Jean O'Dwyer

Jean O'Dwyer
University College Cork | UCC · School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences

BSc, PhD; Environmental Science; PGCert; Teaching

About

100
Publications
124,894
Reads
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605
Citations
Introduction
Deputy Head of Environmental Science in the School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences at University College Cork. Principal Investigator and Co-Lead of the Water and Environment Research Group at the Environmental Research Institute. Deputy Director/Head of Environmental Geoscience at the SFI funded Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geoscience.
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - present
University College Cork
Position
  • Lecturer
February 2018 - present
University College Cork
Position
  • Principal Investigator
October 2017 - February 2018
University of Limerick
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2017 - January 2018
University of Limerick
Field of study
  • Teaching, Learning and Scholarship
September 2011 - August 2015
University of Limerick
Field of study
  • Environment and Health Science
September 2006 - June 2011
University of Limerick
Field of study
  • Environmental Science

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
Complex, multihazard risks such as private groundwater contamination necessitate multiannual risk reduction actions including seasonal, weather-based hazard evaluations. In the Republic of Ireland (ROI), high rural reliance on unregulated private wells renders behavior promotion a vital instrument toward safeguarding household health from waterborn...
Article
Groundwater is a vital drinking water resource and its protection from microbiological contamination is paramount to safeguard public health. The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is characterised by the highest incidence of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) enteritis in the European Union (EU), linked to high reliance on unregulated groundwater so...
Article
Full-text available
Flooding events can inflict major disruption on society and cause significant infrastructural and environmental damage. However, the adverse health impacts of flooding, particularly as they pertain to private groundwater resources used for consumption, are frequently overlooked. Whilst the literature has previously found a lack of well stewardship...
Presentation
Approximately 16% of the Irish population is served by private wells, with appropriate treatment, periodic testing and structural inspections thus vital to safeguard rural Irish homeowners from supply contamination and consequent adverse health impacts. Recent national research has reported low levels of supply “stewardship” and harmful socio‐ hydr...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) impose a substantial health and socioeconomic burden on exposed populations. Projected impacts on public health, based on increasing EWE frequencies since the 1950s, alongside evidence of human-mediated climatic change represents a growing concern. To date, the impacts of EWEs on mental health remain ambiguous, largely...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding patient progression from symptomatic COVID-19 infection to a severe outcome represents an important tool for improved diagnoses, surveillance, and triage. A series of models have been developed and validated to elucidate hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in patients from the Republic of Ireland....
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland regularly reports the highest annual crude incidence rates of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coil (STEC) enteritis in the European Union, with approximately ten times the European mean CIR. This study investigated spatiotemporal patterns of STEC enteritis in Ireland using multiple statistical tools. Overall, 2,755 cases...
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland regularly reports the highest annual crude incidence rates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enteritis in the European Union, ≈10 times the average. We investigated spatiotemporal patterns of STEC enteritis in Ireland using multiple statistical tools. Overall, we georeferenced 2,755 cases of infection during J...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ireland frequently reports the highest annual Crude Incidence Rates (CIRs) of cryptosporidiosis in the EU, with national CIRs up to ten times the EU average. Accordingly, the current study sought to examine the spatiotemporal trends associated with this potentially severe protozoan infection. Methods Overall, 4509 cases of infection fro...
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland (ROI) currently reports the highest incidence rates of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enteritis and cryptosporidiosis in Europe, with the spatial distribution of both infections exhibiting a clear urban/rural divide. To date, no investigation of the role of socio-demographic profile on the incidence of either...
Article
Full-text available
Background To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction inc...
Article
Full-text available
Risk communication represents the optimal instrument for decreasing the incidence of private groundwater contamination and associated waterborne illnesses. However, despite attempts to promote voluntary well maintenance in high groundwater-reliant regions such as the Republic of Ireland, awareness levels of supply status (e.g. structural integrity)...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key contaminants of concern, how they can be prevented/managed, and how to successfully communicate with and support supply owners
Article
Full-text available
A significant volume of research over the past two decades has highlighted both direct and indirect links between climate change and groundwater quality. However, to date, few studies have sought to explore the relationship(s) between drought conditions and groundwater quality in i) private (unregulated) groundwater sources, or ii) temperate mariti...
Article
Full-text available
During a 6-week period in November and December 2015, a series of Atlantic Storms swept across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) causing widespread pluvial and fluvial flooding. Flooding was particularly severe in the west and midlands, with rainfall up to 200% above normal in many regions, making it the wettest winter ever recorded. While the infrastr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction inc...
Preprint
Background: Understanding patient progression from symptomatic COVID-19 infection to a severe outcome represents an important tool for improved diagnoses, surveillance, and triage. A series of models have been developed and validated to elucidate hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in patients from the Republic...
Article
Extreme weather events (EWEs) may significantly increase pathogenic contamination of private (unregulated) groundwater supplies. However, due to the paucity of protective guidance, private well users may be ill-equipped to undertake adaptive actions. With rising instances of waterborne illness documented in groundwater-dependent, developed regions...
Preprint
To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction increases and...
Chapter
Over 720,000 people in the Republic of Ireland rely on private groundwater resources (i.e. private wells) for daily consumption, and as these extractions are unregulated, users are solely responsible for managing/mitigating contamination risks to their supplies. However, low levels of exposure to appropriate guidance on well water protection and on...
Article
Full-text available
Background Geocoding (the process of converting a text address into spatial data) quality may affect geospatial epidemiological study findings. No national standards for best geocoding practice exist in Ireland. Irish postcodes (Eircodes) are not routinely recorded for infectious disease notifications and > 35% of dwellings have non-unique addresse...
Article
The frequency and severity of flooding events will increase over the coming decades due to global climate change. While close attention has typically been paid to infrastructural and environmental outcomes of flood events, the potential adverse human health consequences associated with post-event consumption from private groundwater sources have re...
Conference Paper
Global climate change models predict significant increases in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including the occurrence of prolonged drought conditions, thus posing a unique set of challenges for regions traditionally unaccustomed to severe climatic phenomena. This is particularly notable regarding the occurrence of drought per...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Groundwater is the primary drinking water source for approximately 2.2 billion people worldwide and over 750,000 in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Hence, it is critical to ensure that groundwater resources are protected and of acceptable drinking quality. However, poor maintenance, inappropriate well location and a historical lack of regulation has...
Article
Full-text available
Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) are important agents of diarrhoeal disease in humans globally. As a noted waterborne disease, emphasis has been given to the study VTEC in surface waters, readily susceptible to microbial contamination. Conversely, the status of VTEC in potable groundwater sources, generally regarded as a “safe” drinking-water...
Presentation
Prize winner presentation for the School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science's bronze Delap prize award to the best peer-reviewed academic paper by a registered/recently graduated postgraduate student.
Conference Paper
Over 720,000 people in the Republic of Ireland rely on private groundwater resources (i.e. private wells) for daily consumption, and as these extractions are unregulated, users are solely responsible for managing/mitigating contamination risks to their supplies. However, low levels of exposure to appropriate guidance on well water protection and on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmentally associated infectious diseases, including those driven by extreme weather events, represent a critical challenge for public health as their source and transmission are frequently sporadic and associated mechanisms often not well understood. Over the past decade, the Republic of Ireland (ROI) has persistently reported the highest inc...
Poster
Full-text available
Global climate change models predict an increase in both the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including prolonged drought conditions, thus posing a unique set of challenges for regions traditionally unaccustomed to severe climate phenomena. This is particularly significant for the occurrence of severe drought events in areas charac...
Poster
Full-text available
Approximately 500 million Europeans use a groundwater source for water consumption on a daily basis. Private (unregulated) groundwater wells are key sources of domestic drinking water in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) with approximately 750,000 users. The distribution of groundwater wells in the ROI is highly concentrated in rural areas in correspon...
Article
The mechanisms of private-well groundwater contamination are uniquely complex, necessitating a multisector communicative approach to risk management, premised on behaviour promotion. In countries such as the Republic of Ireland (ROI), characterised by oftentimes high groundwater contamination risk and concurrently limited user awareness, incorporat...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme weather events including flooding can have severe personal, infrastructural, and economic consequences, with recent evidence pointing to surface flooding as a pathway for the microbial contamination of private groundwater supplies. There is a pressing need for increasingly focused information and awareness campaigns to highlight the risks p...
Article
Full-text available
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal illness and mortality induced by protozoan pathogens worldwide. As a largely waterborne disease, emphasis has been given to the study of Cryptosporidium spp. in surface waters, readily susceptible to pathogenic contamination. Conversely, the status of Cryptosporidium in potable groundwate...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite its importance as one of the most extracted raw materials worldwide, groundwater remains the least understood element of the water cycle. Compounding this, historical lack of regulation has resulted in a large proportion of private groundwater supplies being inappropriately located, designed, constructed and maintained, leaving consumers vu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Synthesis Report on FloodRisk2WellWater Project. The Irish Research Council and Geological Survey Ireland provided funding for this project under the remit of their Research for Policy and Society Programme 2016.
Article
Antimicrobial resistance represents one of our most significant global health threats, with increasing incidences noted in both clinical and environmental settings. As such, identifying and understanding the sources and pathways for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is critical. The current study presents the first systematic review and pooled...
Presentation
Antimicrobial resistance is a widely recognised global public health threat, with extensive evidence of its spread in and beyond clinical settings. However, relatively little is known of the role of the natural aquatic environment in its dissemination. Of particular concern is groundwater, the world’s largest reservoir of freshwater. Groundwater aq...
Article
Groundwater contamination constitutes a significant health risk for private well users residing in rural areas. As the responsibility to safeguard rural private domestic groundwater typically rests with non-expert homeowners, interventions promoting risk mitigation and awareness represent the most viable means of preventing supply contamination. Ho...
Article
Extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing in frequency, posing a greater risk of adverse human health effects. As such, developing sociological and psychological based interventions is paramount to empowering individuals and communities to actively protect their own health. Accordingly, this study compared the efficacy of two established social-...
Presentation
Background: Although considered a natural occurrence, the ecology of antibiotic resistance (AR) is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic pressures, triggering dangerously high levels of increasingly harder-to-treat infections. Accordingly, the World Health Organization has classified AR as one of the biggest threats to global health. This establish...
Presentation
Groundwater is the most extracted raw material worldwide and one of the least understood components of the water cycle. Thus, managing contamination threats to the subsurface is inherently challenging. Compounding this, groundwater supplies are potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance (AR), perhaps the most significant current threat to globa...
Article
Decreased funding and shifting governmental priorities have resulted in a contraction of hydrometric measurement in many regions over the past two decades. Moreover, concerns exist with respect to appropriate data usage and (transboundary) exchange, in addition to the compatibility and extent of existing hydrometric datasets. These issues are undou...
Presentation
Compared to other aquatic environments, groundwater is considered a “naturally” safe drinking resource. However, long residence times and low transmissivity commonly found in the subsurface may lead to ideal conditions for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) to thrive and for further resistance traits to emerge. This is globally significant as a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Climate change is and will continue to impact the global hydrological cycle, shifting patterns of rainfall frequency, intensity and duration, in addition to fluctuating watertables. As such, flood frequency and severity has increased in the Republic of Ireland (RoI), with recent events corroborating this. However, while substantial resources have b...
Article
Full-text available
The trouble with groundwater is that despite its critical importance to global water supplies, it frequently attracts insufficient management attention relative to more visible surface water sources, irrespective of regional climate, socioeconomic profile, and regulatory environment. To this end, the recently defined sub-discipline of “socio-hydrog...
Article
Private groundwater sources in the Republic of Ireland provide drinking water to an estimated 750,000 people or 16% of the national population. Consumers of untreated groundwater are at increased risk of infection from pathogenic microorganisms. However, given the volume of private wells in operation, remediation or even quantification of public ri...
Presentation
Full-text available
Antibiotic-resistant (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) organisms and genes are now acknowledged as significant emerging aquatic contaminants with potentially adverse human and ecological health impacts, and thus require monitoring. This study is the first to investigate levels of resistance among Irish groundwater (private wells) samples; Escherichia...