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Jean-Louis Van Gelder

Jean-Louis Van Gelder
Max Planck Institute for the Study of Crime, Security & Law · Criminology

PhD

About

83
Publications
45,013
Reads
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1,950
Citations
Introduction
Jean-Louis Van Gelder currently works at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Crime, Security & Law
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - March 2019
University of Twente
Position
  • Professor (Full)
March 2009 - December 2017
Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)
Position
  • Senior Researcher
July 2005 - July 2007
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
May 1997 - August 2002
University of Amsterdam
Field of study
  • Law
August 1994 - August 1999
University of Amsterdam
Field of study
  • Work- & Organizational Psychology

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
Background Fear of spiders, or Arachnophobia, is one of the most common specific phobias. The gold standard treatment, in vivo exposure therapy, is effective, but comes with significant limitations, including restricted availability, high costs, and high refusal rates. Novel technologies, such as augmented reality, may help to overcome these limita...
Article
Trait‐state models aim to provide an encompassing view of offender decision‐making processes by linking individual dispositions to proximal factors. In an experiment using an immersive virtual reality bar fight scenario, we propose and test a trait‐state model that identifies the pathways through which robust personality correlates of aggressive be...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we test an intervention in which convicted offenders interacted with an age-progressed avatar representing their future selves in virtual reality. During the interaction, they reflected on their current lifestyle, alternating between the perspective of their present self and that of their future self. We hypothesized that this embodi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Short-term mindsets interfere with the consideration of future consequences and therefore predict negative behaviors. We developed a smartphone-based intervention aiming to increase a future-oriented mindset and personal goal attainment by strengthening future self-identification and stimulating episodic future thinking. The aims of the...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study investigates the deterrent effects of incremental levels of guardianship on residential burglary and assesses how burglars differ from non-burglars in terms of their perceptions of opportunities for burglary.Methods In a virtual reality experiment, 181 incarcerated burglars and 172 non-burglars (university students) were taske...
Article
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The companions in crime hypothesis suggests that co-offending moderates the link between peer delinquency and adolescent delinquency. However, this hypothesis has rarely been investigated longitudinally. Hence, this study investigated the co-development of friends’ delinquency and adolescents’ delinquency, as well as the co-development of friends’...
Article
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In the current study, we tested a novel perspective-taking exercise aimed at increasing the connection participants felt toward their future self, i.e., future self-continuity. Participants role-played as their successful future self and answered questions about what it feels like to become their future and the path to get there. The exercise was a...
Article
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The distinct setting in which cyber-dependent crime takes place may reduce the similarity in the deviance of social network members. We test this assumption by analysing the deviance of the most important social contacts of cyber-dependent offenders and traditional offenders in the Netherlands (N = 344 offenders; N = 1131 social contacts). As expec...
Article
Full-text available
Violent ideations are increasingly recognized as an important psychological pre-dictor for aggressive and violent behavior. However, little is known about the processes that contribute to violent ideations. This paper examines the extent to which polyvictimization triggers violent ideations in late adolescence and early adulthood, while also adjust...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Aviophobia (fear of flying) can greatly impact daily life functioning in those afflicted. Traditional exposure-based treatment is hampered by limited availability to practice with airplane situations due to economical and practical reasons. Low-cost and easily accessible virtual reality exposure therapy may address these challenges. OBJ...
Article
Background Aviophobia (the fear of flying) can greatly impact the daily life functioning of people with the condition. Traditional exposure-based treatment is hampered by the limited availability of airplane practice situations, which is a result of economical and practical concerns. Easily accessible and low-cost virtual reality exposure therapy m...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined user engagement with ZeroPhobia, a self-guided app-based virtual reality (VR) Cognitive Behavior Therapy for acrophobia symptoms using cardboard VR viewers. Dutch acrophobic adults (n = 96) completed assessments at baseline and immediately following treatment. Primary outcome measures were the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ) and t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We question the commonly assumed view of a fixed causal ordering between self‐control, delinquency, and sanctions and test the hypothesis that experiencing sanctions may reduce levels of self‐control, thereby increasing the risk of future delinquent behaviour. As a subsidiary goal, we argue for a parsimonious view of self‐control that is li...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted among 70 experienced residential burglars regarding the reasons for getting involved in and maintaining criminal behaviour. Themes emerging reflected an interaction between skill-development and affect, which played a key role in the initiation and continuation of burglary-relate...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, virtual reality (VR) technology has convincingly demonstrated its potential for assessment, training, rehabilitation and treatment purposes in a variety of domains, including (mental) healthcare and education. This paper explores the possibilities for VR application within criminal justice practice. Criminological literature and li...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we describe a quasi‐experiment in which experienced incarcerated burglars (n = 56), other offenders (n = 50), and nonoffenders (n = 55) undertook a mock burglary within a virtual neighborhood. We draw from the cognitive psychology literature on expertise and apply it to offending behavior, demonstrating synergy with rational choice...
Article
Importance Globally, access to evidence-based psychological treatment is limited. Innovative self-help methods using smartphone applications and low-cost virtual reality have the potential to significantly improve the accessibility and scalability of psychological treatments. Objective To examine the effectiveness of ZeroPhobia, a fully self-gui...
Book
Full-text available
Binnen de Nederlandse justitiële context is in toenemende mate interesse voor virtual reality (VR) en augmented reality (AR). Deze technologieën bieden nieuwe mogelijkheden voor training, voorlichting en gedragsverandering. Tot op heden is echter onduidelijk op welke manier de technologieën daadwerkelijk toegevoegde waarde bieden en hoe ze het best...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study proposes an alternative hypothetical scenario method capitalizing on the potential of virtual reality (VR). Rather than asking participants to imagine themselves in a specific situation, VR perceptually immerses them in it. We hypothesized that experiencing a scenario in VR would increase feelings of being “present” in the sit...
Preprint
Violent ideations are increasingly recognized as an important psychological process involved in aggressive and violent behavior. However, little is known about the processes that contribute to violent ideations. This paper therefore examines the effects of dispositional and situational factors on violent ideations during late adolescence. More spec...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper argues that cyber-dependent offending differs in important ways from other types of offending, which poses challenges to established life-course criminological explanations. Moreover, this study examines to what extent life circumstances in both private and professional life are differentially related to cyber-offending and tradi...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we describe a new method, the Virtual Enactment Method (VEM), to enhance offender recall and motivation to disclose information by having burglars reflect on their experience while committing a crime in a simulated virtual environment. Participants, a sample of 61 incarcerated burglars, ‘thought aloud’ whilst undertaking a virtual b...
Article
We compared participant responses on three written guardianship scenarios versus visualized versions of the same scenarios in terms of realism, presence, negative affect elicited by the situation, perceived risk, and the choice to intervene. We find that people who received the visual scenarios report higher presence, but not realism, than those wh...
Article
Full-text available
Cybercrime research suggests that, analogous to traditional crime, victims are more likely to be offenders. This overlap could be caused by shared risk factors, but it is unclear if these are comparable to traditional risk factors. Utilizing a high risk sample of computer-dependent cyber-offenders and traditional offenders (N = 535) we compare vict...
Article
A trait-environment-state model of Unethical Business Decisions was developed and tested in two studies in a Pacific Islands setting (i.e., Fiji and the Marshall Islands). In Study 1 (N = 212), we conceptualized and operationalized the environment using two situational variables named ‘Perceived Environmental Corruption’ (PEC) and ‘Perceived Enviro...
Article
Drawing from life history theory and developmental perspectives, we test the hypothesis that the relation between parental discipline practices and delinquency is explained in part by short-term mindsets. We argue that such practices induce an orientation towards the here-and-now rather than the future, which, in turn, promotes delinquency. We used...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the application of dual-process and dual-system models to offender decision making. It is argued that these models offer a more accurate account of the decision process than the traditional choice models in criminology, such as rational choice and deterrence models, and can overcome their various limitations. Specific attenti...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the influence of emotions on offender decision making. It reviews the empirical and theoretical criminological literature on the role of emotions in crime causation but also draws from other disciplines in the behavioral and cognitive sciences that have examined the influence of emotions on human decision making. Specific atte...
Book
How offenders make decisions that lead to criminal conduct is a core element of virtually every discussion about crime and law enforcement. What type of information can deter a potential offender? For whom is the prospect of a sanction effective? How can emotions facilitate or impede crime? How does the availability of guns affect behavior in viole...
Chapter
Decision making is central to all human behavior, including criminal conduct. Virtually every discussion about crime or law enforcement is guided by beliefs about how people make decisions in one way or another. This interdisciplinary handbook integrates insights about the role of human decision making as it relates to crime. It contains reviews of...
Chapter
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Even though evidence for the influence of ‘hot’ visceral states such as intoxication, sexual arousal and intense emotions on criminal conduct is accumulating, this has not yet led to a shift in thinking about criminal decision processes. In this chapter, I argue that the rational choice perspective breaks down under the influence of such affective...
Article
We recommend extending CLASH by incorporating two evolutionary accounts of the shift toward fast life histories under harsh, unpredictable conditions. These accounts, if integrated with CLASH, make different predictions about the distributions of aggression and violence within and between societies. We discuss these predictions and propose ways of...
Chapter
Recent research claims that criminal justice institutions have universal features that are rooted in psychological mechanisms shaped by human evolution. In this chapter, we review three core questions touching on this perspective: We examine the notion that our evolved psychology has led to cross-culturally shared intuitions about what constitutes...
Chapter
Full-text available
Exceptions aside, emotional processes have failed to occupy a central position in criminological thought, in spite of the fact that they are intrinsically related to issues of crime and criminal justice. As Suzanne Karstedt forcefully argues, “Emotions pervade penal law and the criminal justice system. Offenders, victims and witnesses bring their e...
Article
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This study linked individual characteristics to proximate factors operating in the moment of decision-making to predict occupational crime. We distinguished between people’s task-related conscience, as embodied by the Conscientiousness personality trait, and a more general moral conscience as embodied by the Honesty-Humility trait, hypothesizing th...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This article explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) to study burglary by measuring user responses on the subjective, physiological, and behavioral levels. Furthermore, it examines the influence of individual dispositions, such as sensation seeking and self-control, on behavior during a virtual burglary event. Methods Participant...
Article
Full-text available
This study applied a decision-making perspective to examine the causal mechanisms underlying the relation between violent victimization and offending. We theorized that having been victimized affects an individual's appraisal of subsequent potentially conflictive situations in such a way that victims become more attuned toward the benefits of viole...
Article
Full-text available
In this research the effects of personality and organizational characteristics on workplace delinquency were investigated. In a sample of 455 respondents from a wide variety of organizations, two personality traits, HEXACO Honesty–Humility and Conscientiousness, and two organizational characteristics, ethical culture and employee surveillance, expl...
Article
Full-text available
As in most other Latin American cities, a principal way of accessing housing for the urban poor in Buenos Aires has been through the illegal occupation of land. Over a period of roughly eight decades, this has led to the formation of hundreds of informal settlements in the city. This article traces the historical development of informality in Argen...
Article
Full-text available
In a field experiment, we use a novel method to test whether instilling a greater sense of vividness of the future self motivates people to act in a more future-oriented way and reduces their delinquent involvement. We manipulate vividness of the future self by having participants, a sample of high-school youth (N = 133), “befriend” an avatar repre...
Article
Full-text available
Tenure security is widely believed to contribute to low-income settlement development by encouraging investment in housing improvement. However, in spite of consensus about its importance it is still unclear what it exactly entails and few studies have examined how it exactly relates to housing improvement. Using survey data from six informal neigh...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Provide insight into the victim-offender overlap and role differentiation by examining to what extent socio-psychological characteristics, risky lifestyles/routine activities and immersion in a violent subculture explain differences between victims, offenders and victim-offenders. Specifically, we measure to what extent anxiety and depre...
Article
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Since the pioneering early studies of the 1990s hinted at its promise as a research method, virtual reality (VR) technology has increasingly been used by social scientists. Given recent developments that have greatly enhanced realism, reduced costs, and increased possibilities for application, VR seems well on its way to become an established resea...
Article
Full-text available
Novel technologies, such as GPS, the Internet and virtual environments are not only rapidly becoming an increasingly influential part of our daily lives, they also have tremendous potential for improving our understanding of where, when and why crime occurs. In addition to these technologies, several innovative research methods, such as neuropsycho...
Article
This study examines the alternative ways that key personality traits-Agreeableness and Conscientiousness-work in conjunction with measures of situational opportunity in affecting offending and victimization simultaneously. More specifically, we explore (a) the extent to which the effects of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness on offending and victi...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from a representative sample of the Dutch population (n = 656), we examined to what extent confidence in the criminal justice system, punitive penal attitudes and political orientation relate to public support for suspended sentences. Mediation and moderation analyses were done to further explore the dynamics behind public support for su...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Test the hypothesis that dispositional self-control and morality relate to criminal decision making via different mental processing modes, a ‘hot’ affective mode and a ‘cool’ cognitive one. Methods Structural equation modeling in two studies under separate samples of undergraduate students using scenarios describing two different types...
Article
We present a moral reasoner, Moral Coppélia that combines rational ethical theory with affective states and personality traits. We, moreover, treat human autonomy in the sense of self-determination as well as making a meaningful choice. Our system combines connectionist bottom-up with utilitarian top-down approaches. Moral Coppélia can reproduce th...
Conference Paper
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In the present paper we show that a computational model of affective moral decision making can fit human behavior data obtained from an empirical study on criminal decision making. By applying parameter tuning techniques on data from an initial sample, optimal fits of the affective moral decision making model were found supporting the influences of...
Article
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This article addresses a series of paradoxes regarding informal settlements in cities in the developing world and their relation with the legal system. The first paradox regards the penalization of illegal land occupations on the one hand versus the legalization of that same practice on the other. Second, it looks at the relationship between land o...
Article
Full-text available
The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Str...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the Five-Factor and HEXACO personality correlates of two common self-control constructs – Tangney self-control and Grasmick self-control – and their relations with delinquency. In both a student and a community sample, conscientiousness (mainly the prudence facet) was the most consistent and strongest correlate of both construct...
Article
Full-text available
The provision of tenure security for residents of informal settlements has been among the highest ranking and most debated topics on the development agenda. Some have fervently argued for the distribution of property title to establish security and generate incentives for investment in housing improvement. Others have argued that it is the security...
Conference Paper
La ponencia tiene como objetivo presentar algunas reflexiones sobre las experiencias de los habitantes de conjuntos habitacionales desarrollados por los programas de vivienda actuales (Programa Federal) en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Capital Federal). Nuestra motivación se vincula con que desde 2004 en adelante se asiste en Argentina a un retorno de...
Article
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We propose and test a model of criminal decision making that integrates the individual differences perspective with research and theorizing on proximal factors. The individual differences perspective is operationalized using the recent HEXACO personality structure. This structure incorporates the main personality traits, but it carries the advantag...
Article
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The Dutch Public Prosecution Service has undergone major changes in recent decades. Public prosecutors were initially little more than intermediaries who delivered cases from the police to the judge, but the modern-day public prosecutor has many tasks entrusted to him and wide-ranging responsibilities. The case-oriented magistrate who dealt with ca...
Article
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This paper proposes a general framework of criminal decision making that assumes both ‘cool’ cognition and ‘hot’ affect, i.e. feelings, to influence criminal choice. Drawing from judgment and decision making research and social psychology, the hot/cool perspective extends rational choice and deterrence theories by explaining how affect is likely to...
Article
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Foreign fieldwork often comes with vast cultural differences between the researcher and participants. Such differences have implications for the success and findings of research. In this paper, we draw on our experiences doing fieldwork abroad to propose a theory of method. We suggest that as cultural distance increases, what is communicated by a p...
Article
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Public opinion research shows that the general public tends to perceive noncustodial sanctions, such as suspended sentences, as too lenient while being largely ignorant about their nature. In two studies among representative samples of the Dutch population, the authors examine public opinion about and knowledge of suspended sentences in the Netherl...
Article
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In Latin American cities, around a third of the urban population lives in tenure situations that can be designated as informal, yet variation in the ways and extent to which these arrangements do not comply with law is extensive. Furthermore, informal dwellers often employ a variety of strategies to legitimize and ultimately legalize their tenure,...
Article
Full-text available
In the face of advancing urban informality in the developing world there appears to be increasing consensus that tenure security is an important engine driving settlement development. This has, however, not led to a consensus about what tenure security exactly entails. In both theory and policy, the idea of tenure security for low-income settlement...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to improve slums and reduce poverty, many developing countries have embarked on mass land titling programs. Yet empirical evidence supporting their assumed beneficial effects has not been readily forthcoming. Following the implementation of mass titling programs in Indonesia, this paper empirically examines the relationships between la...
Article
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This article critically reviews several claims underlying different positions in the debate on tenure legalization and empirically investigates them in a low-income settlement in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Even though both tenure legality, in the form of property titles, and perceived tenure security have separately been shown to influence housing im...
Article
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In three studies we addressed the impact of perceived risk and negative affect on risky choice. In Study 1, we tested a model that included both perceived risk and negative affect as predictors of risky choice. Study 2 and Study 3 replicated these findings and examined the impact of affective versus cognitive processing modes. In all the three stud...