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Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel

Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) · LAMPEA, Aix Marseille Univ, Aix-en-Provence, France

1984 D.Sc. Biology-Genetics, U Paris VII (advisors : J Hiernaux and JM Lalouel)

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October 2016 - present
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Managing Director
October 2016 - May 2017
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (99)
Chapter
Full-text available
Modeling approach, simulation and experimental scenarios: the LBK colonization of temperate Europe (5550-950 BC) A modelling approach is presented in which archaeological data on the first farmers in Central-Western Europe (the LBK, 5550-4950 BC), are cross-analysed with the corresponding environmental data, at a geographical scale of 1.9 million k...
Article
This study compares the adult survivorship profiles of people interred in the Saint-Thomas d’Aizier leprosarium, estimated by cementochronology, to eight archaeological series in northern France dated from Late Antiquity to the Late Middle Ages, periods of significant visibility for Hansen's disease (leprosy). The goals are to understand the impact...
Chapter
Full-text available
A modelling approach is presented in which archaeological data on the first farmers in central and western Europe, called the Linearbandkeramik (LBK; 5600–4900 cal BC), are cross-analysed with the corresponding environmental data. The purpose of this approach is to reconstruct the geographical expansion and subsequent dissolution of the LBK culture...
Article
One of the continuing problems in paleopathology and paleoepidemiology is an inability to accurately age adult skeletons. Accurate age estimations are critical to the proper evaluation of population health and are necessary in circumventing certain aspects of the osteological paradox. Cementochronology is most likely the only age indicator in anthr...
Article
Full-text available
ThisarticleoffersacriticalreviewofpopulationestimatesfortheNeanderthalmetapopulationbasedon(paleo-)biological,archaeological,climatic,andgeneticdata.WhatdothesedatatellusaboutputativeNeanderthalde-mography?Biologicaldatasuggestasimilardemographicframe(life-historytraits,suchaspotentialmaximumlongevity,ageatmenarche,anddurationofgestation)betweenNea...
Article
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Correction: Due to an error at the printer, the original article page range (551–552) was incorrect. The correct pagination is 553–554 and is reflected in this updated article. Click here for the corrected PDF. In his work on quantitative systematics, Robert Reuven Sokal introduced the idea of spatialization in the late 1970s. After his studies on...
Article
Full-text available
An abrupt increase in fertility has been recorded in data from 200 cemeteries and ethnographic data ranging from the Meso-Neolithic Eurasian center in the Levant to the arctic circle in the North American continent in the twentieth century AD. This shift has been called, synonymously, the Neolithic demographic transition or the agricultural demogra...
Conference Paper
A priori, la nature des sols et leur potentiel agronomique sont un des facteurs explicatifs de la répartition des implantations humaines. Mais faire le lien entre les caractéristiques des sols et ces implantations est délicat. La reconstitution de l’état des sols du passé est un exercice difficile lorsqu’on s’adresse à des échelles de temps pluri-m...
Article
Full-text available
During the economic transition from foraging to farming, the signal of a major demographic shift can be observed in cemetery data of world archaeological sequences. This signal is characterized by an abrupt increase in the proportion of juvenile skeletons and is interpreted as the signature of a major demographic shift in human history, known as th...
Article
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The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets....
Article
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A model adapted to a general linear model of phenotypic transmission (two components: (1) genetic additive, (2) cultural [age at marriage]) has been used to analyse the familial correlations of fertility (number of children) born before the demographic transition at Arthez d'Asson (Béarn, 1744–1889). The model is rejected: x2 = 55·7 with 6 d.f. In...
Article
Full-text available
Using a database of 499 archaeological assemblages from 332 sites in Europe, we statistically test a model of the economic reactivity of the hunter-gatherer production system to climatic variations. This model predicts an increase in the diversity of lithic tools during harsh cold periods, in order to maintain carrying capacity, and a reduction dur...
Article
The spread of early farming in Europe is revisited using a sample of 3072 audited 14C calBC dates from 940 georeferenced early Neolithic sites. The surface expansion of early Neolithic has been reconstituted using the kriging technique of spatial interpolation. Centres of renewed expansion, of contact zones, and the main routes of expansion have be...
Article
Full-text available
Maize agriculture was practiced in the U.S. Southwest slightly before 2000 B. C, but had a negligible impact on population growth rates until the development or introduction of more productive landraces; the ability to successfully cultivate maize under a greater variety of conditions, with dry farming especially important; the addition of beans, s...
Article
Full-text available
Maize agriculture was practiced in the U.S. Southwest slightly before 2000 B.C., but had a negligible impact on population growth rates until the development or introduction of more productive landraces; the ability to successfully cultivate maize under a greater variety of conditions, with dry farming especially important; the addition of beans, s...
Chapter
Full-text available
What were the consequences of Neolithic demographic transition on population’s health? The paradigmatic question asked by Mark Cohen 30 years ago is revisited: did biological stresses, which are indicators of a population’s well being, increase with the transition to agriculture? Data on four North American skeletal biological markers; dental carie...
Chapter
The written data used by demographers essentially cover the last five centuries. Since Homo Ergaster moved out of Africa around 1.8 million years ago and until the sub-contemporary periods, there is no data allowing us to reconstruct a demographic history that can be interpreted with the traditional tools of demography. If we want to be able to tac...
Chapter
Full-text available
The signal of a relatively abrupt increase, in the immature proportion of skeleton is observed in cemeteries during the foraging-farming transition. This signal is interpreted as the signature of a major demographic shift in human history, now known as the Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT). How can population growth be explained?’ Was populati...
Chapter
Full-text available
Three main questions are raised in this chapter. 1. The part of the signal of the NDT which is demographically identifiable, based on the proportion of the immature skeletons in cemeteries, shows that a baby-boom occurred and, beyond that, with the onset of the change in the economic system, a fertility transition towards high values also occurred....
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we test the prediction of a Neolithic demographic transition in the Levant, with palaeoanthropological data from 31 cemeteries. The demographic profile obtained is the same as the profile obtained for Europe and North Africa and for North America, with a significant increase of the 15P5 values when the new farming economy emerges (...
Book
Full-text available
Using cemetery data, it has been possible to identify the signature of a previously unknown demographic process associated with the transition from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural economy. Characterized by a dramatic increase in the birth rate, and consequently of the population growth rate, over a period of less than a millennium following th...
Article
Full-text available
Using paleoanthropological data from about 100 cemeteries in the Northern Hemisphere (Europe, North Africa. and North Arnerica). the signature of a previously unknown demographic shifi has been cletcct-ed, associated with the transition from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural economy. This shift is characterized by a dramiitic and abrupt increase...
Article
Full-text available
The signal of a major demographic change characterized by a relatively abrupt increase in the proportion of immature skeletons has been detected in a paleoanthropological database of 38 Mesolithic-Neolithic cemeteries from Europe and North Africa. From the Mesolithic to the Neolithic, the proportion of immature skeletons increases by 20-30% over a...
Article
Three databases (2961 georeferenced archeological sites, simulated climatic variables simulating a typical “warm” phase of the isotopic stage 3 (IOS3 project), and ethnographic of hunter–gatherers (HG)) were used to estimate the size, growth rate and kinetics of the metapopulation of HG during four periods of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. The si...
Article
Full-text available
A s signal of major demographic change was detected from a palaeoanthropologicaldatabase of 68 Meso-Neolithic cemeteries in Europe (reduced to 36 due to a sampling bias). The signal is characteriyed by a relatively abrupt change in the proportion of immature skeletons (aged 5-19 years), relative to all buried skeletons (5 years +). From the Meso to...
Article
This study begins by establishing a database of 68 European Mesolithic and Neolithic cemeteries (reduced to 36 due to a sampling bias), representing a sample of the space-time distribution of an unconventional kind of demographic evidence: the proportion of subadults between 5 and 19 years old in the sample of skeletons aged 5 or over. Its analysis...
Article
Full-text available
Une base de données de 68 nécropoles mésolithiques et néolithiques d'Europe (réduites à 36 à cause d'un biais d'échantillonnage) est mise en œuvre dans ce travail; elle représente un échantillon de la distribution spatiotemporelle d'une information démographique non conventionnelle: la proportion des immatures dans l'échantillon des squelettes. Son...
Article
Full-text available
The all-India trend rate of fertility change, since 1961, was obtained from kriged maps (reconstituted surfaces) of a fertility index drawn from the data of the four decennial censuses conducted between 1961 and 1991, at the district level. This rate is calculated as the relative variation of the fertility index between consecutive censuses. It act...
Article
Full-text available
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
A fertility index has been estimated which takes into account the space–time variations of mortality rates of children and women and the different fertility rates of women across age groups. The basic data are the recorded frequencies at district level for four decennial census dates (1961 to 1991) of children aged 0–4 years and women aged 15–49 ye...
Article
Full-text available
Many questions regarding the initial invasion of Europe by modern humans and the replacement of the Neanderthals lack the basic parameters allowing proper correlation of the process. If the east-west geographical direction is not in question, other questions still include: Which route(s) did the invasion take? How fast did it occur? How did the geo...
Article
After 40 kyr , the distribution of archaeological sites shows that the occupation of the western-European peninsula, at the north of the Alpine arc, has the appearance of nodes of concentration, separated by vast zones which are either empty or with a negligible population density. The populational kinetics of the hunter–gatherers in this vast area...
Article
Age distributions of the Atapuerca (SH) (MNI=32) and Krapina (average MNI=23·5) hominid assemblages differ markedly from that of the pooled Neanderthals. Three out of six statistical tests imply both assemblages resulted from catastrophe while for the remaining three no decision can be made due to the very small size of the age samples in the age-c...
Book
Full-text available
The social sciences have traditionally developed independently of each other, elaborating their own objects of study and their own methods.At present, however, we are witnessing an increasing convergence of approach at the same time as an extension of their fields of application. Methods derived from the same type of statistical model are now being...
Article
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Plusieurs modes de diffusion de la contraception sont possibles : verticale (sociale), horizontale (geographique) ou les deux (oblique). Presque tous les auteurs, partisans d'une diffusion au cours de la transition demographique en Europe, utilisent ce terme dans le sens de diffusion verticale. Dans cet article on reexamine la nature de la diffusio...
Article
Contraception can be diffused according to several modes: vertical (social), horizontal (geographically) or both (oblique). Most authors subscribing to a view of a diffusion at the start of the European fertility transition use the term in the sense of a vertical diffusion. This article reexamines the nature of the diffusion, by testing the hypothe...
Article
Two new techniques-one anthropological, which estimates the mean age at death for adult skeletons, the other demographic, which gives main survivorship curve parameters-are used on a sample of skeletons (N approximately 170) discovered in a Neolithic rock-cut chamber (Loisy-en-Brie, France). The iterative technique for aging used a stochastic sampl...
Book
Full-text available
Si, dans le passé, les sciences sociales se sont constituées indépendamment les unes des autres, avec leur propre objet d'étude et leurs méthodes particulières, on observe actuellement une convergence croissante de leurs approches et une extension de leur domaine. Ainsi les méthodes issues du même type de modèle statistique, sont aussi bien utilisé...
Article
From parent populations (N = 50,000) stochastically generated, representing different levels of correlation (r) between the age at death and a hypothetical biological indicator (r = 0.8-0.98), reference samples and target demographic samples are randomly drawn. Two iterative techniques, proportional fitting procedure and Bayesian, are used to estim...
Article
Full-text available
Resume. — En 1978, une reunion de la Societe ď Anthropologie de Paris (S. A.P.) met en evidence la persistance d'une conception europeenne continentale de l'anthropologie biologique. Elle se caracterise par une forte influence de la raciologie et l'ignorance de la biologie et de la genetique des populations. En 1980, pour le centieme anniversaire d...
Article
L'analyse Wombling est une technique statistique destinee a reperer les zones de changements abrupts pour une ou plusieurs variables superposees dans un meme repere geographique. Afin de quantifier la diffusion spatiale de l'information, trois variables ont ete prises en compte dans cette etude : le taux de migration, la frequence des mariages entr...
Article
Full-text available
The isolation by distance model is both a population process and a surface model. In this model the surface is, on average, flat in every direction. By contrast, probably most observed genetic surfaces exhibit trends generated by complex long-distance populational processes. When one estimates the parameters of a Malécot-Morton equation for those s...
Article
Full-text available
Le modèle TAU de transmission phénotypique a été utilisé pour analyser les corrélations familiales (familles nucléaires et familles élargies) de la longévité à Arthez d'Asson (individus nés entre 1686 et 1899). A la naissance, la transmissibilité (t2) est très faible: 0,103. A 20 ans, t2=0,167; à 50 ans, t2=0,294. La ressemblance entre germains est...
Article
Full-text available
The Tau model of phenotypic transmission has been used to analyze the familial correlations (nuclear families and extended families) of longevity at Arthez d'Asson (individuals born between 1686 and 1899). At birth, the transmissibility (t2) is very weak: 0.103; at 20 years old, t2 = 0.167; at 50 years old, t2 = 0.294. The effect of sibling environ...
Article
Full-text available
Geographic variation trends are often quite complex and consist of variation at different spatial scales. In such cases an analysis of spatial structure by spatial autocorrelation analysis is confounded by this intermixing of different scales. Trend surface analysis (TSA) or canonical trend surface analysis (CTSA) offer ways of overcoming this prob...
Article
Full-text available
The correlogram analysis of the stature of 241 adult skeletons burried at Tac (Roman time Period, IVth century AD, Hungary') shows that individuals were not burried at random. A criteria of dependency between individuals (or criterion) was performed, within a 2 m radius. Two non-exclusive hypotheses deserve to be mentioned as far as the nature of d...
Article
Resume. — Les methodes bayesiennes d'attribution de parente sont etendues au cas ou l'on dispose de donnees quantitatives. L'efficacite de la methode est etudiee en fonction du nombre de caracteres disponibles, des differentes hypotheses que l'on peut formuler quant a leur determinisme genetique et en fonction du choix de la probabilite a priori. L...
Article
The demographical analysis of small populations suggests that small populations, because they are subject to random fluctuations, particularly of the sex ratio, can only avoid extinction by means of a high migratory flow. The migratory flow (about 11% for a group of 20 individuals, 7% for 50 individuals) involves interpopulational gene flow and cul...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studies of interpopulation differences in non-metric morphological characters (also termed “discrete” and “epigenetic”) of the skeleton raise problems which are both biological and statistical.
Article
Aging is based upon a good correlation between biological features (cranial sutures, pubic symphysis, humeral and femoral heads, osteons) and age. However it is not possible to estimate the structure of deaths of skeletal population if the correlation coefficient (r or multiple-R) between biologicla characteristics and age is lower than 0·9. None o...
Article
Resume. — La structure de la mortalite archaique d'Homo sapiens sapiens, combinee a un taux d'accroissement naturel qui fut probablement modere, implique un nombre moyen d'enfants par femme, de l'ordre de 4,5 - 6 enfants, c'est-a-dire inferieur a celui des estimations courantes. Il est interessant de constater que ce nombre est du meme ordre de gra...
Article
Resume. — Le vieillissement de l'os cortical de l'humerus observe a partir d'une population de squelettes se manifeste par une diminution de l'epaisseur corticale et un agrandissement du diametre transversal de la diaphyse. L'epaisseur corticale diminue en deux phases chez la femme, la premiere a 45-65 ans, la seconde a 75 ans ; en une seule phase...
Article
Full-text available
Depuis l'étude célèbre de l'anthropologue américain E. A. Hooton en 1930 sur la mortalité des Indiens de Pecos Pueblos, des dizaines de travaux de paléodémographie ont été publiés, couvrant toutes les périodes de l'histoire humaine, de l'archanthropus d'Asie jusqu'au Moyen Age d'Europe centrale. Il nous a semblé intéressant de commenter une table d...