Jean-François Gerard

Jean-François Gerard
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon | INSA Lyon

About

393
Publications
38,600
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8,053
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2016 - December 2017
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Directeur Adjoint Scientifique

Publications

Publications (393)
Article
Full-text available
We aim to maintain as much control over the microstructure development during the manufacture of polyurethane foam with a specific density. As a result, the finished product contains the shock absorber’s required characteristics. That is why polyurethane foam loaded with zinc oxide and silica must sustain the cellular structure and strengthen it. F...
Article
We aim to maintain as much control over the microstructure development during the manufacture of polyurethane foam with a specific density. As a result, the finished product contains the shock absorber’s required characteristics. That is why polyurethane foam loaded with zinc oxide and silica must sustain the cellular structure and strengthen it. F...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, different types of polyurethane foams (PUR) having various chemical compositions have been produced with a specific density to monitor the microstructure as much as possible. The foam may have a preferential orientation in the cell structure. The cellular polyurethane tends to have stubborn, typical cellular systems with strong overl...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: New epoxy-amine networks issue from epoxydized imidazolium ionic liquid monomers (ILMs) and isophorone diamine (IPD) were modified for the first time by incorporating unmodified trisilanol phenyl POSS® (POSS®Ph-triol) and two ionic liquid-modified POSS®Ph (IL-g-POSS®Ph) having chloride (Cl−) and bis-trifluoromethanesulfonimidate (NTf2−) c...
Article
Full-text available
Among the biopolymers available in the world, polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the highest biopolymers produced globally, thus, making it suitable for product commercialization. The effectiveness of natural fibre–reinforced PLA composite as an alternative material to substitute the non-renewable petroleum-based materials has been examined by researc...
Article
Designing innovative multi-functional thermoset polymers represents a major challenge in materials science. In this work, two novel polyhedral imidazolium ionic liquid supported on oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocages having chloride (Cl⁻) and bistrifluoromethanesulfonimidate (NTf2⁻) counter anions have been synthesized. These ionic nano-objects wer...
Article
In this paper, the synergistic use of polyetherimide (PEI) and a phosphonium-based ionic liquid (IL) as multifunctional agents in epoxy networks is evidenced. Indeed, such a combination leads to tailor both morphology and interphase and acts as polymerization initiator. The influence of the PEI content (5, 10, 15, and 20 phr) on the morphology and...
Article
In this work, alfa fiber reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites treated with PVC‐g‐MA (5%), used as a compatibilizer, are prepared using three processing techniques: calendering, Brabender, and injection molding. The morphology, the tensile and thermal properties of PVC/alfa composites with and without compatibilizer obtained through these...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced nanocomposites represent a unique opportunity in terms of designing advanced materials with mechanical reinforcement and improvements in the electrical and thermal conductivities. However, the toxic effects of these composites on human health have been studied, and very soon, some regulations on CNTs and on composit...
Article
In this study, a novel polymerizable ionic liquid monomer (ILM) based on a bis-imidazolium salt was firstly synthesized in order to substitute bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) as starting material, avoiding the use of highly toxic and carcinogenic bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin products. From such a new epoxy monomer, epoxy network was prepare...
Article
An efficient access to Cycloaliphatic Epoxy-Functionalized Ionic Liquids (CEIL) containing one or two imidazolium units was described for the first time. Due to the flexibility/versatility of the reported methodology, the synthesis of tailor-made ionic cycloaliphatic epoxy monomers was performed on a multigram scale (up to 25 g) in order to design...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, silica microcapsules containing phosphonium ionic liquid (IL), denoted SiO2@IL, were successfully synthesized for the first time using the one step sol-gel method in IL/H20 emulsion. The morphologies of the obtained micron-size microcapsules, including their diameter distribution, were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS...
Article
The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) of isoprene (I) initiated by the poly(ethylene-stat-butylene)-(SG1)2 dialkoxyamine (PEB-(SG1)2) at 115 oC in 50 vol% pyridine led to cis-1,4-rich poly(isoprene)s (PIs), exhibiting Mn,GPC = 52-59K (PI equivalents) and Ð = 1.46-1.59. S-I-S triblock copolymers (S = styrene, Mn,GPC = 95-109K, Ð = 2.11-2.29, F...
Article
Proton exchange membranes designed via reactive extrusion from the in situ generation of functional silica-like particles in a new poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (poly(VDF-co-HFP)) copolymer are presented. These sulfonic acid-functionalized polysiloxane-based fillers were synthesized via sol-gel chemistry from 3-mercaptopropyltri(e...
Article
Full-text available
Biodegradable polymers concern an important topic for innovation in materials, as they are supposed to contribute to the reduction in the amount of waste materials, which lead to microplastics with similar properties as conventional polymer materials. Poly(butylene succinate) and poly(lactic acid) blends are polymers with interesting properties off...
Article
Interfacial adhesion in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/glass fiber (GF) composites which are processed by in-situ polymerization of an acrylic reactive mixture, has been studied at both micro- and macro-scales. On one hand model systems were evaluated at microscale using the microbond test. On the other the 15° off-axis tensile test was used to...
Article
This study focuses on volatility and processing issues which can be faced when handling acrylic syrups designed for adhesive or composite applications. These reactive mixtures which are mainly constituted of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can yield thermoplastic matrices through radical polymerization. However, the r...
Article
Full-text available
Here, ionic liquids (ILs) based on imidazolium and ammonium cations were used as modifying agents for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by extrusion. The effects of the chemical nature of the cation and/or counter anion on the resulting properties of IL-modified PMMA blends were analyzed. It was found that the use of low amounts of ILs (2 wt.%) impr...
Article
In this work, two polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-supported imidazolium ionic liquid have been successfully synthesized and used as organic-inorganic hybrid nano-objects in order to design nanostructured epoxy-amine networks. In fact, two partially condensed POSS have been covalently grafted with an ionic liquid-functionalized silane. The ther...
Article
In this work, new (multi)functional-dedicated polymer materials were designed and processed from the co-polymerization between novel imidazolium ionic liquid monomer (ILM) with con-ventional polyetheramine denoted Jeffamine D230. First, a facile and robust synthetic route was investigated in order to design polyfunctional imidazolium monomers beari...
Article
Full-text available
β-Myrcene (My), a natural 1,3-diene, and isobornyl methacrylate (IBOMA), from partially bio-based raw materials sources, were copolymerized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) in bulk using the SG1-based BlocBuilder™ alkoxyamine functionalized with an N-succinimidyl ester group, NHS-BlocBuilder, at T = 100 °C with initial IBOMA molar feed co...
Article
This study focuses on the characterization of acrylic reactive mixtures designed for liquid composite molding (LCM) and yielding thermoplastic matrices for composite applications. Conversion degree, complex viscosity, and cure exothermicity are tracked during the radical polymerization. Results show that these systems suffer from Trommsdorff's effe...
Article
Full-text available
The toughness of a high-performance thermosetting epoxy network can be greatly improved by generating polyether sulfone−based macro- to nano-scale morphologies. Two polyethersulfones (PES) which only differ by their chain-end nature have been successively investigated as potential tougheners of a high-Tg thermoset matrix based on a mixture of trifu...
Article
In this paper, a convenient, straightforward, and large-scale transferable approach for the preparation of fluorine-free bioinspired superhydrophobic silica-filled photo-crosslinked polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) nanocomposite films is reported. The enrichment of the hydrophobic fumed silica at the film surface and especially its inherent dual scale d...
Article
The ability of different microstructures from ionic liquids (ILs) governed by anions and cations has been a source of curiosity for composite systems. In this present study, the structural behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with phosphonium- and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1 wt%) combined with different counter anions was investi...
Article
Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) was considered as an environmental friendly medium for grafting the surface of silica nanoparticles with a series of reactive imidazolium-based ionic liquids (IL), denoted as IL-silanes. The effects of the reaction conditions on the resulting IL-grafted layers on the silica surface were characterized from thermo...
Article
In order to design multiscale and multifunctional composites, synergy between carbon nanotubes and conventional carbon fibers was investigated. Two routes were compared to introduce carbon nanotubes into epoxy-carbon fibers composites either grown onto ex-PAN carbon fibers or directly under the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibers. The multiscale...
Article
Bulk nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) of β-myrcene (My)/glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) mixtures with varying GMA molar feed fraction (fGMA,0 = 0.10–0.91) was accomplished at 120 °C, initiated by SG1-based alkoxyamine bearing a N-succinimidyl ester group (NHS-BlocBuilder). Low dispersity My/GMA copolymers (Đ < 1.56) with slight number-average mo...
Article
In this work, the development of new biobased epoxy networks using phosphonium-based ionic liquids combined with dicyanamide and phosphinate counteranions as initiators of epoxy prepolymers was compared with a biobased epoxy-amine system. Ionic liquids (ILs) displayed high reactivity toward cardanol-based epoxy prepolymers, and the obtained biobase...
Article
Nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) of β-myrcene (My) at 120 °C in bulk using unimolecular SG1-based succinimidyl ester-functionalized BlocBuilder (BB) alkoxyamine resulted in low dispersity (Đ = 1.1–1.4) poly(myrcene)s P(My)s with high SG1 chain-end fidelity. The polymerizations also showed the number-average molecular weights (Mn) increased a...
Article
Covalently stabilized polymer assemblies are normally fabricated from the self-assembly of polymer chains followed by a crosslinking reaction. In this report, we show that a crosslinking-induced self-assembly approach, in which boronate crosslinking sites are formed by the condensation reaction between boronic and catechol groups, can organize poly...
Article
This work deals with the use of two types of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE) having different molar masses as toughening agents of epoxy/ionic liquid networks where phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) combined with phosphinate and phosphate counteranions were used as curing agents of the epoxy prepolymer. The effect of the chemical nature...
Article
Thermally reversible Diels-Alder adducts formed between furan and maleimide groups have been introduced into the interphase of a carbon fiber-reinforced composite material to design a self-healable composite material. The influence of the content of furfuryl glycidyl ether, FGE, comonomer which acts as a furan donor close to the interface was inves...
Article
The PeakForce QNM AFM mode was used to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(lactic acid) (PBAT/PLA) blends successfully compatibilized with phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs). This novel AFM mode allowed identification of the phase structuration and also emphasized the effect of the ioni...
Article
To obtain a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based nanomodifier, copolymerization of methacrylate-POSS (MA-POSS) and glycidyl MA (GMA) was carried out via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process. The as-synthesized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA)-b-P(MA-POSS) block copolymers (BCPs) were characterized by proton...
Article
In this study, electrospun fiber scaffolds based on biodegradable and bioabsorbable polymers and showing a similar structure to that of extracellular matrix (ECM) present in the neural tissues were prepared. The effects of electrospun-based scaffolds processed from poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(lactide-b-ethylene glycol-b-lactide) block copolymer (P...
Article
Electrospun polymer piezoelectric fibers can be used in neural tissue engineering (NTE) to mimic the physical, biological, and material properties of the native extracellular matrix. In this work, we have developed scaffolds based on polymer fiber architectures for application in NTE. To study the role of such three-dimensional scaffolds, a rotatin...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical properties of a common SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) matrix constituted of a vinylester resin and a Low-Profile Additive (LPA) were compared to those of vinylester modified with core-shell rubber (CSR) particles. Valuable properties are brought by CSR, especially high impact strength, high fracture toughness with little loss in stiffness,...
Article
In this work, tetraalkylphosphonium and dialkyl imidazolium ionic liquids have been studied as surfactant agents of layered silicates (montmorillonite, MMT). The influence of the chemical nature of the cations as well as the counteranions on the thermal behavior (TGA), on the structural analysis (XRD) and on the surface energies of organically modi...
Article
The development of mobile haptics and multimodal designs has been strongly limited by the lack of enabling actuator technologies. This paper presents the properties of an electrostrive actuator technology for haptic feedback. By carefully tailoring material properties and actuator designing which can be integrating in devices, this technology shoul...
Article
The present work is about the investigation of the fire behavior of epoxy networks designed for structural composite materials used in aeronautics. Two high-Tg, infusion-suitable epoxy systems were studied. A model system was based on tetraglycidyl(diaminodiphenyl)methane (TGDDM) as an epoxy prepolymer, and 4,4′ methylene bis(2,6-diethylaniline) (M...
Article
A new way to synthesize epoxy networks was reported in this work using phosphonium based ionic liquids combined with phosphinate, carboxylate, and phosphate counteranions. The influence of the chemical nature of the anions was investigated on the polymerization kinetics of epoxy systems as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy–IL n...
Chapter
In materials science, the unique properties of ionic liquids (ILs) are the focus of the academic and industrial research. They are commonly used as an alternative to conventional solvents in various areas such as electrochemistry, catalytic reactions, extraction processes, and metal removal in the field of nuclear wastes. The use of ILs in the fiel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acrylic matrix/fiber interfaces were investigated by considering microcomposites as models of fiber-based composites. The study was conducted considering various types of sized glass and carbon fibers. On one hand, the surface tension and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to quantify the wettability of the fibers by the acrylic matrices,...
Article
Ionic liquids based on tetraalkylphosphonium cations with long alkyl chains have been used as new compatibilizing agents of biopolymer blends composed of poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this study, the influence of the chemical nature of the counter anion on the morphologies as well as the thermal and m...
Article
In this study, synthesis of thiol-functionalized silica/PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)] nanocomposite materials was carried out by reactive extrusion through in situ sol-gel reactions of an alkoxysilane inorganic precursor solution composed of polydimethoxysiloxane (PDMOS) and mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES). Successf...
Article
Here we report a nanofluidics approach which allows one to discriminate, for the first time, between static and kinetic effects on the crystallization of polymers in 2-dimensional nanoconfinement. Nanofluidics cells designed to monitor in real time - via permittivity measurements - the flow process of polymers into cylindrical nanopores were employ...
Article
This chapter discusses the state of the art in the use of ionic liquids as polymer additives. Examples include ionic liquids as functional additives into polymer electrolytes or as lubricants, plasticizers, and building blocks in a polymer matrix or as surfactants of layered silicates in nanocomposites. The discussion will include the influence of...
Article
In this work, the potential use of lignin combined with ionic liquids (ILs) has been investigated on the final properties of biodegradable polymer blends. Poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephtalate)–polylactide–lignin (PBAT–PLA–Lig) were melted blending in one pot by using phosphonium ionic liquids as new additives. The effect of incorporating 16 wt% of...
Article
In the last few years, polymer materials scientists have put a lot of effort into the design of poly mer-based materials, tailored from the nanometer scale via the introduction of block copolymers, ionomers, or inorganic-rich nano-objects in order to introduce functionalities such as mechanical reinforcement, gas barrier properties, fire retardancy...
Patent
Full-text available
Storage-stable reactive inorganic clusters and a process for preparing such storage-stable reactive inorganic clusters (e.g., silica structures) having, for example, reactive amino groups. The storage-stable reactive inorganic clusters may be used as a curing agent for thermosetting resin compositions such as epoxy resins.
Article
Thermo-reversible Diels-Alder (DA) bonds formed between maleimide and furan groups have been used to generate an interphase between carbon fiber surface and an epoxy matrix leading to the ability of interfacial self-healing in carbon:epoxy composite materials. The maleimide groups were grafted on an untreated T700 carbon fiber from a three step sur...
Article
We have investigated the entropy change in the ferroelectric phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) 70/30 films by direct heat flux calorimetry using Peltier cell heat flux sensors. We find that by applying a negative electric field to a positively poled state, the entropy can be further increased without any significantly change of t...
Article
The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyethersulfone (PES) on the polymerization kinetics of N,N,N′,N′-tetraglycidyl-4,4′-diaminodiphenyl-methane epoxy resin (TGMDA) and 4,4diaminodiphenyl-methane-methylenebis(2,6-diethylaniline) hardener (MDEA) was studied by means of isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The autocataly...
Article
In this work, synthetic layered silicates denoted Somasif ME-100 and Laponite® RD were modified with dialkyl imidazolium and alkyl phosphonium ionic liquids by cationic exchange reaction. In both cases, the phosphonium (P-ME, P-RD) or imidazolium ion (I-ME, I-RD)-treated micas and laponites display an excellent thermal stability compared to commonl...
Article
Ionic liquids based on trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium combined with dicyanamide counteranion were used for the first time as functional additives to achieve epoxy networked polymeric materials which display a structuration at nanoscale (20-30 nm) with dramatic mechanical properties and a higher thermal stability (>400 °C). In fact, the curing proc...
Conference Paper
In this study, we investigated the influence of phosphonium ionic liquids combined with different anions. Bionanocomposites were developed from PBAT80wt%/PLA20wt% with 1wt% of ionic liquids. All the mixtures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. A synergy was achieved in the binary blend between the ductile PBAT and the brittle PLA, helped by th...
Article
This work is focused on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) as an environmentally friend process to improve the surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles with amino- and perfluoro-silanes. Here, we combine the use of a phosphonium ionic liquid which plays a role of an activator of silanol groups in ScCO2 to increase the grafting...
Article
A simple and scalable process was developed to prepare microcellular polystyrene-ionic liquid foams. The morphology and the physical properties of PS-IL foams were tuned as a function the chemical nature of cations varying from pyridinium, imidazolium to phosphonium and the functionalization either CO2-phobic with an alkyl ligand or CO2-philic with...
Article
Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A/Jeffamine D400 system was modified with 2.5 and 5.0 phr of ionic liquids based on imidazolium and phosphonium cations denoted N,N ′-dioctadecyl-imidazolium iodide, or octadecyl-triphenylphosphonium iodide, [OdTPP][I], aiming to develop new networked materials with enhanced performance particularly in terms of mechani...
Article
Hybrid organic/inorganic materials were prepared by an in situ sol–gel process using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of hyperbranched polyester. The influences of hyperbranched polyester molar mass as well as the amount of TEOS were examined. The condensation degree was characterized by solid state 29Si NMR. The combination of solubility t...
Article
The epoxy/amine networks were synthesized either from tetraglycidyl-4, 4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) and 4, 4′-Methylenebis(2, 6-diethylaniline) (MDEA), or from a commercial infusion-suitable formulation. They contained 4wt% of trisilanol Phenyl POSS as a fire retardant, with or without an aluminium catalyst. Morphologies (TEM), thermal stabili...
Article
In the framework of the increasing need for metal‐doped polymer materials for inertial confinement fusion targets, we report the preparation of low‐density titanium‐containing materials. For this purpose, we developed a new monomer based on hydroxyl and oxime chelation: Ti3(5‐vinylsalicylaldoximato)2(Oi‐Pr)8. We report here the synthesis, character...
Article
We investigated the entropy change in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)) films in the temperature range between -5 ∘C and 60 ∘C by direct heat flux calorimetry using Peltier cell heat flux sensors. At the electric field E = 50 MVm-1 the isothermal entropy change attains a maximum of |Δs|=4.2 Jkg-1...
Article
Polymer organic–inorganic hybrids, where the high‐aspect ratio inorganic filler can be delaminated at the nanometer scale, are able to increase their enhancement very significantly at very low‐filler volume. Necessary requirement for the use of materials in packaging and storage applications are presented by gas barrier properties. Modified type of...