Jean-Louis Salager

Jean-Louis Salager
University of the Andes (Venezuela) | ULA · School of Chemical Engineering

Dr

About

284
Publications
164,031
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9,366
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1978 - present
University of the Andes (Venezuela)
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Researcher and consultant in Surfactant science and physico-chemical formulation applied to petroleum (enhanced oil recovery, dehydration, formation damage), cosmetics, paints, foods, ..
September 1975 - July 1978
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
July 1975 - December 1977
University of Texas at Austin
Field of study
  • Chemical/Petroileum Engineering Enhanced Oil Recovery
September 1969 - July 1970
University of Texas at Austin
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
September 1964 - June 1967

Publications

Publications (284)
Article
Full-text available
Open access: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jciso.2022.100060 The qualitative presentation from Winsor on an interfacial balance of interactions between the surfactant and the oil and water phases has been transformed into a multivariable linear equation so-called hydrophilic- lipophilic deviation (HLD). This relation involves at least 6 independent var...
Article
Open access link: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020054 Formulation is an ancient concept, although the word has been used only recently. The first formulations made our civilization advance by inventing bronze, steel, and gunpowder; then, it was used in medieval alchemy. When chemistry became a science and with the golden age of organic sy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Formulation is an ancient concept, although the word has been used only recently. The first formulations made our civilization advance by inventing bronze, steel, and gunpowder; then, it was used in medieval alchemy. When chemistry became a science and with the golden age of organic synthesis, the second formulation period began. This made it possi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is V1. There is a preprint V2 published on Researchgate
Chapter
Full-text available
Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules going to surfaces and interfaces to produce specific effects. Typical interfaces are the limits between two immiscible phases, e.g., two fluids like water/air and water/oil, or solid/liquid. Surfactants tend to crucially influence the properties of the equilibrated systems (surface and interfacial tension, adso...
Chapter
Full-text available
Extended surfactants are molecules including an intramolecular extension that allow attaining high performance without the need for cosurfactant or linker alcohol. The polypropylene oxide chain intramolecular extension generates a polarity transition inside the molecule that produces more interactions with the oil and aqueous phases. The idea was d...
Chapter
Full-text available
The oscillatory spinning drop method has been proven recently to be an accurate technique to measure dilational interfacial rheological properties. It is the only available equipment for measuring dilational moduli in low interfacial tension systems, as is the case in applications dealing with surfactant-oil-water three-phase behavior like enhanced...
Article
Full-text available
Open access link: https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids5030042 The oscillatory spinning drop method has been proven recently to be an accurate technique to measure dilational interfacial rheological properties. It is the only available equipment for measuring dilational moduli in low interfacial tension systems, as it is the case in applications dealing...
Article
Full-text available
Soap applications for cleaning and personal care have been used for more than 4000 years, dating back to the pharaonic period, and have widely proliferated with the appearance of synthetic surfactants a century ago. Synthetic surfactants used to make macro-micro-nano-emulsions and foams are used in laundry and detergency, cosmetics and pharmaceutic...
Article
The physicochemical conditions to attain a minimum interfacial tension between oil and water were intensively studied in the 1970s when the chemical‐enhanced oil recovery became an emergency with the increase in petroleum cost. Correlations between the formulation variables (salinity, oil nature, surfactant and co‐surfactant nature, temperature, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the 1970’s enhanced oil recovery intensive studies at University of Texas proposed a numerical equation to relate the interaction of the interfacially adsorbed surfactant and the oil and water molecules. A surfactant chemical potential difference equivalent to Winsor’s R ratio was shown to exhibit linearity in many double scan experiments. Aroun...
Article
Full-text available
Three different cases were selected to study the effect of physicochemical formulation on interfacial rheology properties of surfactant–oil–water (SOW) systems by increasing the complexity of the system from a basic case. This was performed by changing the normalized hydrophilic–lipophilic deviation (HLDN) to attain the optimum formulation at HLDN...
Technical Report
Full-text available
https://es.firp-ula.org/s530a-fundamentos-de-reologia-interfacial/
Chapter
Full-text available
The surfactant characteristic parameter (SCP) is numerically related to its amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas have resulted in the energy balance concept so-called the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation from optimum formulation (HLD linear equation) which integrates the effects of 6 variables: surfactant and cosurfactant...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted in the energy balance concept labeled the hydrophilic-lipophilic de...
Article
Anacardic acid, 2‐hydroxy‐6‐[(8Z,11Z‐pentadeca‐8,11,14‐trienyl]‐benzoic acid, extracted from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), has been structurally modified to obtain the 2‐(O‐carboxymethyl)‐6‐[(8Z,11Z)‐pentadeca‐8,11,14‐trienyl]‐benzoic acid and its disodium carboxylate salt. Our separation method allows to easily obtain anacardic acid, which has b...
Article
The standard HLD (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Deviation) equation expressing quantitatively the deviation from the "optimum formulation" of Surfactant/Oil/Water systems is normalized and simplified into a relation including only the three more meaningful formulation variables, namely (i) the "Preferred Alkane Carbon Number" PACN which expresses the amph...
Article
Full-text available
The research published in the past half century indicates that surfactant interfacial performance in producing low tension or high solubilization with polar oils is not generally attained with pure conventional species exhibiting well‐defined polar and nonpolar parts. The improvement trends reached with surfactant mixtures as well as the introducti...
Chapter
Full-text available
La formulación es una noción antigua, cuyo inicio y desarrollo hizo que nuestra civilización avanzara inventando el bronce, el acero y la pólvora, así como la alquimia medieval era mitad magia. Cuando la química se convirtió en una ciencia, la edad de oro de la síntesis orgánica comenzó el segundo período de formulación, lo que permitió crear nueva...
Chapter
Full-text available
La formación de emulsiones de agua en crudo muy estables en la producción, transporte y procesamiento de petróleo genera incremento de la viscosidad, deposición orgánica en equipos de procesamiento y afecta negativamente la producción de petróleo. Esta alta persistencia de las emulsiones es atribuida principalmente a la presencia de una película in...
Article
Asphaltenes tend to aggregate in different structures depending on the aromatic content of the oil phase. The different aggregates adsorb at interface as some kind of lipophilic surfactant which tends to stabilize water-in-oil emulsions. Hydrophilic demulsifier molecules are added to combine with asphaltenes until the optimum formulation is attaine...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a continuation of our first study on dilational interfacial rheology properties at optimum formulation for surfactant‐oil–water systems at low surfactant concentration just above the cμc. Here, we have investigated a high content of middle‐phase microemulsion with an optimum WIII phase behavior for a system containing sodium dodecyl...
Article
Full-text available
We have studied emulsions made with two- and three-phase oil-water-surfactant systems in which one of the phases is a microemulsion, the other phases being water or/and oil excess phases. Such systems have been extensively studied in the 1970-1980s for applications in enhanced oil recovery. It was found at that time that the emulsions became very u...
Article
Full-text available
A new spinning‐drop tensiometer with an oscillating rotation velocity was used to measure the interfacial rheological properties of systems with very low interfacial tensions in the zone close to the so‐called optimum formulation of surfactant–oil–water systems. 2 simple formulation scans were selected: One with an extended anionic surfactant using...
Article
Full-text available
When surfactants adsorb at liquid interfaces, they not only decrease the surface tension, they confer rheological properties to the interfaces. There are two types of rheological parameters associated to interfacial layers: compression and shear. The elastic response is described by a storage modulus and the dissipation by a loss modulus or equival...
Article
In this paper the Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) of the C10E4/n-Octane/0.01 M NaCl(aq) emulsion was used as a reference to determine the changes introduced by adding small amounts of a second surfactant S2. The so-called PIT-slope method allowed the calculation of the dPIT/dx2 value, i.e. the linear variation of PIT with the molar fraction x2 of...
Article
In enhanced oil recovery, not only the low-tension performance, but also the robustness at optimum formulation is an important issue. The fourth part of our review series is dedicated to robustness, defined as the width of the zone exhibiting three-phase behavior around the optimum formulation, whatever the scanned variable. It is first corroborate...
Article
The addition of water to hydrophobic alkyd resin containing a hydrophilic nonionic surfactant (polyethoxylated-20-oleyl alcohol) was used to produce the emulsion morphology change from W/O to O/W in a small thermostated reactor (50 mL). The so-called catastrophic phase inversion of the water/alkyd resin system was detected by monitoring both, the v...
Article
The minimum interfacial tension to be reached in enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding implies the attainment of a so-called optimum formulation. Part 1 of the present review showed that this formulation may be described as a numerical correlation between the involved variables defining the oil, the water, the surfactant and the temperature....
Article
Full-text available
Hydrophilic surfactant molecules with the proper formulation are able to break W/O emulsions stabilized by asphaltenes and other lipophilic amphiphiles as found in the effluent of petroleum wells. The demulsifier performance is here tested according to two critera. The first one, as in previous research, is the minimum dose of demulsifier used to a...
Article
Full-text available
Le premier choc petrolier a ete un veritable tsunami economique ! En reaction, la DGRST a cree un comite incitant les chercheurs a etudier les problemes fondamentaux concernant la Recuperation assistee du petrole, en particulier par injection d’eau amelioree. Les nombreux et importants resultats obtenus ont permis une augmentation du taux de recupe...
Conference Paper
Forty years ago a correlation between the characteristic physico-chemical variables of a surfactant-oil-water system was found as a numerical condition to attain a minimum interfacial tension in a formulation scan. Later, this so-called optimum formulation was also found to correspond to the most unstable emulsion. Many reasons were proposed to exp...
Article
Brij30/isopropyl myristate/water model emulsions were used to study the inversion morphology change from O/W to W/O. The transitional phase inversion was detected by monitoring the electrical conductivity during a heating–cooling cycle while the viscosity of the emulsion was followed under constant shear rate with a cone–plate rheometer equipment....
Article
Full-text available
Sugar fatty acid nonionic surfactants have attracted great attention due to their good biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bio-based characteristics. Regioselective sugar acylation is difficult to control for chemical reactions. The immiscible nature between hydrophilic sugars and hydrophobic fatty acids also negatively affects the reaction eff...
Article
The modification of the phase inversion temperature (PIT) of C10E4/n-octane/water emulsions was studied as a function of increasing amounts of additional second surfactants in order to rank them according to their hydrophilic lipophilic balance. Twenty five surfactants, selected from a wide range of chemical families, were studied. Well-defined pol...
Article
Full-text available
When a caustic soda solution is slowly added up to a cationic oil-in-water emulsion, prepared with dodecylamine as surfactant, the chemical equilibrium is altered. As a consequence, a progressive viscosity diminution is observed until complete emulsion destabilization. Original cationic emulsions are stable thanks to the droplet electrical double l...
Article
The objective is to understand the effects of organic acid and amine additives on the performance of commercial demulsifiers in breaking water-in-crude-oil (W/O) emulsions, according to the proportional regime test developed in previous articles. Both hydrophilic (ethylamine and acetic acid) and hydrophobic (hexanoic acid and hexylamine) species we...
Chapter
Full-text available
A molecular dynamics simulation of a chemical trapping probe, 4-hexadecyl-2,6-dimethylbenzenediazonium ion, nestled in a cross section of micelle composed of decanediyl-α,ω-bis (dodecyldimethylammonium chloride) or 10-2-10 2Cl (aggregation number = 27). Depicted are chloride ions (red), a spaghetti-like core of decyl tails (golden yellow), gemini n...
Article
Full-text available
Surfactant–oil–water systems exhibit a low interfacial tension minimum when the interactions between the adsorbed surfactant with water exactly coincide with its interactions with oil. This occurrence takes place at the so-called optimum formulation, which was conceptually derived by Winsor in the 1950s and rendered by numerical correlations for en...
Article
Full-text available
The minimum interfacial tension occurrence along a formulation scan at the so-called optimum formulation is discussed to be related to the interfacial curvature. The attained minimum tension is inversely proportional to the domain size of the bicontinuous microemulsion and to the interfacial layer rigidity, but no accurate prediction is available....
Article
Full-text available
Enhanced recovery of crude oil by surfactant flooding requires the attainment of an ultralow interfacial tension. Since Winsor’s work in the 1950s it has been known that a minimum interfacial tension and a concomitant three-phase behavior of a surfactant–oil–water system occurs when the interactions of the surfactant and the oil and water phases ar...
Article
Full-text available
Applications of microemulsion technology in the drilling and production industry have increased in recent years. Some of these applications include oil-based drilling fluid displacement to water-based fluid, near-wellbore remediation, well stimulation, enhanced oil recovery, flow-back recovery in shale gas wells, and cement spacers. Microemulsion f...
Article
Full-text available
The phase behavior of well-defined C10E4/ester oil/water systems versus temperature was investigated. Fifteen ester oils were studied and their Equivalent Alkane Carbon Numbers (EACNs) were determined from the so-called fish-tail temperature T(*) of the fish diagrams obtained with an equal weight amount of oil and water (fw=0.5). The influence of t...
Article
Full-text available
The conditions necessary for optimum low tension and phase behavior at high surfactant concentrations are compared with those required at low surfactant concentrations, where solubilization effects are not usually visible. Major differences in tension behavior between the high and low concentration systems may be observed when the surfactant used c...
Article
The relationship between the phase behavior and the type of emulsion formed under stirring has been studied for a well-defined surfactant/oil/water (SOW) system (ultrapure C10E4/n-octane/water) at three surfactant concentrations (1%, 3%, and 7%). The phase behavior was determined from systems equilibrated at constant temperature. The type of emulsi...