Jean-François Rouet

Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology

28.52

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: We present an empirical investigation of a classroom training fostering vocational students’ consideration of source information when deciding about science-based controversies. The training was specifically aimed at raising students’ awareness of the division of cognitive labor and the resulting need to take a source’s competence into account when deciding whom to trust. Data were collected from a training group and a waiting list control group in a pretest–posttest design. The results show that students benefitted from the training in terms of their inclination to agree with pertinent expert sources rather than low-pertinent experts and to refer to the source of information to justify their judgment. Source memory was not affected by the training.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2016 · Reading and Writing
  • Ladislao Salmerón · Monica Macedo-Rouet · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: Social question & answer forums offer great learning opportunities, but students need to evaluate the credibility of answers to avoid being misled by untrustworthy sources. This critical evaluation may be beyond the capabilities of students from primary and secondary school. We conducted two studies to assess how students from primary, secondary and undergraduate education perceive and use two relevant credibility cues in forums: author’s identity and evidence used to support his/her answer. Students didn’t use these cues when they evaluated forums with a single answer (exp. 1), but they recommended more often answers from self-reported experts than from users under pseudonym when multiple sources discussed in the forum (exp. 2). This pattern of results suggested that multiple viewpoints increase students' attention to source features in forum messages. Experiment 2 also revealed that primary school students preferred personal experience as evidence in the messages, whereas undergraduate students preferred the inclusion of documentary sources. Thus, while children mimic the adult preference for expert sources in web forums, they treat source information in a rather superficial manner. To conclude, we outlined possible mechanisms to understand how credibility assessment evolves across educational levels, and discussed potential implications for the educational curriculum in information literacy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
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    Thierry Olive · Jean‐François Rouet · Emmanuelle François · Virginie Zampa

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2015
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    M. Anne Britt · Tobias Richter · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we examine the mental processes and representations that are required of laypersons when learning about science issues from texts. We begin by defining scientific literacy as the ability to understand and critically evaluate scientific content in order to achieve one's goals. We then present 3 challenges of learning from science texts: the intrinsic complexity of science phenomena, the need to coordinate multiple documents of various types, and the rhetorical structure of the texts themselves. Because scientific information focuses on models, theories, explanations, and evidence, we focus on how explanatory and argumentative texts are processed. Then we examine 2 components of executive control in reading—goal-directed guidance and evaluation of content—that readers can acquire and adopt to deal with these challenges. Finally, we discuss 3 implications that these theories and empirical findings have for interventions intended to improve laypersons’ understanding of scientific information.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Educational Psychologist
  • Julien Dampuré · Christine Ros · Jean-François Rouet · Nicolas Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined the impact of task-set on people’s use of the visual and semantic features of words during visual search. Participants’ eye movements were recorded while the distractor words were manipulated. In both experiments, the target word was either given literally (literal task) or defined by a semantic clue (categorical task). According to Kiefer and Martens, participants should preferentially use either the visual or semantic features of words depending on their relevance for the task. This assumption was partially supported. As expected, orthographic neighbours of the target word attracted participants’ attention more and took longer to reject, once fixated, during the literal task. Conversely, semantic associates of the target word took longer to reject during the categorical task. However, they did not attract participants’ attention more than in the literal task. This unexpected finding is discussed in relation to the processing of words in the peripheral visual field.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Cognitive Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined readers' memory for information sources in short news stories. Based on current theories of text comprehension, we assumed that sources involved in the situation described (e.g. a witness or a participant) would be better remembered than remote sources (e.g. someone commenting on the topic from a distance). We additionally tested the assumption that less plausible stories would enhance readers' memory for remote information sources. Experiment 1 found that readers remembered sources involved in the situation better than remote sources. Although sources of less plausible stories were not better remembered than sources of more plausible stories, implausible details were. In Experiment 2, source-focusing instructions increased readers' memory for sources but did not affect the overall pattern of effects. We discuss the findings with respect to theories of text comprehension and knowledge elaboration. We conclude that comprehension theories and task-oriented reading theories can be extended to account for the encoding of source as well as content information.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Cognitive Psychology
  • M. Stadtler · R. Bromme · J.-F. Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: Accessing a set of documents on a scientific topic has become a widespread activity both in school and in informal learning. Often, the Internet, offering a wide variety of unfiltered information, is the primary source individuals turn to. However, reading multiple documents online can be a challenging cognitive endeavor requiring readers to locate relevant information, integrate information across sources, and evaluate information and sources. As empirical findings suggest, mastery of these skills cannot be taken for granted among students with different educational backgrounds. Hence, we portray intervention modules aiming at fostering search, evaluation, and integration skills. In so doing, we define these skills, identify strengths and limitations of current educational practices, and make suggestions for improvements.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Unterrichtswissenschaft
  • M. Stadtler · R. Bromme · J.-F. Rouet

    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue. Most students correctly identified the source of information but failed to take into account each source's characteristics when determining who was most knowledgeable. In Experiment 2, we implemented an intervention on students' evaluations of information sources. Less skilled students in the intervention group assessed source knowledge more accurately than those in a control group. We conclude that elementary school students' comprehension of who says what in a text can benefit from training sessions that involve practice, feedback, explanations, and discussions. We consider the implications for document-based learning in elementary and secondary education.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Cognition and Instruction
  • Ludovic Le Bigot · Eric Jamet · Jean-François Rouet · Virginie Amiel
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes an experiment on the effects of learning, mode of interaction (written vs. spoken) and transfer mode on user performance and discourse organization during interaction with a natural language dialogue system. Forty-eight participants took part in a series of 12 dialogues with an information retrieval system presented either in the written or the spoken mode during the first six dialogues. The next six dialogues were then presented either in the same interaction mode or in another mode. The analysis of the results showed that performance (time, number of effective turns) improved throughout the dialogues whatever the mode of interaction. Nevertheless, performance was higher in the written mode. Moreover, mode-specific characteristics were observed. These consisted in greater use of subject pronouns and articles in the spoken mode. Similarly, in the spoken mode, the users found it easier to re-use the formulations presented in the system speech than in the written mode. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed a positive transfer effect on performance and discourse organization when the individuals first interacted in the spoken mode and then in the written mode. Both positive and negative transfer effects were observed when the individuals interacted first in the written mode followed by the spoken mode. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect consequences of modality effects on natural language dialogue interaction.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Computers in Human Behavior
  • M. Macedo-Rouet · J.-F. Rouet · C. Ros · N. Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the strategies used by experienced researchers to find articles in an online bibliographic database.Objective The goal was to shed light on researchers’ actual search behaviour by empirically observing users during the search process.Method We asked 16 neuroscience researchers and 16 researchers in other disciplines of life sciences to perform five search tasks on neuroscience topics using the PubMed database. Think-aloud protocols were recorded while the participants performed the search tasks.ResultsAll researchers managed to find adequate references for the tasks in the limited amount of time allocated. Most participants used similar, very basic moves and tactics to perform the tasks. However, they behaved in many different ways when they had to decide whether to read the retrieved results or to modify their query (according to the number of references they obtained), or when selecting the one or two references they finally gave as answers among all possible answers.DiscussionVariability in participants’ behaviour may result from inter-individual differences in either the participants’ mental models of PubMed or cognitive abilities and styles, but the question requires further investigation. The data further suggest that developers of online search engines and databases should concentrate their efforts on improving simple-search interfaces and helping users to correct search errors in real time.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée
  • Julien Dampuré · Christine Ros · Jean‐François Rouet · Nicolas Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments assessed the impact of word familiarity on visual search for phrases. Participants' eye movements were recorded while they memorized target phrases and then searched for them within more or less similar phrases. The phrases were written with either familiar or unfamiliar, neuroscience-specific vocabulary. Most participants did not search for the target by reading lines in a systematic way but scanned the first words of phrases to identify those beginning with the same words as the target. Visual search for unfamiliar target phrases was associated with an increase in the number of non-target phrases that were scanned. The only search phase during which fixation durations depended on word familiarity was the final recognition of the target phrase. Hence, the data support a model of search within menu-like displays in which searchers primarily rely on fast, visual match mechanisms and engage in reading-like processing only during the critical decision-making phase. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Applied Cognitive Psychology
  • M.A. Britt · J.-F. Rouet · J.L.G. Braasch

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • M. Anne Britt · J.-F. Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this chapter is to review the cognitive processes involved in studying multiple documents and to emphasize studying multiple documents as a means for students to learn about complex topics. We define the construct of quality of learning in the context of document-based activities. Then we outline the “documents model framework” that was developed to account for the mental representations and processes that underlie the comprehension of multiple documents. Based on this framework, we point out the specific knowledge and skills that students must acquire before they can successfully take part in document-based instructional activities. Finally, we draw some implications for the design of appropriate tasks, instructions, and materials. We point out the need to provide students with supportive task environments, explicit and complete representation of document sources, and guidelines as to what to read and how to read it, in order for them to come to a full understanding of intertextual contents and relationships that make up the discourse representation of complex content-area knowledge. Studying multiple documents to learn about a topic can lead to a deeper, more complete understanding of the content (Wiley, Goldman, Graesser, Sanchez, Ash, & Hemmerich, 2009). Without some support, however, it can also be a challenging experience for students. Consider the teenage student who is asked to write a research report for a history or science class. The student is likely to be asked to take a stance on a particular claim, such as the prompts or controversies shown in Table 13.1. These prompts and the provided materials are much like the history document-based questions (DBQs) that are used as part of Advanced Placement courses in the United States.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    Jean-François Rouet · Zsofia Vörös · Csaba Pléh
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of readers' visuo-spatial (VS) capacity on their incidental learning of page links during the exploration of simple hierarchical hypertextual documents. Forty-three university students were asked to explore a series of hypertexts for a limited period of time. Then the participants were asked to recall the layout and the contents of the pages. We found that low VS capacity readers had more difficulty recalling the links located at a deeper level in the page hierarchy. A content map included in half the trials had a limited effect on recall accuracy. We conclude that reading networked digital documents taps VS working memory, possibly due to readers’ attempts to construct a topological representation of the network that coexists with the semantic representation of the contents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Behaviour
  • Laure Léger · Jean-François Rouet · Christine Ros · Nicolas Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: An eye-tracking experiment was performed to assess the influence of orthographic and semantic distractor words on visual search for words within lists. The target word (e.g., "raven") was either shown to participants before the search (literal search) or defined by its semantic category (e.g., "bird", categorical search). In both cases, the type of words included in the list affected visual search times and eye movement patterns. In the literal condition, the presence of orthographic distractors sharing initial and final letters with the target word strongly increased search times. Indeed, the orthographic distractors attracted participants' gaze and were fixated for longer times than other words in the list. The presence of semantic distractors related to the target word also increased search times, which suggests that significant automatic semantic processing of nontarget words took place. In the categorical condition, semantic distractors were expected to have a greater impact on the search task. As expected, the presence in the list of semantic associates of the target word led to target selection errors. However, semantic distractors did not significantly increase search times any more, whereas orthographic distractors still did. Hence, the visual characteristics of nontarget words can be strong predictors of the efficiency of visual search even when the exact target word is unknown. The respective impacts of orthographic and semantic distractors depended more on the characteristics of lists than on the nature of the search task.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology
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    Jason L G Braasch · Jean-François Rouet · Nicolas Vibert · M Anne Britt
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments, we examined the role of discrepancy on readers' text processing of and memory for the sources of brief news reports. Each story included two assertions that were attributed to different sources. We manipulated whether the second assertion was either discrepant or consistent with the first assertion. On the basis of the discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) assumption, we predicted that discrepant stories would promote deeper processing and better memory for the sources conveying the messages, as compared to consistent stories. As predicted, readers mentioned more sources in summaries of discrepant stories, recalled more sources, made more fixations, and displayed longer gaze times in source areas when reading discrepant than when reading consistent stories. In Experiment 2, we found enhanced memory for source-content links for discrepant stories even when intersentential connectors were absent, and regardless of the reading goals. Discussion was focused on discrepancies as one mechanism by which readers are prompted to encode source-content links more deeply, as a method of integrating disparate pieces of information into a coherent mental representation of a text.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Memory & Cognition
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    Zsofia Vörös · Jean-François Rouet · Csaba Pléh
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the cognitive abilities involved in hypertext learning and design approaches that can help users. We examined the effects of two types of high-level content organizers – a graphic spatial map and an alphabetical list – on readers’ memory for hypertext structure. In the control condition, a simple “home” page with no navigational aid was offered. Subjects were asked to read the hypertext with the purpose of learning the content, but in the post test phase they also had to recall the layout of nodes and links. Memory for links and page places varied as a function of condition. When a spatial map was available participants reconstructed more accurate formal structure then in the two other conditions. Participants’ memory about page places was the least accurate in the list condition. Results also indicate that participants use the content organizer when it is available in order to orientate during learning from hypertext documents.Our results prove that a content organizer showing the formal structure can facilitate the spatial mapping process. However, an organizer exposing a different structure than the real one would generate a conflict.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Computers in Human Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g., keywords and typographical emphasis) from deep semantic cues. Experiment 1 found that 5th and 7th graders' selections were strongly influenced by superficial relevance cues. The influence of superficial cues decreased in 9th and 12th graders. Experiment 2 examined the influence of prior elaboration of the search topic on 5th and 7th graders' website selection. Reading a short text about the search topic prior to selecting websites increased good readers' selection of relevant websites. Poor readers' selection performance was lower and unaffected by the task context manipulation. The results are discussed in terms of students' acquisition of flexible reading skills that include an awareness of the contextual demands. Implications for the use of Web-based tasks in instructional settings are considered.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Learning and Instruction
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    Ivar Bråten · M. Anne Britt · Helge I. Strømsø · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: In present-day knowledge societies, competent reading involves the integration of information from multiple sources into a coherent, meaningful representation of a topic, issue, or situation. This article reviews research and theory concerning the comprehension of multiple textual resources, focusing especially on linkages recently established between dimensions of epistemic beliefs and multiple-text comprehension. Moreover, a proposed model incorporates epistemic beliefs into a theoretical framework for explaining multiple-text comprehension, specifying how and why different epistemic belief dimensions may be linked to the comprehension and integration of multiple texts. Also discussed is the need for further research concerning mediational mechanisms, causality, and generalizability.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Educational Psychologist

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