Jean-Marc Dewaele

Jean-Marc Dewaele
Birkbeck, University of London · Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication

PhD in French applied linguistics
Professor in Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism

About

398
Publications
470,960
Reads
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13,344
Citations
Introduction
Jean-Marc Dewaele does research on individual differences in psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, psychological and emotional variables in SLA and Multilingualism. He is particularly interested in the interface between applied linguistics and psychology. He has published widely on multilingual emotions and Foreign Language Enjoyment and Anxiety. He is former president of the International Association of Multilingualism and the European Second Language Association. He is General Editor of the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development and won the Equality and Diversity Research Award from the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (2013) and the Robert Gardner Award for Excellence in L2 and Bilingualism research from IALSP in 2016.
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
Birkbeck, University of London
Position
  • Feeling different when switching languages
Description
  • Multilinguals’ perceptions of feeling different when switching languages (Dewaele & Nakano, 2012).
January 2001 - present
Birkbeck, University of London
Position
  • Foreign Language Anxiety
Description
  • FLA has been linked with Trait Emotional Intelligence (Dewaele, Petrides & Furnham, 2008), multilingualism and affordances (Dewaele, 2007; 2010), extraversion, psychoticism and neuroticism (Dewaele, to appear)
January 2000 - present
Birkbeck, University of London
Position
  • Emotions and multilingualism
Description
  • How emotions are expressed in multilinguals various languages (Dewaele 2010), anger (Dewaele, 2006), swearing (2004, 2010, 2011) and love (2008), using the BEQ (Dewaele & Pavlenko, 2001-2003)
Education
January 1988 - December 1993
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Synchronic variation in French interlanguage
October 1985 - June 1986
Ghent University
Field of study
  • Eastern European Affairs
October 1985 - July 1986
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Language Pathology (neurolinguistics)

Publications

Publications (398)
Article
Full-text available
The present study is among the first to investigate how three foreign language (FL) emotions, namely FL enjoyment (FLE), anxiety (FLCA), and boredom (FLB), are related to each other. It is the first study to consider how the three FL emotions are shaped by one learner-internal variable (attitude toward the FL), by two perceived teacher behaviors (f...
Article
The current study contributes to the recent debate on the question whether learner emotions can be intrinsically motivating or whether they are no more than diffuse action tendencies (Dörnyei 2020). Adopting a longitudinal approach, we combined repeated analysis of variances and mixed effects modelling to capture interactions between Foreign Langua...
Article
Full-text available
With the flourishing of positive psychology (PP) in foreign and second language teaching research, interest has grown in a range of positive psychological variables including the new concept of foreign language teaching enjoyment (FLTE) that mirrors that of learners' Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE). The present study investigates how positive psyc...
Article
Full-text available
The present mixed-method study focuses on levels of foreign language enjoyment (FLE), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and foreign language boredom (FLB) among 168 Arab and Kurdish English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses revealed that learners experien...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on the foreign language (FL) learner has yielded a rich body of knowledge on personality, individual differences, and conceptions of the self as a measure of motivation. While these contributions have greatly enriched our understanding of learner psychology, the current paper proposes an analytical framing of language learning bas...
Article
The present study examines the direct and indirect relationships between classroom environment (CE), L2 (second/foreign language) learner emotions (i.e. enjoyment, anxiety and boredom), and their willingness to communicate (WTC) in classes for English as a foreign language (EFL). Participants were 2,268 university students in China. Pearson correla...
Article
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This paper explores differences in 437 learners' foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) in in‐person and online English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes before the outbreak of the pandemic and during the first lockdown in spring 2020. Statistical analyses of data gathered with a web survey revealed a slight, yet significant drop in learners'...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on the experience of flow among 168 Arab and Kurdish English Foreign Language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data revealed that learners did experience flow in their ERT classes but for a significantly shorter time than in the pre-pandemic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research on the foreign language (FL) learner has yielded a rich body of knowledge on personality, individual differences, and conceptions of the self as a measure of motivation. While these contributions have greatly enriched our understanding of learner psychology, the current paper proposes an analytical framing of language learning bas...
Article
Studies examining the positive emotion of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) have recently increased exponentially, as researchers are applying the tenets of positive psychology in applied linguistics. It is therefore an appropriate time to take stock of the current literature and conduct a preliminary meta-analysis. The relationships between FLE and...
Article
Full-text available
Humor can provide a multitude of benefits for language learners, including improvement of classroom atmosphere (Dewaele et al., 2018) and a reduction of anxiety (Tarone, 2000). Moreover, the integration of humor into language lessons has been strongly endorsed by both students and instructors (Askildson, 2005; Azizinezhad & Hashemi, 2011). What is...
Article
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The current study addresses the question whether the level of proficiency of teachers who teach a “non-native” language, English, affects their attitudes, motivation, well-being and self-reported classroom practices. This quantitative study is based on a cross-sectional research design in order to investigate the relationship between actual English...
Article
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Interview about research
Article
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The present study adopted a mixed-methods approach using a convergent parallel design to focus on the role that positive and negative emotions have in the Foreign Language (FL) classroom on the ontogenesis of positive flow. Participants were 1,044 FL learners from around the world. They provided quantitative and qualitative data on FL enjoyment (FL...
Article
Full-text available
The current study addresses the question whether the level of proficiency of teachers who teach a “non-native” language, English, affects their attitudes, motivation, well-being and self-reported classroom practices. This quantitative study is based on a cross-sectional research design in order to investigate the relationship between the actual Eng...
Article
Full-text available
Het concept van de "native speaker" in het vreemdetalenonderwijs wordt al lang ter discussie gesteld door taalkundigen, maar vreemd genoeg blijft het een centrale pijler van het onderwijs van het Engels als een vreemde taal. Het doel van het onderwijs is vaak om de leerlingen (de "non-native speakers") aan te moedigen om als "native speakers" te kl...
Conference Paper
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We are organising a 1-day colloquium where London Second Language Acquisition Research Forum (L-SLARF) members will share ongoing research projects with students, researchers & the general public. The event will take place face-to-face & online. The event is free and open to all. Saturday May 21st 10:00-17:00 Room B35, Birkbeck, University London...
Article
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Tips for becoming a successful researcher
Article
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Research on multilinguals’ voice-hearing, sometimes termed auditory-verbal hallucinations, is dominated by psychiatrists’ reports, skewing toward etic over emic approaches. Most also pre-dates developments in both voice-hearing and multilingualism research which highlight the complexity and dynamic nature of both phenomena and shows little cross-fe...
Article
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The world of applied linguistics and the profession of foreign language teaching needs to finally sweep away the notion of “Native Speaker” (NS) and the deficit perspective surrounding foreign language learners. We argue that Positive Psychology is a source of inspiration for a new and more positive perspective on foreign language learners and user...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates how Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Attitude/motivation (AM) of 360 learners of English, German, French and Spanish in a Kuwaiti university was shaped over the course of one semester by three teacher behaviours: frequency of using the FL in class, predictability and freq...
Article
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The recent and still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of an education system built around in-door teaching which was forced to switch to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) via computers at the onset of the pandemic. We argue that if educators had known about the use of the outdoors as an alternative learning arena, many stud...
Article
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a popular construct in applied linguistics research, traditionally measured with the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). However, recent studies have started utilizing the eight-item Short-Form FLCAS (S-FLCAS). There is therefore a need, which this study addressed in five sequential...
Preprint
Foreign language teaching enjoyment (FLTE) has recently been introduced as a broad positive emotion experienced by foreign language (FL) teachers, despite obstacles embedded in FL teaching. However, identifying its psychological outcomes - and the cultural specificity of these outcomes - has received scant research attention across different contex...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focused on differences in intensity of Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA), and proportion of time in a state of flow among 761 English FL learners and 825 FL learners of Languages Other Than English (LOTE). Participants in the LOTE group reported significantly higher levels of FLE and a hig...
Chapter
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The present study explores the relationship between learner-internal variables and enjoyment and anxiety in English Foreign Language (EFL) classes. Participants were 207 EFL learners from Spain who filled out an online questionnaire with Likert scale items. Statistical analyses revealed that sociobiographical background variables such as age and mu...
Article
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Recent research has confirmed the predictive effect of general foreign language (FL) achievement on Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA). However, few studies have examined the effect of domain-specific language achievement in shaping FL learning emotions. The present study thus aims to examine how FLE and...
Chapter
Considering the multiplicity of factors that can affect language learning and communication processes, it is possible to affirm that the role of emotions has been underestimated. In fact, although they play a prominent role in most motivational processes, it has only been recently that researchers have begun to study how they operate in second lang...
Chapter
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Personal reflections on the emergence of emotion in Second Language Acquisition research and an argument against predeterministic thinking
Article
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I would like to start by thanking the editors of the European Educational Researcher for inviting me to provide the first editorial in their journal. I collaborated with Dr. Nuri Balta (executive editor) and colleagues on a project on the acquisition of Turkish by Kazakh learners. The resulting paper (Dewaele, Özdemir, Karci, Uysal, Özdemir & Balta...
Article
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Willingness to communicate in a second or foreign language (L2 WTC) is an important individual difference variable that influences the target language learning process. To cultivate students’ communicative competence for sustainable development and help them become active citizens of the global world, language teachers and educators need to underst...
Preprint
The present study is among the first to investigate how three foreign language (FL) emotions (enjoyment (FLE), anxiety (FLCA) and boredom (FLB)) are related to each other. It is the first study to consider how the three FL emotions are shaped by one learner-internal variable (attitude towards the FL), by two perceived teacher behaviours (frequency...
Chapter
Full-text available
Overview This contribution focuses on the crucial importance of multilingualism in shaping identity and personality. After a short look at the key issues in the field, it considers research on language learner classroom emotions before looking at the challenges that foreign language users face in communicating their emotions appropriately. Attentio...
Article
This study presents a new positive emotion construct, 外语平和心态 ( waiyu pinghe xintai ) or Foreign Language Peace of Mind (FLPOM), drawn from the Chinese cultural tradition. It is a low-arousal positive (LAP) emotional state (e.g., calmness, peacefulness) and a state of internal harmony. Three sub-studies were conducted. In Study 1, a measurement scal...
Article
We used a data set with n = 1,603 learners of foreign languages (FL) to develop and validate the short form of the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale (S‐FLES). The data was split into 2 groups, and we used the first sample to develop the short‐form measure. A 3‐factor hierarchical model of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) was uncovered, with FLE as a...
Article
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This article reports on a two-step investigation of foreign language learning boredom amongst Chinese university non-English-major EFL students and English teachers. In Study 1, 22 students and 11 English teachers were interviewed and 659 students responded to an open questionnaire, recalling and describing their experiences and perceptions of bore...
Article
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The present study investigates the effect of sociobiographical, emotional, attitudinal characteristics and teacher perceptions of 275 Kazakh secondary school pupils and 317 university students on their exam performance in Turkish as a foreign language (FL). Multiple regression analyses reveal that exam results in Turkish of secondary school pupils...
Article
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Aims and objectives This qualitative study explores the experience of using a later-learned language, English (ELX), in the therapeutic journey of refugee survivors of sexuality persecution to enhance understanding of the role of language in their rehabilitation. Design/methodology/approach This is a multiple case study of three refugees, persecut...
Article
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Interest in the role of learners’ personality, emotions and the learning environment in foreign language (FL) learning has grown exponentially in the past decade. The introduction of personality psychology in the field of applied linguistics has led to the inclusion of a set of personality dimensions in research designs like resilience and grit, wh...
Article
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Teachers routinely make a conscious effort to manage their emotions in front of students. The present study focused on emotional labor strategies from 594 Chinese English Foreign Language (EFL) teachers, seeking to discover which ones are preferred, how they are related to each other and how they are linked to teachers’ sociobiographical, instituti...
Article
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This mixed-methods study focuses on the effect of Study Abroad (SA) on the mental well-being of 33 Anglophone students who spent between four and twelve months in Francophone countries. It investigates the relationship between well-being and personality traits. Statistical analyses revealed no significant change in well-being between the start, the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a popular construct in applied linguistics research, traditionally measured with the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). However, recent studies have started utilising the 8-item Short-Form Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (S-FLCAS). There is therefore a need, which this study address...
Article
Full-text available
Language is an essential part of psychotherapeutic work. In psychotherapy involving more than one language and/or culture, acknowledging the impact of the therapist's and the client's language(s) can facilitate achieving the most beneficial therapeutic process and outcome. The field has witnessed a surge in interdisciplinary work combining research...
Article
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This paper investigates how inner speech in English as a foreign language (LX) and Chinese first languages (L1s) of 425 multilingual Chinese university students in the UK is affected by their stay. An eight-item scale was developed to cover two different discourse domains for inner speech, namely the academic and the general domain. LX socializatio...
Chapter
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The role of personality in Second/Foreign Language Acquisition
Article
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This paper reports on a study that took a positive psychology approach to foreign language anxiety reduction. More specifically, it investigated whether reminiscing about language achievements could effectively diminish the learners’ foreign language classroom anxiety. It also explored the patterns nested in the reminiscing process. To this end, 88...
Chapter
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Enjoyment has been described as the emotion that fuels the second language learning process and that boosts performance in the second language. This chapter shows how enjoyment emerged in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research in the second decade of the 21 st century as a result of the dissemination of concepts from Positive Psychology and Edu...
Article
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This study investigates the impact of spending more than three years in an English environment on Saudi migrants’ metapragmatic judgments of Arabic L1 nonverbal greetings and their personality traits. Participants are 437 adults comprising three groups: Saudi L2 speakers of English in the UK, Saudis in Saudi Arabia, and British L1 speakers of Engli...
Article
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This study investigates the impact of spending more than three years in an English environment on Saudi migrants’ metapragmatic judgments of Arabic L1 nonverbal greetings and their personality traits. Participants are 437 adults comprising three groups: Saudi L2 speakers of English in the UK, Saudis in Saudi Arabia, and British L1 speakers of Engli...
Article
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This empirical study investigates the differences in the appreciation of British humour by British English and American English L1 users. A total of 128 British and 95 American English L1 users (with 18 being bi-dialectal—having experiences in the UK) rated the funniness of two short extracts from two British television series and answered an open...
Method
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Three measures (in different formats, publication, print, and online questionnaire) for foreign language (learning) enjoyment, boredom and burnout respectively, validated among Chinese EFL students
Article
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The current study investigated to what extent language and culture shape emotional experience. Specifically, we randomly assigned 178 Chinese English bilinguals to report on emotional situations, cultural exposure, engagement, and language proficiency in either English as a foreign language (LX) or Chinese (L1). We established their fit with both t...
Article
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Teacher enthusiasm is attracting growing attention in educational and learner psychology research. There is evidence that teacher enthusiasm is contagious in class and positively affects student emotions. Their fundamental role in shaping student engagement has also been well documented. However, the links – between teacher enthusiasm and student e...
Article
Full-text available
The present study looks at the relationship between classroom Enjoyment, Attitudes/Motivation and Language Anxiety in 110 Turkish pupils’ first language (L1) and in Italian, their foreign language (FL) in an immersion school. This is one of the first studies to compare emotions in the L1 and FL classrooms. It revealed similar levels of Attitude/Mot...
Article
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The present quantitative study is part of the new wave of research into the psychology of language teachers and their emotions (Gkonou Dewaele& King, 2020). It also answers the call for more studies on languages other than English (LOTEs) by considering feedback from 174 Italian as Foreign Language (FL) teachers based in Italy and abroad. The study...
Article
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Due to the spread of Covid-19, universities had to move their courses online abruptly. This paper explores its impact on 510 European tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ classroom emotions and analyses possible links to their trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and learner autonomy. Statistical analyses of data gathered with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies examining the positive emotion of foreign language enjoyment (FLE) have recently increased exponentially, as researchers are applying the tenets of positive psychology in applied linguistics. It is therefore an appropriate time to take stock of the current literature and conduct a preliminary meta-analysis. The relationships between FLE and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The negative emotion of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and the positive emotion of Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) have both been linked to foreign language (FL) learners’ Self-Perceived Proficiency (SPP). In linear correlational studies, SPP has been found to be negatively affected by FLCA and positively affected by FLE. However, linea...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale (FLES) was originally introduced by Dewaele and MacIntyre (2014). We used a data set with n = 1,603 learners of foreign languages (FL) to develop and validate the Short Form of the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale (S-FLES). The data was split into two groups and we used the first sample to develop the short-form...
Article
Full-text available
Pitch perception plays a more important role in emotional communication in English than in Korean. Interpreting the semantic aspects of pitch levels therefore presents a challenge for Korean learners of English. This study investigated how 49 Korean learners of English perceived 20 English emotional utterances. Participants were asked to complete a...
Article
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en We investigated differences in self‐reported Emotional Reactions (ER) of first (L1) and foreign (LX) language users of English when watching television in English and identified the predictors. Participants were 271 British citizens, 282 Greek, and 271 Hungarians living in their home country. English LX users had significantly lower values for E...
Chapter
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Multilinguals realise that expressing and recognising emotions can be challenging (Dewaele, 2013, 2016; Pavlenko, 2005). The differences lie in the different embodiment that the languages have (Pavlenko, 2012), which affects the emotional resonance of the language. This affects the language choices of the multilinguals and their perceptions of emot...
Article
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The positive and negative psychological consequences of the detachment effect of the foreign language http://blogs.bbk.ac.uk/research/2021/01/27/how-words-can-misfire-in-a-foreign-language-a-look-at-the-impact-of-our-research-on-the-role-of-multilingualism-in-psychotherapy/
Chapter
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The present contribution presents an overview of recent developments in research on emotions within the emerging field of the psychology of foreign language learning and teaching. It shows that the long neglect of emotions in the field of applied linguistics has come to an end. Emotions fuel the language learning and well as the language teaching p...
Article
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The present study focuses on 33 British and Irish students, including non-language specialists and language specialists, who spent their Study Abroad (SA) in Francophone countries. Their proficiency in French ranged from Lower independent (B1) to Advanced level (C2). The analysis of quantitative data collected at the start, in the middle and at the...
Data
Longitudinal data on actual and self-perceived proficiency from 33 British and Irish students before, during and after their Study Abroad. Dewaele, L. & Dewaele, J.-M. (to appear 2020) Actual and self-perceived linguistic proficiency gains in French during the Year Abroad. Languages
Chapter
Full-text available
The terms "native speaker" (NS) and "non-native speaker" (NNS) continue to be widely used in applied linguistics and foreign language learning and teaching despite a growing wave of criticism about the difficulty in defining them accurately, the (neo)racist ideology they reflect and the deficit view they perpetuate among foreign language learners a...
Article
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The present study tests the implicit assumption in most SLA research that sources of individual differences in the single foreign language (FL), typically English, of a learner apply to all other FLs of that learner. We thus investigated whether the values and relationships between the same learners' classroom emotions, attitudes and motivation in...
Article
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Intellectual humility (IH) involves a certain degree of selflessness and an accurate view of one's own worth and abilities. To date, IH has not been explicitly researched as a variable in the study of foreign language (FL) learning. The present mixed-methods study aims to explore possible links between FL learners' IH and their foreign language enj...
Article
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Background Multilingual clients can benefit from expressing themselves in more than one language in psychotherapy. Yet, research suggests that language switching is typically instigated by clients, although some do not feel empowered to negotiate the language(s). Methods This paper addresses how language options, from the main therapy language(s)...
Article
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The present paper considers the challenges that might occur in interactions between a psychotherapist and a multilingual client using a foreign language (LX). Psychotherapists need to be aware about both visible and invisible linguistic, sociopragmatic and cultural obstacles to emotion communication and the repercussions these can have on the clien...
Research
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Call for participation in short online questionnaire
Preprint
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Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory, the present study examines the predictive effects of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and online learning achievement perceptions on Foreign Language Class Boredom (FLCB) experienced during an online English course. A total of 348 Chinese tertiary students filled in an online questionnaire. Descripti...
Article
Full-text available
Li, C., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2020). The Predictive Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence and Online Learning Achievement Perceptions on Foreign Language Class Boredom Among Chinese University Students. Foreign Languages and Their Teaching (《外语与外语教学》). 5: 33-44.
Article
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The difficult role of the interpreter in psychotherapy sessions
Article
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The present study adopted a mixed-method approach combining principles from Complex Dynamic Systems Theory and Positive Psychology to examine the interaction between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) of 1,307 Chinese students, the single and combined effects of FLCA and FLE on self-perceived English prof...
Article
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The study examines whether already knowing several languages and feeling proficient in a new foreign language (FL) has an effect on positive and negative emotions during the learning. The emergence of positive psychology in language acquisition studies has led to the examination of positive emotions in the FL learning process, such as Foreign Langu...
Chapter
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Highlights: Trust and mutual respect; encouraging scientific creativity; PhD as transformative process; physical, social and emotional balance; pride and humility, the right attitude at conferences and in papers; handling expectations; getting over “Kleenex” moments; dealing with critical comments; approaching a potential supervisor, maintaining a...
Article
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While an increasing number of studies have cast light on the role of emotional variables in foreign language learning, no work to date has investigated the same learners’ emotions in their first language (L1) and foreign language (LX) classes. The present mixed-methods study investigated the emotions of 768 secondary- and tertiary-level students in...
Research
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PhD supervision
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine how students perceive teacher trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and how those perceptions relate to students' own self-reported attitudes and motivation. Adult students of ESL/EFL were given an online questionnaire consisting of two parts: one to provide observer-reported data on their teacher's trait emotional...