We investigated whether digestive phenotypic variations could cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is high variability in the level of herbivory between individual plants from the same species with potential effects on population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem structure and function. This variability can be partly explained by associational effects i.e. the impact of the presence of neighboring plants on the level of herbiv...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting habitat-related patterns in foraging behaviour at the individual level and over large temporal scales remains challenging for large herbivores. Stable isotope analysis could represent a valuable tool to quantify habitat-related foraging behaviour at the scale of individuals and over large temporal scales in forest dwelling large herbivo...
Article
Full-text available
On Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), overbrowsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has substantially modified plant communities and reduced the recruitment of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) seedlings over most of the territory. An exception to this phenomenon has been observed in localised patches occurring on a single geological deposit...
Article
Full-text available
Overabundant populations of large herbivores have strong persistent effects on forest composition, structure and function. However the mechanism through which plant communities recover their original composition and function after herbivore management remains poorly understood. We assessed the temporal trajectories of the herbaceous communities in...
Article
Overabundant populations of large herbivores have strong persistent effects on forest composition, structure, and function. However, the mechanism through which plant communities recover their original composition and function after herbivore management remains poorly understood. We assessed the temporal trajectories of the herbaceous communities i...
Article
An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and t...
Article
Full-text available
An important asset for the management of wild ungulates is recognizing the spatial distribution of forage quality across heterogeneous landscapes. To do so typically requires knowledge of which plant species are eaten, in what abundance they are eaten, and what their nutritional quality might be. Acquiring such data, however, may be difficult and t...
Article
Full-text available
Forest plantations are recognized as a silvicultural tool for ensuring a timber supply that meets public expectations regarding sustainable forest management. However, they are also part of the silvicultural scenario that shows the greatest potential for the artificialization of natural forests. From a firsthand perspective, intensive plantation si...
Article
Full-text available
Les plantations forestières représentent un outil sylvicole reconnu pour assurer un approvisionnement en matière ligneuse qui répond aux attentes de la société envers l’aménagement durable des forêts. Toutefois, elles font aussi partie du scénario sylvicole qui a le plus grand potentiel d’artificialisation de la forêt naturelle. Les objectifs de la...
Article
Full-text available
Forest plantations are recognized as a silvicultural tool for ensuring a timber supply that meets public expectations regarding sustainable forest management. However, they are also part of the silvicultural scenario that shows the greatest potential for the artificialization of natural forests. From a firsthand perspective, intensive plantation si...
Article
Full-text available
Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifyin...
Article
Moose (Alces alces) populations exceed 3 individuals/km2 in some wildlife reserves and parks of northeastern Canada. Heavy browsing pressure at such densities is potentially altering the ecological integrity of forests with eventual negative consequences for moose. We hypothesized that regulation by resources would be limited by the capacity of fem...
Article
We compared 2 net-propelled devices to capture eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). One device, the rocket-net, employs explosives for propulsion and is currently the most effective and widespread method used to capture this species. The second device, the net blaster, works with compressed air instead of explosives. During 2009–2...
Article
Full-text available
Deer have expanded their range and increased dramatically in abundance worldwide in recent decades. They inflict major economic losses in forestry, agriculture, and transportation and contribute to the transmission of several animal and human diseases. Their impact on natural ecosystems is also dramatic but less quantified. By foraging selectively,...
Article
Full-text available
Recent climate changes have increased the primary productivity of many Arctic and subarctic regions. Erected shrub has been shown to increase in abundance over the last decades in northern regions in response to warmer climate. At the same time, caribou herds are declining throughout the circumboreal regions. Based on observation of heavy browsing...
Article
Understanding the responses of ecological communities to perturbation is a key challenge within contemporary ecology research. In this study we seek to separate specific community responses from general community responses of plant communities to exclusion of large cervid herbivores. Cervid herbivory and forestry are the main drivers of vegetation...
Article
The interplay between density and climate in shaping the dynamics of herbivore populations is widely acknowledged, and current research is fueled by the identification of mechanisms underlying their effects on individuals and populations. We assessed whether forage availability mediated the effects of density and winter climate on body mass of whit...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape homogenization resulting from high browsing pressure or forest management practices can impact plant and animal diversity. Large herbivores and logging may therefore influence small mammal populations, which are known to strongly respond to forest disturbances. We assessed the influence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densit...