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Jean Pierre Koralsztein

Jean Pierre Koralsztein
sports center medicne ccas paris france · ccas

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69
Publications
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Publications

Publications (69)
Preprint
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In a same way that most of the robots and advance mobile machines nowadays are designed so that they are either optimized on their energy consumption or on their greatest smoothness of motion, it has been demonstrated that competitive runners tend to exhibit smoother strides than recreational runners during both running and fast walking by minimizi...
Article
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Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at max (tlim max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% v max and at the critical power at max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between the tlim max and the...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mountaineering experience decreases the net oxygen cost of uphill walking (OCw) on steep mountain trails and in ice and snow conditions. OCw was measured during an ascent of Mont Blanc in eight experienced alpinists and eight non-alpinists who were matched for sex (4 + 4) and low-altitude ae...
Article
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This study examined the hypothesis that running speed over 800- and 1,500-m races is regulated by the prevailing anaerobic (oxygen independent) store (ANS) at each instant of the race up until the all-out phase of the race over the last several meters. Therefore, we hypothesized that the anaerobic power that allows running above the speed at maxima...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time run at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) on the offtransient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase after supra-lactate threshold runs. We hypothesised: 1) that among the velocities eliciting V̇O2 max there is a velocity threshold from which there is a slow component in the V̇O2-off transient, an...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to estimate the importance of lactate steady state velocity (WCL) of the running velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (Va max) and its time to exhaustion (Tlim), in the performance of a half marathon stated by the velocity over 21.1 km sustained by the runners during 1 h 12 min +/- 2 min 27 s. The population consisting...
Article
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To examine the fatigue response during an exhaustive heavy exercise performed under control of oxygen uptake (SS@V.O (2)Delta50) or power output (SS@pDelta50), eleven trained male subjects performed an incremental test to determine the peak of the oxygen uptake value (V.O (2peak)) and lactate threshold and two exhaustive steady-state cycling exerci...
Article
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We hypothesized that a freely paced 10,000 m running race would induce a smaller physiological strain (heart rate and oxygen uptake) compared with one performed at the same average speed but with an imposed constant pace. Furthermore, we analyzed the scaling properties with a wavelet transform algorithm computed log2 (wavelet transform energy) vs....
Article
Full-text available
The relationships between both metabolic (E) and mechanical (W) energy expended and exhaustion time (t(e)), was determined for 11 well-trained subjects during constant load cycloergometric exercises at 95, 100, 110, 115 % maximal aerobic power performed both from rest and, without interruption, after an all-out sprint of 7 s. These relationships we...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hypoxia on the O2 uptake response, on the arterial and muscular desaturation and on the test duration and test duration at VO2max during exhaustive exercise performed in normoxia and hypoxia at the same relative workload. Nine well-trained males cyclists performed an incremental test and an...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the energetic factors of middle-distance running performance in junior elite runners according to gender and by using measurements from on-track performances. Fifteen elite runners (8 males and 7 females) were investigated by means of an incremental test and an all-out run over 600 m performed with a 2-d inter...
Article
Full-text available
Training effects on time-to-exhaustion, substrate and blood lactate balances at the maximal lactate steady state velocity (MLSSv) were examined. Eleven male, veteran, long-distance runners performed three tests before and after 6 weeks of training at MLSSv: an incremental test to determine maximum O2 uptake (VO(2,max)) and the velocity at the lacta...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at VO2max (tlim VO2max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% vVO2max and at the critical power at VO2max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between the tlim...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at VO(2)max (tlim VO(2)max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% vVO(2)max and at the critical power at VO(2)max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine (i) the effects of a severe interval training period on oxygen pulse kinetics (O2-p, the ratio between VO2 and heart rate), and (ii) to study the consequences of these effects on the variation of performance (time to exhaustion) during severe runs. Seven athletes were tested before and after an eight-weeks perio...
Article
Full-text available
The first purpose of this study was to assess the eventual training adaptations in the time to exhaustion at the same severe velocity occurring after severe interval-training programs in few- and well-trained subjects. In the event of such training adaptations, the second purpose was to identify the discriminant factors of performance improvement a...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the training characteristics and the physical profiles of top-class male and female Kenyan long-distance runners. The subjects were 20 elite Kenyan runners: 13 men (10-km performance time: 10-km performance time of 28 min, 36 s +/- 18 s) and 7 women (32 min, 32 s +/- 65 s). The male runners were separated into high-speed trainin...
Article
Full-text available
Eight unacclimatized long-distance runners performed, on a level treadmill, an incremental test to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the minimal velocity eliciting VO2max (vVO2max) in normoxia (N) and acute moderate hypoxia (H) corresponding to an altitude of 2,400 m (PIO 2 of 109 mmHg). Afterwards, on separate days, they performed t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time run at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase after supra-lactate threshold runs. We hypothesised: 1) that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max there is a velocity threshold from which there is a slow component in the VO2-off transient, and...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks of intense interval-training on the pulmonary off-transient oxygen uptake (V*O2) after running until exhaustion at the same absolute speed. Seven physical education students ran as follows in three maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst breathing through a portable, telemetri...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of 8 weeks of specific marathon training before the Olympic trials on the physiological factors of the marathon performance in top-class marathon runners. Five males and four females, age 34 +/- 6 yr (+/- SD) with a marathon performance time of 2 h 11 min 40 s +/- 2 min 27 s for males and 2 h 35 min 34 s +/- 2 min 54...
Article
Full-text available
Best performances in middle-distance running are characterized by coefficients of variation of the velocity ranging from 1% to 5%. This seems to suggest that running at constant velocity is a strain inducing an increase in physiological variables such as oxygen uptake. This study tested three questions. (l) Does velocity variability during a middle...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the hypothesis that free versus constant pace enhanced the performance (i.e., distance run) in suprathreshold runs between 90 and 105% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption determined in an incremental test (v.VO(2max)). Moreover, we hypothesized that variable pace could decrease the slow phase of oxygen k...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the physical and training characteristics of top-class marathon runners (TC), i.e., runners having a personal best of less than 2 h 11 min for males and 2 h 32 min for females, respectively, versus high-level (HL) (< 2 h 16 min and < 2 h 38 min). Twenty marathon runners (five TC and HL in each gender) ran 10 km at their best mar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More and more the middle and long distance elite runners use intermittent hypoxia in their final preparation. However, there are two major concerns about the choice of the duration and the intensities of high intensity work in mild altitude: i) the decrease in VO 2max has been reported as being very variable among subjects (Chapman et al., 1999); i...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three very short interval training sessions (15-15 s of hard and easier runs) run at an average velocity equal to the critical velocity to elicit VO2 max for more than 10 minutes. We hypothesized that the interval with the smallest amplitude (defined as the ratio between the difference i...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of endurance training on the relationship between mechanical stride descriptors (stride rate and stride rate variability) and the aerobic energy cost that would be decreased by training in an all-out supra-lactate threshold run. Six long distance runners (175 +/- 6 cm; 72 +/- 9 kg; 27 +/- 4 years) p...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-wk severe interval training program on the parameters of oxygen uptake kinetics, such as the oxygen deficit and the slow component, and their potential consequences on the time until exhaustion in a severe run performed at the same absolute velocity before and after training. Six...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior intermittent running at VO2max on oxygen kinetics during a continuous severe intensity run and the time spent at VO2max. Methods: Eight long-distance runners performed three maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst breathing through the COSMED K4 portable teleme...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of light additional arm cranking exercise on the VO2 slow component observed during severe cycling exercise. During incremental tests, eleven triathletes exercised to exhaustion cycling with leg, cranking with arm and combined arm and leg cranking and cycling (arm work-rates being set at the third of leg work rates...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to verify, by track field tests, whether sub-elite runners (n=15) could (i) reach their VO2max while running at v50%delta, i.e. midway between the speed associated with lactate threshold (vLAT) and that associated with maximal aerobic power (vVO2max), and (ii) if an intermittent exercise provokes a maximal and/or supra...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to characterise the relationship between running velocity and the time for which a subject can run at maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), (t limV˙O2max). Seven physical education students ran in an incremental test (3-min stages) to determine V˙O2max and the minimal velocity at which it was elicited (νV˙O2max). They then...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The purpose of this study was to verify by track field tests, whether sub-elite runners (n=15) could (i) reach their (V) over dot(2max) while running at v50% Delta i.e. midway between the speed associated with lactate threshold (VLAT) and that associated with maximal aerobic power (v(V) over dot(2max)), and (ii) if an intermittent exerc...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to compare physiologic responses during exhaustive runs performed on a treadmill at 100 and 120% maximal aerobic speed (MAS: the minimum speed that elicits VO2max). Fourteen subelite male runners (mean +/- SD; age = 27+/-5 years; VO2max = 68.9+/-4.6 ml/kg(-1)/min(-1); MAS = 21.5+/-1 km/h(-1)) participated. Mean time to exhaustion tlim10...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the oxygen pulse (O2p) time course i.e. oxygen consumption (V̇O2)/heart rate (HR), in severe exercise. This was to check whether HR can be a predictor of V̇O2 in severe exercises known as inducing a V̇O2 slow component. Eight mid level runners performed on track two maximal tests. The first incremental test...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to show the relationship between oxygen deficit and the time to exhaustion (tlim) at maximal aerobic speed (MAS). The minimum speed that elicits VO(2max) was assumed to be the maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Fourteen subelite male runners (mean (SD: age = 27 +/- 5 yrs: VO(2max) = 68.9 +/- 4.6 ml kg (-1). min ( -1); MAS =...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of cyclic severe exercise (running and cycling) on the VO2 slow component. Moreover we examined the influence of cadence of exercise (freely chosen [FF] vs. low frequency [LF]) on the hypothesis that: 1) a stride frequency lower than optimal and 2) a pedalling frequency lowe...
Article
Full-text available
This article traces the study of interrelationships between power output, work done, velocity maintained or distance covered and the endurance time taken to achieve that objective. During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists examined world running records for distances from < 100 m to > 1000 km. Such examinations were empirical in na...
Article
Full-text available
This article traces the study of interrelationships between power output, work done, velocity maintained or distance covered and the endurance time taken to achieve that objective. During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists examined world running records for distances from <100m to >1000km. Such examinations were empirical in nature...
Article
Full-text available
Between inefficient training and overtraining, an appropriate training stimulus (in terms of intensity and duration) has to be determined in accordance with individual capacities. Interval training at the minimal velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) allows an athlete to run for as long as possible at VO2max. Nevertheless, we don't know the inf...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the type of exercise (running vs. cycling) on the O2 uptake V(O2) slow component. Ten triathletes performed exhaustive exercise on a treadmill and on a cycloergometer at a work rate corresponding to 90% of maximal VO2 (90% work rate maximal V(O2)). The duration of the tests before exhaustion...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine stride biomechanicals parameters during a exhaustive constant velocity run carry on track, in order to explain inter-variabilility of time to exhaustion at velocity witch solicit maximal oxygen consumption. Thirteen experienced runners (33 ± 6 years, 175 ± 4 cm, 65 ± 5 kg) performed two tests on track : 1- a...
Article
Full-text available
During prolonged and intense running exercises beyond the critical power level, a VO2 slow component elevates VO2 above predicted VO2-work rates calculated from exercise performed at intensities below the lactate threshold. In such cases, the actual VO2 value will increase over time until it reaches VO2max. The aims of the present study were to exa...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies reported good intra-individual reproducibility, but great inter-individual variation in a sample of elite athletes, in time to exhaustion (tlim) at the maximal aerobic speed (MAS: the lowest speed that elicits VO2max in an incremental treadmill test). The purpose of the present study was, on the one hand, to detect modifications of k...
Article
Full-text available
Using 23 elite male athletes (8 cyclists, 7 kayakists, and 8 swimmers), the contribution of the anaerobic energy system to the time to exhaustion (t lim) at the minimal exercise intensity (speed or power) at which maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) occurs (IV˙O2 max) was assessed by analysing the relationship between the t lim and the accumulated oxyg...
Article
Full-text available
In 1923, Hill and Lupton pointed out that for Hill himself, 'the rate of oxygen intake due to exercise increases as speed increases, reaching a maximum for the speeds beyond about 256 m/min. At this particular speed, for which no further increases in O2 intake can occur, the heart, lungs, circulation, and the diffusion of oxygen to the active muscl...
Article
Full-text available
In 1923, Hill and Lupton pointed out that for Hill himself, ‘the rate of oxygen intake due to exercise increases as speed increases, reaching a maximum for the speeds beyond about 256 m/min. At this particular speed, for which no further increases in O2 intake can occur, the heart, lungs, circulation, and the diffusion of oxygen to the active muscl...
Article
Full-text available
A recent study has shown the reproducibility of time to exhaustion (time limit: tlim) at the lowest velocity that elicits the maximal oxygen consumption (vVO2 max). The same study found an inverse relationship between this time to exhaustion at vVO2 max and vVO2 max among 38 élite long-distance runners (Billat et al. 1994b). The purpose of the pres...
Article
Full-text available
The velocity associated with the achievement of VO2 max during an incremental treadmill test (v VO2 max) has been reported to be an indicator of performance in middle distance running events. Previous study has shown the reproducibility of the time to exhaustion (time limit: tlim) at v VO2 max performed by well-trained males in the same condition a...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies had concluded that the treadmill velocity-endurance time hyperbolic relationship for runs could be accuratly approached with a regression at condition that bouts of exercise duration were included between 2 and 12 min. This regression allows to calculate the critical speed (CS) defined as the slope of the regression of work (distan...
Article
Full-text available
A recent paper (Billat et al., 1994a) has shown the reproducibility but also the great variability between subelite long-distance runners in their time to exhaustion at the velocity which elicits VO2max, called the maximal aerobic speed (MAS). The present study delved further into the reasons for this large difference between runners having the sam...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the measurement and reproducibility of running time to exhaustion at V˙O2 max at maximal aerobic speed (MAS). The running velocity at maximal oxygen uptake, and the relationship between running time to exhaustion at 100% V˙O2 max and other bioenergetic characteristics are also examined. Twelve male sub elite long distance runn...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to measure running times to exhaustion (Tlim) on a treadmill at 100% of the minimum velocity which elicits\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \) max\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \) max in 38 elite male long - distance runners\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \) max = 71.4 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1 and\(\dot V{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} \) max =...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of running time to exhaustion (Tlim) at maximal aerobic speed (MAS: the minimum speed that elicits VO2max), on eight subelite male long distance runners (29 +/- 3-yr-old; VO2max = 69.5 +/- 4.2 ml.kg-1.min-1; MAS = 21.25 +/- 1.1 km.h-1). No significant differences were observed between Tlim...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of running time to exhaustion (Tlim) at maximal aerobic speed (MAS: the minimum speed that elicits VO2max), on eight subelite male long distance runners (29 +/- 3-yr-old; VO2max = 69.5 +/- 4.2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); MAS = 21.25 +/- 1.1 km.h(-1)). No significant differences were observed betwee...

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