Jean Pierre Ometto

Jean Pierre Ometto
National Institute for Space Research, Brazil | inpe · Center for Earth Systems Science

About

285
Publications
105,957
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8,209
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2003 - March 2006
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (285)
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen pollution is one of Brazil's most threatening and challenging environmental problems, caused mainly by productive activities aimed at meeting the demand of food, energy, and housing by a fast-growing population. Sustainable nitrogen management involves optimizing the beneficial effects of reactive nitrogen (Nr) use and, at the same time, m...
Article
Soil nitrogen dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems can be evaluated by analyzing the natural abundances of N isotope ratio mass spectrometry (δ¹⁵N) because δ¹⁵N integrates decades of organic matter transformations in the soil. On a large scale, the δ¹⁵N of soil organic matter across climate gradients may provide critical insights into understanding r...
Article
Full-text available
The Amazon region in Brazil contains c. 30% of the palm species of the world. However, palm cover at macroecological scales has not yet been quantified in this biome. Here, we used high spatial resolution LiDAR data, acquired from 610 flightlines over the Brazilian Amazon, to map canopy palm cover for the first time using a deep learning approach....
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., β-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance...
Chapter
Tropical ecosystems store large amounts of carbon (e.g., tropical forests, peatlands); however, the high rates of ecosystem conversion due to intense land use and land cover changes lead to significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. Additionally, forest degradation, such as unmanaged timber harvest and forest fires, account...
Article
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More and more, wildfires are raging in large parts of the world due to a warmer climate, more frequent and severe droughts, and continued land-use changes. In Brazil, the weakening of public environmental policies has further aggravated wildfires with widespread impacts across the country. Here, we investigated the determinants of the impact of fir...
Article
Tropical forest degradation (e.g., anthropogenic disturbances such as selective logging and fires) alters forest structure and function and influences the forest's carbon sink. In this study, we explored structure-function relationships across a variety of degradation levels in the southern Brazilian Amazon by 1) investigating how forest structural...
Article
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Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest-growing food production systems globally, and shrimp is considered one of the most highly valued products. Our study area is the lower Jaguaribe River sub-basin (LJRSB), located in the northeastern part of Ceará in Brazil. The aquaculture activity in this area began in the early 1990s and is currently one...
Preprint
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Geodetic landmarks (GLs) are essential for obtaining the precise height, horizontal coordinates, and the Earth's gravity field. Once physically implanted on the surface, they are susceptible to movement and displacement. This study aims to assess the soil susceptibility of GLs for past and future scenarios through the Revised Soil Loss Equation (RU...
Article
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Brazil is a powerhouse in terms of water resources, which are instrumental to the country’s transition to sustainability. However, to realize this potential, substantial management and conservation hurdles must first be overcome. We propose a novel strategy for the use, management, and conservation of Brazilian water resources. Our approach recogni...
Article
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(1) Background: Forests throughout the world are managed to fulfil a range of commercial and ecosystem services. The same applies to managed areas of the Amazon forest. We explore a method of sustainable forest management (SFM) which anticipates the result of processes of natural mortality of large, mature trees that could fall and damage their nei...
Article
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Identification of terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is critical for understanding the Earth system as well as mitigating and adapting to climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions. Predicting whether a given location will act as a C source or sink using terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) is challenging due to net flux being the...
Chapter
Full-text available
This Report provides a comprehensive, objective, open, transparent, systematic, and rigorous scientific assessment of the state of the Amazon’s ecosystems, current trends, and their implications for the long-term well-being of the region, as well as opportunities and policy relevant options for conservation and sustainable development.
Chapter
Full-text available
This Report provides a comprehensive, objective, open, transparent, systematic, and rigorous scientific assessment of the state of the Amazon’s ecosystems, current trends, and their implications for the long-term well-being of the region, as well as opportunities and policy relevant options for conservation and sustainable development.
Article
The side effect of the expansion of agricultural activities in the Brazilian Cerrado resulted in a loss of its native vegetation, biodiversity decline, and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Recent expansion has mainly occurred in the northern Cerrado, a region known as MATOPIBA, which is the latest agricultural frontier in Brazil and is largely...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed mass balance that evaluates nutrient inputs and outputs is fundamental to determining the most promising strategies to mitigate eutrophication and its undesirable effects. However, such analyses are rare in Brazilian urban ponds where water quality impairment remains a significant issue. We performed a mass balance to identify the main p...
Article
Full-text available
The urban population increase in the world, the economic expansion, and the rise in living standards associated with society’s habits and lifestyles accelerated the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in undeveloped countries, such as in Brazil, in which the generation increased by 25% from 2012 to 2017. In the same period, the São Paulo state,...
Article
The production of biofuels is inextricably linked with the water-energy-food-land (WEFL) nexus. Understanding these linkages is necessary to formulate effective policies that can influence positive outcomes and contribute to the realization of long-term economic, environmental, and social goals. The use of biofuels can help achieve the United Natio...
Conference Paper
Two new NASA spaceborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) missions launched in late 2018 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) and the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) produce a new set of three dimensional data of Earth’s land surface. In this study we assessed the accuracy and precision of terrain and canopy he...
Article
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By analyzing 6,480 tree leaf samples from 57 sites within Brazilian biomes, we considered whether vegetation types in terrestrial ecosystems reflect biogeochemical diversity and whether they fit into a leaf economics spectrum (LES). To achieve this, we investigated the relations among leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, their isotope n...
Article
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The initial online publication contained typesetting mistakes in the author information. The original article has been corrected.
Article
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Reducing the impacts of agriculture on the environment is one of the greatest challenges of this century. In Brazil, it is often argued that more land use change is needed to achieve food security. However, analyses seeking to understand the dynamics between agricultural production for exports and food intended for the Brazilian population have not...
Preprint
Full-text available
Canopy gaps are openings in the forest canopy resulting from branch fall and tree mortality events. Light reaches the lower layers of the canopy through these gaps, enabling understory trees to grow and maintaining the high heterogeneity and biodiversity of tropical forests. The size-frequency distribution of canopy gaps follows a power-law distrib...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identification of terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is critical for understanding the earth system and to mitigate and adapt to climate change results from greenhouse gas emissions. Predicting whether a given location will act as a C source or sink using terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) is challenging due to net flux being the difference...
Article
The expansion of agricultural activities in Brazil resulted in a loss of approximately 50% of the native vegetation of the Cerrado biome, mainly to the north of the biome in a region known as MATOPIBA. Besides contributing to accelerate climate change, the removal of native vegetation is associated with increase soil degradation. In this study, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances, i.e., β-diversity, is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional turnover in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distances. We p...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural systems play a key role in achieving many of the Sustainable Development. Goals, established by the United Nations, given the current challenge of producing enough food to feed a global population that is expected to reach 10 billion people by 2050. More efficient and sustainable use of nutrients in agriculture is an important step to...
Article
Full-text available
We report large-scale estimates of Amazonian gap dynamics using a novel approach with large datasets of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), including five multi-temporal and 610 single-date lidar datasets. Specifically, we (i) compared the fixed height and relative height methods for gap delineation and established a relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) increasing in the world is a direct consequence of population and consumption growth. Each year more and more MSW is generated, which needs to be correctly collected and transported. This MSW management stage addresses the collection and transportation of waste from cities to a landfill and is one of the steps that m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical forest degradation (e.g., selective logging and fires) alters forest structure and function, increases structural heterogeneity and may affect the forest’s ability to efficiently harvest light for photosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of structural variables to solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) measured over i...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive nitrogen has both positive and negative effects on environment and human health. The use of nitrogen fertilization enabled raising crops and livestock to feed an increasing world population, but at the same time resulted in a succession of unwanted impacts occurring through air, soil, and water, with detrimental consequences for all mankin...
Article
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Background: Tropical forests play a fundamental role in the provision of diverse ecosystem services, such as biodiversity, climate and air quality regulation, freshwater provision, carbon cycling, agricultural support and culture. To understand the role of forests in the carbon balance, aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates are needed. Given the impo...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon (C) emissions from forest fires in the Amazon during extreme droughts may correspond to more than half of the global emissions resulting from land cover changes. Despite their relevant contribution, forest fire-related C emissions are not directly accounted for within national-level inventories or carbon budgets. A fundamental condition for...
Chapter
The activities related to the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) Latin America Regional Centre started in the early 2000s, in association with the international actions within the nitrogen (N) field. The office in Latin America was proposed in the context of broad global and local environmental changes and the agricultural need for nutrient ad...
Chapter
Human interference with the nitrogen cycle has doubled reactive nitrogen inputs to the global biosphere over the past century, leading to changes across multiple environmental issues that require urgent action. Nitrogen fertilizers and biological nitrogen fixation have allowed benefits of increased crop harvest and livestock production, while in so...
Article
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Urgent sustainability challenges require effective leadership for inter- and trans-disciplinary (ITD) institutions. Based on the diverse experiences of 20 ITD institutional leaders and specific case studies, this article distills key lessons learned from multiple pathways to building successful programs. The lessons reflect both the successes and f...
Article
Tall trees are key drivers of ecosystem processes in tropical forest, but the controls on the distribution of the very tallest trees remain poorly understood. The recent discovery of grove of giant trees over 80 meters tall in the Amazon forest requires a reevaluation of current thinking. We used high-resolution airborne laser surveys to measure ca...
Article
Peatlands are carbon‐rich ecosystems that cover 185‐423 million hectares of the earth’s surface. The majority of the world’s peatlands are in temperate and boreal zones, whereas tropical ones cover only a total area of 90‐170 million hectares. However, there are still considerable uncertainties in C stock estimates as well as a lack of information...
Article
Full-text available
Forest degradation is widespread around the world, due to multiple factors such as unsustainable logging, agriculture, invasive species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. In the Brazilian Amazon forest degradation from August 2006 to July 2016 reached 1,1 869 800 ha. The processes of forest degradation are still poorly understood, be...
Article
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Several studies have presented morphometric analysis as the key to understanding hydrological behavior or support tool for the assessment of natural resources and environmental risks in a river basin. The Rio Grande Basin has great socioeconomic and environmental relevance for Brazil; however, its morphometric characterization is not widely known....
Article
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One of the most crucial parts of solid waste management is determining landfill site location, since multiple factors must be considered and there is no universal formula. The main purpose of this study is to make a worldwide systematic review of restriction criteria used for landfill siting using geographic information systems (GIS). Literature fr...
Article
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The tropical savanna in Brazil known as the Cerrado covers circa 23% of the Brazilian territory, but only 3% of this area is protected. High rates of deforestation and degradation in the woodland and forest areas have made the Cerrado the second-largest source of carbon emissions in Brazil. However, data on these emissions are highly uncertain beca...
Article
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) supports terrestrial primary productivity and plays key roles in mediating human-induced changes in global nitrogen (N) and carbon cycling. However, there are still critical uncertainties in our understanding of the amount of BNF occurring across terrestrial ecosystems, and of how terrestrial BNF will respond to g...
Preprint
Full-text available
Os fatores que moldam a distribuição das árvores tropicais gigantes são pouco compreendidos, apesar destes indivíduos serem elo entre a biologia evolutiva e biogeoquímica do ecossistema. A descoberta recente de árvores com mais de 80 metros de altura na região do Escudo da Guiana na floresta amazônica desafia o entendimento atual dos fatores que co...
Article
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The climate change projections for the Caatinga biome this century are for an increase in temperature and reduction in rainfall, leading to aridization and plant cover dominated by Cactaceae. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., a cactus that is native to the Caatinga biome, consid...
Preprint
Full-text available
The factors shaping the distribution of giant tropical trees are poorly understood, despite its importance as a link between evolutionary biology and ecosystem biogeochemistry. The recent discovery of clusters of trees over 80 metres tall in the Guiana Shield region of the Amazon rainforest challenges the current understanding of the factors contro...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate land use planning is one of the main driving forces leading to the occurrence of erosion and environmental degradation. The negative impacts of poor planning influence soil physical quality and fertility, agricultural productivity, water quality and availability, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. In some areas, actual land use i...
Article
Estimates of nitrogen deposition play a key role in better understanding the human impacts on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. This paper examines the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere and the average dry deposition in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The Nr species that were measured were in the gaseous (NO2, NH3 and HNO3)...