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Jean-Michel Heraud

Jean-Michel Heraud
Institut Pasteur de Dakar · Virology

Ph.D
- Implementing integrated surveillance of Rabies in Senegal - Set-up surveillance of viral encephalitis in Senegal

About

214
Publications
26,486
Reads
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4,138
Citations
Introduction
After working at INSERM, CNRS, Institut Pasteur (IP) de Guyane and then at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), I took position of head of the virology unit at IP Madagascar to coordinate Research in Virology, with a focus on emerging and zoonotic viruses; and to supervise public health and surveillance activities. I joined IP Dakar in September 2020 to develop new program on Rabies and viral encephalitis
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - April 2010
Institut Pasteur of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Position
  • Head of the Virology Unit
August 2007 - September 2009
Institute of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Position
  • Director of National Influenza Center
November 2004 - August 2007
National Cancer Institute (USA)
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
October 1999 - May 2004
Paris Diderot University
Field of study
  • Virology; Immunology; HTLV; Animal Model
October 1996 - June 1997
Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
Field of study
  • Pharmacokinetic
September 1995 - June 1996
IPBS - Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale
Field of study
  • Cellular and Molecular pharmacology

Publications

Publications (214)
Article
Henipaviruses include highly pathogenic emerging zoonotic viruses, derived from bat, rodent, and shrew reservoirs. Bat-borne Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) are the most well-known henipaviruses, for which no effective antivirals or vaccines for humans have been described.
Article
The island nation of Madagascar is home to three endemic species of Old World fruit bat in the family Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, and Rousettus madagascariensis, all three of which are IUCN Red Listed under some category of threat. Delineation of seasonal limits in the reproductive calendar for threatened mammals can inform con...
Article
To assess circulation of the Sabin 2 poliovirus vaccine strain in Madagascar after its withdrawal from the oral polio vaccine in April 2016, a reinforced poliovirus surveillance was implemented in three regions of Madagascar from January 2016 through December 2017. Environmental samples and stool specimens from healthy children were screened using...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 (DENV‐2) in Senegal, we analyzed nine newly generated complete genome of strains isolated during the 2018 outbreaks and 06 sequences obtained in 2018 and 2019 from Thiès and Rosso, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Senegalese strains belonged to the Cosmopolitan genotype...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to estimate the household secondary infection attack rate (hSAR) of SARS-CoV-2 in investigations aligned with the WHO Unity Studies Household Transmission Investigations (HHTI) protocol. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA 2020 guidelines. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and medRxiv/bi...
Preprint
The genus Henipavirus (family Paramyxoviridae ) is currently comprised of seven viruses, four of which have demonstrated prior evidence of zoonotic capacity. These include the biosafety level 4 agents Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses, which circulate naturally in pteropodid fruit bats. Here, we describe and characterize Angavokely virus (AngV),...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) represent a vulnerable population during epidemic periods. Our cohort study aimed to estimate the risk of infection and associated factors among HCWs during the first wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Madagascar. Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in th...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza virus types A and B are responsible for acute viral infections that affect annually 1 billion people, with 290,000 to 650,000 deaths worldwide. In this study, we investigated the circulation of influenza B viruses over a 10-year period (2010–2019). Specimens from patients suspected of influenza infection were collected. Influenza detectio...
Poster
Full-text available
This study provides a new insight from the literature, and unpublished data on field and laboratory work with the aims to help explain observed patterns of Ae. albopictus distribution, biology and its vector role in arbovirus transmission in Madagascar
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for health res...
Article
Full-text available
The burden of encephalitis and its associated viral etiology is poorly described in Africa. Moreover, neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly reported in many countries, but less so in Africa. Our prospective study aimed to characterize the main viral etiologies of patients hospitalized for encephalitis in two hospitals in Dakar. F...
Preprint
Full-text available
Investment in Africa over the past year with regards to SARS-CoV-2 genotyping has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, exceeding 100,000 genomes generated to track the pandemic on the continent. Our results show an increase in the number of African countries able to sequence within their own borders, coupled with a decrease in sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for health res...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for h...
Article
Responses to the early (February–July 2020) COVID-19 pandemic varied widely, globally. Reasons for this are multiple but likely relate to the healthcare and financial resources then available, and the degree of trust in, and economic support provided by, national governments. Cultural factors also affected how different populations reacted to the v...
Article
Full-text available
Some say that small is beautiful, and if beauty could be measured by levels of diversity and complexity, we could definitely say that viruses are beautiful [...]
Article
Full-text available
Bats are natural reservoirs for both Alpha - and Betacoronaviruses and the hypothesized original hosts of five of seven known zoonotic coronaviruses. To date, the vast majority of bat coronavirus research has been concentrated in Asia, though coronaviruses are globally distributed; indeed, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2-related Betacoronaviruses in the su...
Article
Despite the establishment of Rabies surveillance in animals and humans since 2008, there is a lack of data on its circulation, dynamic of transmission and real burden in Senegal. To better understand the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Senegal, we investigated the genetic diversity of eighteen new characterized Senegalese rabies virus seq...
Article
Full-text available
Background The lack of rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests that can distinguish a wide variety of respiratory pathogens at the point of care is an obstacle to the rapid implementation of control measures following events and epidemics. In addition, the absence of a standardized case definition to differentiate putative etiologies is a...
Article
Full-text available
As the national reference laboratory for febrile illness in Madagascar, we processed samples from the first epidemic wave of COVID-19, between March and September 2020. We fit generalized additive models to cycle threshold (Ct) value data from our RT-qPCR platform, demonstrating a peak in high viral load, low-Ct value infections temporally coincide...
Preprint
The island nation of Madagascar is home to three endemic species of Old World Fruit Bat in the family Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, and Rousettus madagascariensis, all three of which are IUCN Red Listed under some category of threat. To inform conservation efforts to model population viability for these threatened species, as wel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bats are natural reservoirs for both Alpha - and Betacoronaviruses and the hypothesized original hosts of five of seven known zoonotic coronaviruses. To date, the vast majority of bat coronavirus research has been concentrated in Asia, though coronaviruses are globally distributed; indeed, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2-related Betacoronaviruses in the su...
Article
Full-text available
The progression of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Africa has so far been heterogeneous and the full impact is not yet well understood. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology using a dataset of 8746 genomes from 33 African countries and two overseas territories. We show that the epidemics in most countries were initiated by importations predomina...
Article
Full-text available
The progression of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Africa has so far been heterogeneous and the full impact is not yet well understood. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology using a dataset of 8746 genomes from 33 African countries and two overseas territories. We show that the epidemics in most countries were initiated by importations predominantl...
Article
Full-text available
White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is the most devastating viral disease threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide, including Madagascar. WDS was first reported on the island in 2012; however, little is known about the circulation of the virus and its genetic diversity. Our study aimed at describing the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Households are among the highest risk for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In sub-Saharan Africa, very few studies have described household transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our work aimed to describe the epidemiologic parameters and analyze the secondary attack rate (SAR) in Antananarivo, Madagascar, following the introduction...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the national reference laboratory for febrile illness in Madagascar, we processed samples from the first epidemic wave of COVID-19, between March and September 2020. We fit generalized additive models to cycle threshold (Ct) value data from our RT-qPCR platform, demonstrating a peak in high viral load, low-Ct value infections temporally coincide...
Preprint
The incidence of several respiratory viral infections has been shown to be related to climate. Because humans spend most of their time indoors, measures of indoor climate, rather than outdoor climate, may be better predictors of disease incidence and transmission. Therefore, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor climate will hel...
Article
Full-text available
Background The incidence of the 2020 COVID-19 epidemic in Africa seems to be different from that of the rest of the world, however its true extent is probably underestimated. Conducting population based sero-surveys during the epidemic has moreover been extremely challenging, driving our group and others to study blood donor samples. Methods We co...
Article
The incidence of several respiratory viral infections has been shown to be related to climate. Because humans spend most of their time indoors, measures of indoor climate, rather than outdoor climate, may be better predictors of disease incidence and transmission. Therefore, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor climate will hel...
Article
Many childhood vaccines require multiple doses be delivered within a narrow time window to provide adequate protection and reduce disease transmission. Accurately quantifying vaccination coverage is complicated by limited individual-level data and multiple vaccination mechanisms (routine and supplementary vaccination programs). We analyzed 12,541 v...
Article
Full-text available
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an arbovirus belonging to the Phlebovirus genus of the Phenuiviridae family, causes the zoonotic and mosquito-borne RVF. The virus, which primarily affects livestock (ruminants and camels) and humans, is at the origin of recent major outbreaks across the African continent (Mauritania, Libya, Sudan), and in the South-...
Preprint
Full-text available
The progression of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Africa has so far been heterogeneous and the full impact is not yet well understood. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology using a dataset of 8746 genomes from 33 African countries and two overseas territories. We show that the epidemics in most countries were initiated by importations, predominant...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective at preventing human rabies deaths, however access to PEP is limited in many rabies endemic countries. The 2018 decision by Gavi to add human rabies vaccine to its investment portfolio should expand PEP availability and reduce rabies deaths. We explore how geographic access to PEP impa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne virus maintained through an arthropod-borne transmission cycle involving bird hosts and Culex mosquito species. The disease affects humans in North America, Europe, Africa and Indian Ocean islands including Madagascar. In Madagascar, despite the surveillance of WNV, unreported WNV encephalitis (WN...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Following the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in passengers arriving from Europe on 19 March 2020, Madagascar took several mitigation measures to limit the spread of the virus in the country. Methods: Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs were collected from travellers to Madagascar, suspected SARS-CoV-2 cases and contact of confir...
Preprint
Background: Following the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in passengers arriving from Europe on 19 March 2020, Madagascar took several mitigation measures to limit the spread of the virus in the country. Methods: Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs were collected from travellers to Madagascar, suspected SARS-CoV-2 cases, and contact of confirme...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Quantitative estimates of the impact of infectious disease outbreaks are required to develop measured policy responses. In many low-and middle-income countries, inadequate surveillance and incompleteness of death registration are important barriers. Design: Here, we characterize how large an impact on mortality would have to be to be d...
Article
Full-text available
Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease and remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the last decade, vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of pertussis. Yet, uncertainty in individual vaccination coverage and ineffective case surveillance systems make it difficult to estimate burden and the related qua...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID‐19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 continues to have a major impact on healthcare and social systems throughout the world. As the clinical and epidemiological features of COVID‐19 have many parallels with influenza, it is important to ensure optimal management of both respiratory diseases as we anticipate their continu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Quantitative estimates of the impact of infectious disease outbreaks are required to develop measured policy responses. In many low- and middle-income countries, inadequate surveillance and incompleteness of death registration are important barriers. Here, we characterize how large an impact on mortality would have to be to be detectable using the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective at preventing human rabies deaths, however access to PEP is limited in many rabies endemic countries. The 2018 decision by Gavi to add human rabies vaccine to its investment portfolio should expand PEP availability and reduce rabies deaths. We explore how geographic access to PEP impact...
Article
Full-text available
ANISE Network Working Group Member listed in Appendix 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Background: Influenza surveillance helps time prevention and control interventions especially where complex seasonal patterns exist. We assessed influenza surveillance sustainability in Africa her...
Article
Full-text available
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a leading cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and can be associated with severe neurological complications. EV-A71 strains can be classified into seven genogroups, A-H, on the basis of the VP1 capsid protein gene sequence. Genogroup A includes the prototype strain; genogroups B and C are responsible of major outb...
Article
Background Respiratory syncytial virus is the main cause of acute respiratory infections leading to a considerable morbidity and mortality among under-5 years children. A comprehensive scheme of RSV virus evolution is of great value in implementing effective universal RSV vaccine. Objective We investigated the clinical spectrum and molecular chara...
Article
Full-text available
In late 2017, Madagascar experienced a large urban outbreak of pneumonic plague, the largest outbreak to date this century. During the outbreak, there were widespread reports of plague patients presenting with atypical symptoms, such as prolonged duration of illness and upper respiratory tract symptoms. Reported mortality among plague cases was als...
Article
Full-text available
Rabies is a lethal zoonotic encephalomyelitis that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths yearly worldwide. Although developing countries of Asia and Africa bear the heaviest burden, surveillance and disease detection in these countries is often hampered by the absence of local laboratories able to diagnose rabies and/or the difficulties of sample...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a national human serologic study of a hantavirus detected in Madagascar rodents using a commercial kit and a new ELISA targeting the virus. Our results suggest a conservative estimate of 2.7% (46/1,680) IgG seroprevalence. A second single-district study using the new ELISA revealed a higher prevalence (7.2%; 10/139).
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the main vector borne zoonotic diseases that affects a wide range of ruminants and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A rapid and specific test for RVF diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. Methodology/principal findings: A...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the epidemiological characteristics, pattern of circulation, and geographical distribution of influenza B viruses and its lineages using data from the Global Influenza B Study. We included over 1.8 million influenza cases occurred in thirty-one countries during 2000-2018. We calculated the proportion of cases caused by influenza B and i...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic variants of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV) have been recently reported from rodents in South-East Asia and in islands from the South-West part of the Indian Ocean. In order to detect THAIV and its variants, we developed a sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR targeting the S segment. Our assay was developed in two different RT-PCR syste...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To improve our understanding of the global epidemiology of common respiratory viruses by analysing their contemporaneous incidence at multiple sites. Methods: 2010-2015 incidence data for influenza A (IAV), influenza B (IBV), respiratory syncytial (RSV) and parainfluenza (PIV) virus infections were collected from 18 sites (14 countri...