Jean-Jacques Hallaert

Jean-Jacques Hallaert
International Monetary Fund · European Department

Ph.D. Economics

About

62
Publications
8,501
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260
Citations
Citations since 2016
15 Research Items
130 Citations
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Introduction
Jean-Jacques Hallaert is an economist who has spent most of his career with international organizations (IMF 2000-09 and 2011 to present, and OECD 2009-11) as well as with the French Ministry of Finances (1998-2000). He is used to teach the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (1995-2000 and 2010-2014). He graduated from IESEG and received his master and PhD (international economics) from the IEP de Paris (Sciences-Po) .
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - June 2014
Sciences Po Paris
Position
  • Course: "Trade and development"
June 2009 - May 2011
OECD
Position
  • senior trade policy analyst
June 2000 - present
International Monetary Fund
Position
  • Senior economist
Education
September 1992 - May 1997
Sciences Po Paris
Field of study
  • Economics
September 1991 - June 1992
Sciences Po Paris
Field of study
  • Economics
September 1986 - June 1991
IESEG School of Management
Field of study
  • Business administration

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
The Aid for Trade Initiative needs to be revamped. This article describes the challenges the Initiative faces and describes the pros and cons of possible reforms. The Aid for Trade Initiative succeeded in mobilizing quickly a large amount of financial resources. However, because the Doha Round talks stalled, the aid mobilized could not support the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows that if a country intends to use trade as an engine for growth and development, then it should not overlook imports. The first section provides evidence that imports are an important determinant of export performance. Therefore, the success of an export-led growth strategy will be reduced if it only focuses on exports promotion and...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving France's medium-term fiscal targets will require significant expenditure efforts. This paper identifies areas where there is scope for increasing expenditure efficiency, with a view to achieving higher quality and more sustainable fiscal consolidation. The methodology is based on a triple benchmarking. First, the level of public expenditu...
Article
Full-text available
Absolute poverty has dropped markedly in Bulgaria but income inequality has increased substantially in the aftermath of the GFC. This increase is due to a rise in market income inequality that was compounded by a reduction in fiscal redistribution. The redistributive role of direct taxation has declined with the introduction of a flat tax and socia...
Book
Full-text available
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by far the largest shock to European economies since World War II. Yet, astonishingly, the EU unemployment rate had already declined to its pre-crisis level by 2021Q3, and in some countries the labor force participation rate is at a record high. This paper documents that the widespread use of job retention sche...
Article
Full-text available
The world trading system is now dual. Preferential (i.e., discriminatory) trade agreements (PTAs) coexist with the non-discriminatory GATT-WTO system. PTAs have proliferated since the mid-1980s and most observers believe that they are here to stay. However, history shows that two previous waves of PTAs receded. This article investigates the reasons...
Article
La dépense publique, par son niveau et sa croissance rapide, est au cœur des problèmes budgétaires français. Cet article identifie les domaines dans lesquels des marges existent pour accroître son efficacité afin d’atteindre, de façon durable, les objectifs budgétaires de la France tout en maintenant l’impact économique et social de l’action publiq...
Chapter
Full-text available
Reforms that improve the efficiency of public spending can help underpin fiscal adjustment while minimizing the drag on growth and protect social cohesion. The purpose of this paper is to identify areas where there is scope for expenditure efficiency gains. The methodology is based on a double benchmarking, comparing both the level and the outcome...
Article
Achieving France’s medium-term fiscal targets will require significant expenditure efforts. This paper identifies areas where there is scope for increasing expenditure efficiency, with a view to achieving higher quality and more sustainable fiscal consolidation. The methodology is based on a triple benchmarking. First, the level of public expendi...
Article
Full-text available
The Aid for Trade Initiative is an answer to developing countries’ requests for technical and financial assistance in the Doha Round negotiations. These requests prompted the WTO to collaborate with donors and development agencies but no attempt at increasing coherence between trade policy, aid policy, and development policy has been made. The main...
Chapter
After decades of rising public spending and successive tax increases, the medium-term fiscal consolidation path described in the 2015 Stability Program is now fully expenditure based. However, recent efforts of nominal spending containment have not delivered the intended savings in the context of low growth and inflation. A thorough review of the e...
Chapter
Full-text available
After decades of rising public spending and successive tax increases, the medium-term fiscal consolidation path described in the 2015 Stability Program is now fully expenditure based. However, recent efforts of nominal spending containment have not delivered the intended savings in the context of low growth and inflation. A thorough review of the e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Though close to the OECD average, France’s product market is more regulated than in comparable large European countries. Barriers to competition are particularly high in services, which now account for about 79 percent of the economy. The Macron law would be an important step forward, though rigidities remain.
Article
Most trade-led growth strategies focus on exports. This article argues that they should not overlook imports for two main reasons. First, imports are an important determinant of export performance. Therefore, the success of an export-led growth strategy will be reduced if it only focuses on exports promotion and ignores barriers to imports. Second,...
Chapter
Developing countries’ requests for financial and technical assistance acquired a high profile during the Doha Round negotiations prompting the launch of the Aid for Trade Initiative. The Initiative succeeded in mobilising a large amount of financial resources. However, because the Doha Round talks stalled, these resources could not support the impl...
Chapter
France’s fiscal deficit widened markedly during the crisis (from 2.7 percent of GDP in 2007 to 7.5 percent of GDP in 2009). The fiscal consolidation undertaken since 2010 has heavily relied on tax increases and needs to switch to expenditure containment. The purpose of this paper is to identify the areas of expenditure saving that could sustain med...
Article
Full-text available
The Aid for Trade Initiative needs to be revamped. To restore confidence and improve its efficiency, aid for trade should focus more on projects that are clearly related to trade.
Book
Full-text available
This book looks at four main questions relevant to the discussion of implementation and effectiveness of aid for trade. • How severe are the various possible constraints to trade expansion? • How different are the constraints to imports from the constraints to exports? • What impact would addressing these constraints have on trade and on economic g...
Article
Full-text available
The policy of publication of staff reports and other documents by the IMF allows for the deletion of market-sensitive information. The policy of publication of staff reports and other documents allows for the deletion of market-sensitive information.
Article
Full-text available
Despite recent reforms, the services sector remains more regulated in France than in most OECD countries. This paper reviews evidence of the potential gains from a deregulation of the services sector. First, it provides evidence that past regulatory reforms had a positive impact on the productivity of the deregulated sectors. Second, it discusses t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the paper is to identify the structural reforms that would yield the largest competitiveness gains based on macro-empirical evidence. Based on an econometric analysis, the paper finds that four structural policies affect advanced countries' export performance: trade policy, labor taxation, labor market, and innovation policies. The r...
Article
Full-text available
Developing countries requests for technical and financial assistance in the Doha Round negotiations prompted the WTO to collaborate with donors and development agencies. This led to the Aid for Trade Initiative. However, no attempt at increasing coherence between trade policy, aid policy, and development policy has been made. The main reason is tha...
Article
The Aid for Trade Initiative has reached its limits and is in a need to be revamped. This article describes the political economy that led to the launch of the Initiative and explains why it focused on the mobilization of financial resources. The mobilization of resources has been impressive but, in the midst of a fiscal crisis and against the back...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As part of its analytical work on the Binding constraints to Trade Expansion and in preparation of the Third Global Review on Aid for Trade, the OECD organized an experts workshop on the implementation Aid for Trade on March 28-29, 2011 in Paris. The event focused on the trade dimension of the Aid for Trade Initiative. Its primary purpose was to h...
Article
Full-text available
The severity of binding constraints to trade expansion in developing countries and the importance of the complementary policies that will maximize the impact of trade reforms on trade and economic growth are identified and quantified in this report. As trade-related needs of developing countries are numerous, such quantification is needed to identi...
Article
Full-text available
Economists disagree on the role trade finance played in the recent collapse in world trade. In contrast, policy makers seem to have reached a consensus. In a nutshell, their reasoning is that trade finance is the lifeline of international trade. The decline in trade is larger than what would be expected given the drop in global output. So part of t...
Article
This study identifies the most binding constraints to trade expansion faced by developing countries and estimate their severity for trade and economic growth. This process is crucial to prioritize trade reforms and to guide aid-for-trade resource allocations. The core of the analysis is a cross-country econometric analysis but the insight is comple...
Article
Full-text available
Trade promotes economic growth, alleviates poverty and helps countries reach their development goals. However, developing countries – in particular the least developed – face difficulties in making trade happen and turning trade into economic growth. The Aid for Trade Initiative – launched at the 2005 World Trade Organisation conference in Hong Kon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Article
The working paper “Binding Constraints to Trade Expansion: Aid for Trade Objectives and Diagnostics Tools” [OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 94] showed that the most common objectives of Aid for Trade have the potential to boost economic growth. However, this growth potential may not always be realized. While most trade reforms had a positive im...
Article
Full-text available
Economists disagree on the role trade finance played in the recent collapse in world trade. In contrast, policy makers seem to have reached a consensus. In a nutshell, their reasoning is that trade finance is the lifeline of international trade. The decline in trade is larger than what would be expected given the drop in global output. So part of t...
Article
Full-text available
This is a series of short papers dedicated to a discussion of the effects of the 2008-2009 global financial and economic crisis from the international trade perspective. The questions addressed by contributors were: What changes could be observed in trade and what transmission channels were involved? Has the international competitiveness of the Eur...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to existing published literature that assumed the EPAs tariff cuts, this paper uses the tariff cuts actually agreed by some African countries to quantify fiscal revenue losses from the EPAs. It finds that the profile in the tariff cuts vary significantly across countries. Revenue losses are limited and spread over long transition period...
Article
In contrast to existing published literature that assumed the EPAs tariff cuts, this paper uses the tariff cuts actually agreed by some African countries to quantify fiscal revenue losses from the EPAs. It finds that the profile in the tariff cuts vary significantly across countries. Revenue losses are limited and spread over long transition period...
Article
Trade can be a powerful engine for economic growth, poverty reduction, and development. However, harnessing the power of trade is often difficult for developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, because of supply-side domestic constraints (lack of trade-related infrastructure and capacity). The Aid for Trade Initiative was laun...
Article
Literature has frequently evaluated the proliferation of preferential trade agreement (PTAs) by counting the number of PTAs or the share of international trade covered by these agreements. But these indicators havebeen recently criticized. This article, using a Computable General Equilibrium model, attempts to quantify the economic impact of the pr...
Article
Full-text available
In 2008, Madagascar reformed its domestic tax system. Because the excise duties and VAT regimes were reformed, the taxation of imports has changed. This paper quantifies how the reform changes the protection against imports and the fiscal revenues from taxation of imports. It shows that, even if the reform has only a limited impact on the average r...
Article
Literature has frequently evaluated the proliferation of preferential trade agreement (PTAs) by counting the number of PTAs or the share of international trade covered by these agreements. But these indicators have been recently criticized. In this paper, using a CGE model, we attempt to quantify the economic impact (measured by its welfare effect)...
Article
Full-text available
Madagascar plans to start phasing out its customs tariffs on imports from the Southern African Development Community in 2007. This paper uses a CGE model to evaluate the impact of the SADC FTA on Madagascar economy. The results suggest that the SADC FTA would only have a limited impact on Madagascar's real GDP because the liberalization affects onl...
Article
Full-text available
The paper contributes to the discussion about the revenue implications of trade reform by assessing the approximate fiscal revenue impact of different liberalization formulae under consideration in multilateral trade negotiations for a group of low- and middle-income countries. The study applies a linear optimization framework to data for bound tar...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review the empirical literature on the relationship between international trade and economic growth. Case studies as well as econometrical works point to a positive impact of trade on growth, although they have shortcomings. Case studies are difficult to generalize and methods of econometrical works can be criticized...
Article
Full-text available
In the Doha Round, negotiators are discussing the elimination or continuation of the special agricultural safeguards introduced by the Uruguay Round as well as the creation of special safeguard mechanism for use by developing countries. This paper argues that, in violation of the spirit of the WTO Agreement in Agriculture, the special agricultural...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter takes stock of the rapid increase in EU-China trade; analyses the diversification of Chinese exports to the EU with a focus on electronics and textiles; and, finally, describes current and potential trade disputes and the EU strategy to prevent and resolve differences.
Article
Full-text available
EFFECT OF THE EUROPEAN SPG EUROPÉEN ON ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES The experience of four Asian developing countries shows that the European SPG only offers a limited tarrifs level. Besides, this advantage is still cut down by the tendency that emerge un 1998, at the time of the system’s revision, to multiply special tariffs and to develop graduatio...
Article
Full-text available
The experience of four Asian developing countries shows that the European SPG only offers a limited tarrifs level. Besides, this advantage is still cut down by the tendency that emerge un 1998, at the time of the system's revision, to multiply special tariffs and to develop graduation. Through special levels, the European Commission tried to introd...
Article
Full-text available
The European Union Faced with Enlargement, by Jean-Jacques Hallaert Enlargement bas becorne a major issue for the EU. However, whilst the EFTA countries who joined had similar economies to those of the Twelve, the same cannot be said of the new applicants, the CEECs, whose membership thus appears unlïkely over the short to medium term. Despite the...

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Projects (2)
Project
After France and Belgium, time to come back to public expenditure efficiency but in a vastly different context: Bulgaria. The work on France and Belgium aimed at identifying efficiency gains to achieve the same social outcome at a lower cost. Now I turn to the case of Bulgaria where spending needs are large but can only be met by improved spending efficiency given the social consensus opposed to increasing the (low) taxes and to, even limited, fiscal deficits. This project is also linked to my work on inequality as it will go deeper on social protection (see “Inequality, Poverty, and Social Protection in Bulgaria” https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2020/07/31/Poverty-and-Social-Protection-in-Bulgaria-49552), and look at the efficiency of some pre distribution policies favored by the authorities to reduce inequalities (Education notably) For France see: * the analysis https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2016/12/31/From-Containment-to-Rationalization-Increasing-Public-Expenditure-Efficiency-in-France-43637 * in the leading French review on public finances https://www.labase-lextenso.fr/revue-francaise-de-finances-publiques/RFFP2016-136-024 * the press review (in French) including (I) on TV https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3xdg14 (II) in the newspaper L’Opinion https://www.lopinion.fr/edition/economie/fmi-epingle-l-inefficacite-depense-publique-en-france-97663 * in the IMF PFM blog https://blog-pfm.imf.org/pfmblog/2016/03/more-cheeseparing-increasing-public-expenditure-efficiency-in-france.html For Belgium: https://www.elibrary.imf.org/view/IMF002/23264-9781513547695/23264-9781513547695/23264-9781513547695_A001.xml?redirect=true
Project
This analytical work aims at better understanding the evolution of inequality in Europe, from before the onset of the global financial crisis in 2005 until 2015 and highlight implications for labor and fiscal policies. The focus is on intergenerational inequality because the population is aging, child and youth poverty is rising, and safety nets often appear better equipped to address old-age poverty than the challenges faced by poor children and/or unemployed youth. What is the scope to increase the efficiency of public policies in alleviating inequality and poverty? Should social protection and the tax system be adjusted to better cope with the emerging increase in youth poverty? As the increase in child and youth poverty is often related to (long-term) unemployment of the young or of their parents and hysteresis in labor career is strong, what role should labor market policies play in reducing inequalities and poverty?