Jean-Pierre L Savard

Jean-Pierre L Savard
Environment Canada | EC · Québec Region

PhD

About

225
Publications
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5,015
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September 1977 - present
Environment Canada

Publications

Publications (225)
Article
Sea ducks exhibit complex movement patterns throughout their annual cycle; most species use distinct molting and staging sites during migration and disjunct breeding and wintering sites. Although research on black scoters (Melanitta americana) has investigated movements and habitat selection during winter, little is known about their annual‐cycle m...
Article
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Satellite transmitters were used to describe migration patterns and establish connectivity among breeding and wintering areas for 30 White-winged Scoters (Melanitta deglandi) tagged in August 2010 or August 2012 during remigial molt in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Fourteen potential breeding sites were identified in the boreal forest f...
Article
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Long-distance migration presents complex conservation challenges, and migratory species often experience shortfalls in conservation due to the difficulty of identifying important locations and resources throughout the annual cycle. In order to prioritize habitats for conservation of migratory wildlife, it is necessary to understand how habitat need...
Article
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Studies of the effects of transmitters on wildlife often focus on survival. However, sublethal behavioral changes resulting from radio-marking have the potential to affect inferences from telemetry data and may vary based on individual and environmental characteristics. We used a long-term, multi-species tracking study of sea ducks to assess behavi...
Article
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Conservation of long‐distance migratory species poses unique challenges. Migratory connectivity, that is, the extent to which groupings of individuals at breeding sites are maintained in wintering areas, is frequently used to evaluate population structure and assess use of key habitat areas. However, for species with complex or variable annual cycl...
Article
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Costs of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) are expected to be influenced by a species’ life history traits. Precocial birds lay large clutches, and clutches that have been enlarged by CBP can affect host fitness through a longer incubation period, displaced eggs, and lower hatching success. We examined costs and response to CBP by hosts in a popul...
Article
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We provide the first quantitative study on the diet of Somateria mollissima dresseri (American Eider) undergoing the flightless wing molt. Twenty-nine adult females in wing molt were collected in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, QC, Canada. We identified a total of 510 prey items comprising 6 species of molluscs, echinoderms, and...
Article
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Black-backed woodpecker is known to be a disturbance-associated species, being more abundant in disturbed forest stands than in undisturbed habitats, but its demography and population dynamic still need to be clarified. The present study was conducted in central Quebec within coniferous forests shaped largely by timber harvest and wildfire. The obj...
Article
Body and organ dynamics, during remigial moult, have been mainly explored on geese, dabbling ducks, and footpropelled diving ducks, but weakly on sea ducks. This study investigated the internal changes in a wing–foot-propelled sea duck to determine the adaptive strategies implemented. Forty-five male Common Eiders (Atlantic) (Somateria mollissima d...
Article
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Shrub-nesting bird species are infrequent inhabitants of urban habitats. Our study identifies their location within urban bird assemblages, quantifies their abundance in an urban ecosystem, and explores their association with vegetation variables. The study design consists of 103 point locations distributed among four types of urban habitat: medium...
Article
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La forêt boréale se caractérise par une diversité de cycles de productivité qui affectent les chaînes trophiques, lesquelles sont en partie affectées par le climat. Nous avons analysé les données de l’Observatoire d’oiseaux de Tadoussac pour l’épervier brun ( Accipiter striatus ) entre 1996 et 2010 en lien avec l’indice climatique de l’Oscillation...
Chapter
Molt is a dynamic process occurring throughout much of the year in waterfowl. The molt of flight feathers by waterfowl, especially sea ducks, however, occurs over a compressed period of time and in specific areas used each year. We provide an overview of the flight feather molt of sea ducks. We focus on the need to molt and why, the timing and dura...
Article
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The chapters in this volume of Studies in Avian Biology reflect the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters tha...
Article
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Sea ducks in tribe Mergini exhibit a wide range of spacing, breeding, and broodrearing behaviors and have provided important insights in both theoretical and applied behavioral ecology. The strength, timing, and duration of pairing vary among species. Longterm pair bonds of more than one year are common but the proportion of birds that repair annua...
Article
Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and freshwater and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that...
Article
Several species of North American sea ducks have experienced population declines in the last century and, in most cases, the causes remain unknown. Of primary concern for conservation is the fact that research on the tribe Mergini has lagged far behind other waterfowl groups, leading to a poor understanding of the key factors that may limit sea duc...
Article
Migration exerts strong effects on population dynamics, so consideration of migration as a driver of population change is an important area of inquiry. Sea ducks (Mergini) exemplify the wide range in types of migration strategies, which become more variable with the addition of a third migration to distinct molting areas. We discuss the three migra...
Book
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People have long been fascinated by sea ducks because of their spectacular courtship displays, brightly colored and patterned plumage, remarkable variation in life history traits, remote northern breeding locations, unique migrations, and the many mysteries that remain about their ecology and behavior. However, the past decade has witnessed a drama...
Article
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Nest success is often used to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on species, but nestling growth may also be indicative of subtle consequences on individual fitness. We monitored Black-backed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus nestling growth in unburned boreal forests under the influence of commercial logging. The objectives of our explorato...
Article
Full-text available
Remigial moult is one of the crucial events in the annual life cycle of waterfowl as it is energetically costly, lasts several weeks, and is a period of high vulnerability due to flightlessness. In waterfowl, remigial moult can be considered as an energy-predation trade-off, meaning that heavier individuals would minimise the flightless period by i...
Article
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The southern New England continental shelf is an important region for black scoters (Melanitta americana) during winter and migratory staging periods and a priority area for developing offshore wind energy facilities. However, little is known about the migration phenology and habitat use of black scoters in this portion of their range and this info...
Article
Full-text available
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger-bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nest success is often used to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on species, but nestling growth may also be indicative of subtle consequences on individual fitness. We monitored Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) nestling growth in unburned boreal forests under the influence of commercial logging. The objectives of our explora...
Article
Full-text available
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that largerbodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popula...
Article
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger- bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews factors affecting site selection amongst waterfowl (Anatidae) during the flightless remigial moult, emphasising the roles of predation and food supply (especially protein and energy). The current literature suggests survival during flightless moult is at least as high as at other times of the annual cycle, but documented cases of...
Article
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Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality fr...
Article
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This study provides estimates for three sources related to power industry in Canada, which cause avian mortality: electrocutions, construction and transmission line maintenance, and water reservoirs. Estimates of avian mortality due to electrocution mortality for Canada (number of poles*birds/pole/year) ranged from 160,836 to 801,962 birds annually...
Article
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While the breeding and wintering ranges of the eastern population of Barrow’s Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) are generally described, molting locations and links among breeding, molting, and wintering areas are unclear, particularly for adult females. Incubating females from the same breeding location (n = 5) were equipped with satellite transmit...
Article
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Little information is available on long-term changes in bird communities following fire in the unmanaged forest. We have evaluated and compared bird species communities along two long-term chronosequences after fire (0 to[200 years post-fire) in the eastern Quebec boreal forest, which is known for its long fire-return intervals. By characterizing f...
Article
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The rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has received much attention during the last decade, in part due to drastic population declines. We analyzed data from 15 y of fall migration monitoring at the Observatoire d’oiseaux de Tadoussac (OOT), located at the mouth of the Saguenay River on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River estuary in Quebec,...
Article
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Habitat use, diet and foraging activity of male Red-breasted Mergansers (Mergus serrator) undergoing fflightless wing molt along the shores of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, were studied in 2005 and 2006. Red-breasted Mergansers used clear, shallow waters (≤12 m depth) that were near shore (<850 m) and over a sand-rock substrate wi...
Article
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The northern common eider (Somateria mollissima borealis) has become a source of concern because of recent declines and possible overharvest. Birds that breed in the Canadian mid-Arctic winter in both Greenland and Canada, but the wintering grounds of birds that breed farther south are unknown. Our objectives were thus to identify the molting and w...
Article
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Common eiders Somateria mollissima nest in colonies on islands of the St. Lawrence Estuary in Quebec, Canada. After hatching, attending females must reach suitable brood-rearing habitats while non-attending females and adult males must find appropriate moulting sites. The aim of our study was to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that influen...
Article
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We modeled migration intensity as a function of weather, using nightly migration measurements from Doppler surveillance weather radar during autumn migration on the north (Cote-Nord) and south (Gaspesie) shores of the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada. The radar had negative elevation angles, an uncommon characteristic among weather radars, whic...
Article
We compared Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) activity levels in May, June, and July 1990 in four habitats in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: alpine, old-growth forest at high elevation, old-growth forest at low elevation, and second-growth forest. The number of Marbled Murrelet detections was highest in old-growth forests....
Article
The influence of habitat structure on the nesting height of five species of birds in an urban area was investigated. All rock dove (Columba livia) nests were on two-story buildings. The nesting height of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was influenced by building height being higher in two-story residential areas...
Article
Barrow's goldeneye and bufflehead pairs defend well-delineated territories from which they exclude conspecifics. Only the male defends the territory and does so even when the female is absent. However, after the young have hatched, females of both species defend brood territories from which they exclude conspecifics. Both species are also interspec...
Article
I recorded 42 cases of brood amalgamation in Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) and 31 cases in Bufflehead (B. albeola). In four witnessed brood encounters, there was no evidence of behaviour facilitating brood amalgamation in either the young or the female. Females did not attempt to steal other females' young but rather tried to chase them...
Article
Full-text available
We documented the pattern of nocturnal passerine migration on each side of the St. Lawrence estuary (CôteNord north and Gaspésie south), using the Doppler Canadian weather surveillance radar of Val d'Irène (XAM). We examined whether autumnal migrants flew across the St. Lawrence, resulting in a uniform broad-front migration, or avoided crossing it,...
Article
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We studied the availability and characteristics of snags and their use by cavity-nesting birds in the northeastern part of the Canadian boreal forest. We built up two long-term (> 200 years) chronosequences following time since the last fire in the unmanaged boreal forest of northeastern Québec, one in the balsam fir-white birch domain (southern re...
Article
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The increased pace of species listing worldwide, coupled with the scarcity of conservation funding, promote the use of targeted monitoring. We applied the recommendations of Nichols and Williams (Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2006 24:668-673) to optimize the Québec Chimney Swift Monitoring Program, an ongoing volunteer-based monitoring initiative...
Article
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Managed coniferous forest dominates much of the black-backed woodpecker's (Picoides arcticus Swainson) breeding range. Despite this, little is known about the fine-scale foraging behaviour of this focal species in unburned managed forest stands in the absence of insect outbreaks. To investigate the foraging substrates used in such a habitat, we emp...
Article
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Using a Canadian weather surveillance radar (CWSR), we assessed the relationship between aural passerine counts and radar reflectivity during autumn migration on 16 nights. Reflectivity was positively correlated on all but I night with the number of birds detected aurally, but the correlation strength varied between -0.58 and 0.93 among nights (mea...
Article
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Although the breeding range of the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is restricted to North America, the northern limits of its range are still unclear. In Quebec, the most northerly confirmed breeding records had come from the Saguenay area (Chicoutimi; 48° 25′ N, 71° 03′ W) in balsam fir- (Abies balsamea) white birch (Betula papyrifera) f...
Article
We investigated environmental variables linked to presence of Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) pairs from the eastern North American population on 412 lakes of the Sainte-Marguerite River watershed, Québec, Canada. We analysed habitat relationships at two spatial scales (i.e., considering all lakes surveyed and high elevation lakes only) an...
Article
Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula) and Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus) are common cavity-nesting ducks but the importance of fast-flowing rivers as suitable nesting habitat may have been overlooked. We monitored the use of >90 nest boxes installed along a boreal forest river over a 5-year period. A high nest box occupancy rate was rea...
Article
We evaluated and monitored use of 105–133 nest boxes by Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) during 1999–2004 on 60 lakes of high plateaus of the Laurentian Highlands, in the boreal forest of Québec, Canada. Only three species of birds used nest boxes regularly, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Barr...
Article
The Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park (PMSSL) is located in one of the most productive areas of the St. Lawrence and supports large numbers of aquatic birds all year round. Nevertheless, there is no detailed study on the use of this areaby aquatic birds in winter. So, to rectify the situation, aerial and ground surveys were done to better quantify...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black...
Article
The movements of a total of 948 Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) banded in eastern North America and Greenland from 1996-2003 (313 breeding, 186 molting/staging, and 449 wintering) were examined. Regular resighting and recapture projects have been underway at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, as well as Jericho Bay, Maine. Less consistent ob...
Article
Les canards de mer ont déjà été capturés à l'aide de filets japonais tendus des deux côtés d'une rivière et dans des trappes alors qu'ils sont inaptes à voler en mer, mais la capture d'oiseaux aptes au vol aux haltes migratoires et aux aires d'hivernage représente un défi majeur. Nous décrivons ici une technique qui s'est avérée très efficace pour...