Jean-Pierre Després

Jean-Pierre Després
Laval University | ULAVAL · Department of Kinesiology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

1,944
Publications
177,884
Reads
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97,527
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
Alliance santé Québec
Position
  • Managing Director
May 2012 - present
Laval University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 2012 - present
Réseau de recherche en santé cardiométabolique, diabète et obésité (CMDO) of the Fonds de recherche du Québec -Santé (FRSQ)
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
September 1984 - September 1986
University of Toronto
Field of study
  • Physical Activity Sciences
May 1982 - May 1984
Laval University
Field of study
  • Physical Activity Sciences
May 1980 - May 1982
Laval University
Field of study
  • Physical Activity Sciences

Publications

Publications (1,944)
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: Obesity has been associated with elevated leptinemia and vitamin D deficiency. To date, whether there is an association between vitamin D and leptin levels independent from adiposity remains uncertain. Our objective was to investigate the associations between changes in 25(OH) vitamin D levels, changes in adiposity variables...
Article
Full-text available
In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low le...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Cardiovascular risk factors are used for risk stratification in primary prevention. We sought to determine if simple cardiac risk scores are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease including carotid wall volume (CWV), carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), and silent brain infarction (SBI...
Book
Lien vers le document complet: (Link to full-text) https://www.inspq.qc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/2578_prevalence_obesite_abdominale_evolution_taille_adultes.pdf Bien que l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC) soit l’indicateur habituellement utilisé pour la surveillance populationnelle du poids, il est maintenant bien reconnu que cette mes...
Article
Although the first description of a syndrome defined by the co-existence of atherogenic and diabetogenic metabolic abnormalities is debated in the literature, it was Gerald Reaven who proposed, in his landmark 1988 Banting award lecture, that a significant proportion of individuals (with diabetes or not) were characterised by insulin resistance cau...
Article
Findings from epidemiological studies over the past 30 years have shown that visceral adipose tissue, accurately measured by CT or MRI, is an independent risk marker of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence also suggests that ectopic fat deposition, including hepatic and epicardial fat, might contribute to increase...
Article
High overall nutritional quality (NQ) is an important component of ideal cardiovascular health, a concept introduced in 2010 by the American Heart Association. However, data on the independent contribution of overall NQ to the variation in the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) profile are limited. This observational study aimed to investigate the associat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Early identification of individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk is an essential step to improve primary preventive interventions. Excessive maximal exercise blood pressure (EBP) has been associated with several adverse outcomes. We examined how submaximal EBP could help to identify individuals with a deteriorated cardiometabolic...
Article
Purpose: Low-attenuation muscle (LAM) area at mid-thigh, a computed tomography (CT)-derived index of intramuscular lipids, is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that changes in LAM area in trunk muscles from a single abdominal scan could provide relevant information t...
Article
Targeting metabolic determinants of exercise performance with pharmacological agents that would mimic/potentiate the effects of exercise represents an attractive clinical alternative to counterbalance the poor exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the effect of 1-yr treatment with the insulin sensitizer per...
Article
Background Despite their important clinical value, second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are known to induce weight gain, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, the extent of these metabolic alterations differs among patients, and there is a current lack of knowledge about the factors that influence this inter-variability. Circulating lev...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To assess the benefits of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on exercise capacity and diastolic function in men with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and coronary artery disease (CAD), according to glucose tolerance status. Methods: Fifty-three men (62 ± 8 years; BMI: 27.3 ± 3.5 kg/m2) with LVDD and CAD were en...
Article
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of exercise and pharmacotherapy interventions in reducing visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Patients and methods: A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, New York Academy of Science Grey Literature Report, and OpenGrey was combined with hand searches o...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Recent transversal studies have associated insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 levels with glucose tolerance and parameters of the lipoprotein-lipid profile. Here, we aimed at determining the longitudinal effects of a one-year lifestyle modification program on IGFBP-2 levels and to identify specific metabolic...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Obesity/overweight is the most prevalent body composition abnormality in COPD. However, little is known about the impact of fat distribution on cardiometabolic health in COPD. Objective: To study the associations between ectopic adiposity, cardiometabolic health, and COPD. Methods: A total of 263 subjects (166 males; age=65±9 years) were...
Article
In the United States, 32% of beverages consumed by adults and 19% of beverages consumed by children in 2007 to 2010 contained low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs). Among all foods and beverages containing LCSs, beverages represent the largest proportion of LCS consumption worldwide. The term LCS includes the 6 high-intensity sweeteners currently approved...
Article
Background: Dysmetabolic profile has been associated with native aortic valve stenosis. However, there are limited data on the effects of an atherogenic milieu and its potential implications on the structural and hemodynamic deterioration of aortic bioprosthetic valves. Objectives: This prospective longitudinal study sought to determine the pred...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cholesterol efflux capacities (CECs) are negatively associated with cardiovascular disease risk, irrespective of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Whether interventions targeting lifestyle improve HDL-CECs is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether improving dietary quality and increasing physical activi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim was to compare the anthropometric and metabolic profiles and lifestyle behaviours of yogurt consumers and non-consumers and to determine if the observed differences persisted after adjustment for diet quality and related variables. Methods: Using cross-sectional and follow-up data from the Québec Family Study, men and women were...
Article
Obesity is recognized as a heterogeneous condition in which individuals with similar body mass index may have distinct metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. Susceptibility to obesity-related cardiometabolic complications is not solely mediated by overall body fat mass, but is largely dependent upon individual differences in regional body fat...
Data
Figure S1. Association between HepG2–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity (HepG2‐HDL‐CEC) changes and baseline HepG2‐HDL‐CEC (A) and J774‐HDL‐CEC changes with baseline J774‐HDL‐CEC (B). Figure S2. Association between HepG2–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity (HepG2‐HDL‐CEC) changes and baseline high‐density lipopro...
Data
Table S1. Characteristics of the Population Table S2. Atherosclerosis Features of the Carotid Artery*
Article
Background/objectives: Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement...
Article
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across ind...
Article
Background Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are insulin resistant and have a lower exercise capacity than individuals without T2D. Aims We examined the effect of 1 year treatment with the insulin sensitizer peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR)‐γ agonist rosiglitazone on exercise capacity and blood pressure (BP) response to exerc...
Article
Full-text available
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritiona...
Article
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus are largely lifestyle driven, lifestyle metrics are not used in clinical practice. This study examined the relevance of using a simple lifestyle risk score designed for primary care medicine by testing its ability to predict biological CVD risk factors in a cohort of 3,712 individuals invo...
Article
Full-text available
Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circ...
Article
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Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or if they...
Article
Prediction of coronary events remains elusive. Carotid atherosclerosis may be a surrogate for coronary risk, as carotid and coronary diseases occur simultaneously - albeit at times with a weak association - depending on clinical presentation. We investigated carotid and coronary atherosclerosis in men with new-onset unstable coronary artery disease...
Article
Background and aims: Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) predict the progression of pre-existing mild-to-moderate calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Whether indirect markers of oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) are also predictive is not known. The association between IgG and...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the increti...
Article
Both rare and common genetic variants predict the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but recent studies have provided compelling evidence that individuals who harbour variants that elevate their risk of CVD can substantially lower this risk by controlling lifestyle-related risk factors, such as smoking, diet, and physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis tha...
Article
Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of...
Article
Celebrating 60 years of excellence in specialized clinical care and research ![Graphic][1] Founded in 1918, what would eventually become the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute [in French, the Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec—Universite Laval (IUCPQ-UL)] was initially built as a sanatorium to offer the most contempo...
Article
Background: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are characterized by an impaired cardiometabolic risk profile including high levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoprotein levels. Genetic studies have highlighted a critical role for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in lipoprotein metabolism and CAD...
Article
Rationale: Ectopic fat deposition in the abdomen and in the limb muscles has been reported in patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence and consequences of fatty liver infiltration in patients with COPD in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Using chest CT-scans obtained in the ECLIPSE study, we quantifie...
Article
Background: Abdominal obesity and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. Among those, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is the most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Few studies evaluated the reversibility of LVDD by an approach promoting lifestyle modifications in abdominally ob...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe obesity is often characterized by ectopic fat deposition, which is related to development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, resolution of T2D may not be linearly associated with weight loss. The importance of ectopic fat reduction after bariatric surgery and T2D resolution is uncertain. Objective The aim of this pilot study is to co...
Article
Purpose of review: Low vitamin D levels have been extensively reported in obesity. Thus, the pandemic of obesity has been paralleled by a high prevalence of low vitamin D status. Given the well documented associations linking poor vitamin D status to adverse health outcomes (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, all-cause mortality), a proper...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environm...
Article
Introduction Structural valve degeneration (SVD) leads to the failure of aortic valve bioprostheses. It is suspected that lipid-derived factors could play a role in SVD. We hypothesised that oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), OxLDL/LDL, OxLDL/high-density lipoprotein (OxLDL/HDL) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) may be ass...
Article
IntroductionObesity is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV). Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, is generally associated with increases in body mass. PurposeTo assess whether the gain in body mass and adiposity expected from rosiglitazone treatment has an influence on HRV in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. M...
Article
Rationnel L'accumulation de tissu adipeux (TA) visceral est fortement associee au diabete de type 2 et aux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Il a ete suggere qu'au-dela de son volume, la densite du TA (attenuation mesuree par tomodensitometrie (TDM)) pourrait aussi influencer le profil de risque cardiometabolique (CM). L'objectif de cette etude...
Article
Full-text available
Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public. This paper summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of milk in a balanced, healthy diet. The evidence to date suggest...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses...
Data
Postprandial correlations of GLP-1 and GLP-2. Correlations between GLP-1 and GLP-2 AUC (A) after OGTT (r = 0.52; p<0.001) and (B) after fat-rich meal (r = 0.56; p<0.001). (PDF)
Data
Postprandial responses of incretins. Correlations for each incretin response between the fat-rich meal and the OGTT. (A) GLP-1 (r = 0.73; p<0.001), (B) GLP-2 (r = 0.46; p<0.001) and (C) GIP (r = 0.69; p<0.001) measured after the fat-rich meal correlated significantly with the respective measurement after the OGTT. (PDF)
Data
Postprandial responses after a fat-rich meal. After the fat-rich meal, significant changes in TRL parameters were observed. Stars indicate significant changes compared to baseline. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***<0.001. (PDF)
Data
Postprandial responses after fat-rich meal. Spearman correlation coefficients between postprandial TRL AUCs and Insulin AUC, Glucose AUC, fasting adiponectin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***<0.001. (PDF)
Data
Plasma TG and apoB48 concentrations after the fat-rich meal. A more rapid increase in apoB48 compared to TG is evident. Data show mean ± SEM. (PDF)
Article
Obesity is currently one of the greatest public health issues worldwide. However, despite its known deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system and its association with numerous cardiovascular diseases (CVD), recent findings leading to the development of concepts such as metabolically healthy obesity, the obesity paradox, and protective subcut...
Article
Full-text available
Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies, brings together the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and presents them in its Heart Disease...
Article
Objective: To assess the ability of CT-derived measurements including adipose tissue attenuation and area to predict fat cell hypertrophy and related cardiometabolic risk. Methods: Abdominal adipose tissue areas and radiologic attenuation were assessed using 4 CT images in 241 women (age: 47 years, BMI: 26.5 kg/m(2)). Fat cell weight was measure...