Jean-Claude Moubarac

Jean-Claude Moubarac
Université de Montréal | UdeM · Department of Nutrition

MSc, PhD

About

81
Publications
98,686
Reads
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8,044
Citations
Education
January 2004 - May 2011
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Public Health
September 2000 - June 2002
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Anthropology
September 1997 - June 2000
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
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Background and aims The negative effect on dietary nutrient profiles is the most obvious mechanism explaining the higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases associated with increased dietary share of UPF observed in large cohort studies. We estimate the proportion of diets with excessive energy density, excessive free sugars or saturated fat contents...
Article
The second edition of the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population (DGBP) advises “eating regularly and carefully”, “eating in appropriate environments,” and “eating in company”. Individuals may interpret these guidelines differently. We analyzed social representations of these recommendations to ascertain how such representations relate to...
Article
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Diet-related diseases and disorders in Canada are a national public health emergency, now and as projected. One main reason is that the national food supply has become increasingly dominated by ultra-processed food and drink products, mostly snacks, that displace dietary patterns based on fresh meals. Policies and practices that will enhance the go...
Article
Objective To evaluate the extent of implementation of public policies aimed at creating healthy eating environments in Senegal compared to international best practice and identity priority actions to address the double burden of malnutrition. Design The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) was used by a local expert panel to assess the...
Article
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Excess sugar consumption can lead to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes. Increasingly, ultra-processed foods (UPF) are suspected to be great contributors to free sugars intake in the population’s diet. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between UPF consumption and free sugars intake in the Canadian p...
Technical Report
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Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la hipertensión arterial, la hiperglucemia en ayunas, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se encuentran entre los principales factores de riesgo de muerte de la población mundial. Estas alteraciones fueron responsables de 23% de las muertes en el mundo en el 2004 y de 31% de las registradas en las Américas en...
Article
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Cross-sectional nutritional survey data collected in eight countries were used to estimate saturated fatty acid intakes. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive saturated fatty acid intakes (>10 % of total energy intake) that could be avoided if ultra-processed food consumption was reduced to levels observed in the first quintile...
Article
The NOVA classification categorizes foods according to the extent of industrial processing. NOVA has been used in dietary guidelines of some countries including Brazil and Uruguay. This article aimed to investigate knowledge and perceptions of a sample of Brazilian adults regarding NOVA. A qualitative study was conducted in Dourados city, Mato Gros...
Article
Background: A larger share of ultra-processed foods and drinks (UPF) in the diet is increasingly linked with poor diet quality, weight gain and elevated risk of diet-related chronic disease. This study used 2015 national-level data, the most recent available, to characterize the intake of UPF among Canadians and to examine changes since 2004. Data...
Article
Contexte De plus en plus, on associe un régime alimentaire composé d’une quantité accrue d’aliments et de boissons ultratransformés (AUT) à une mauvaise alimentation, à une prise de poids et à un risque élevé de maladies chroniques liées à l’alimentation. La présente étude repose sur les données nationales de 2015, les dernières données accessible...
Article
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Objective To assess the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults.Methods This study used cross-sectional data from 13,608 adults (aged 19+ years) from the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition. The survey provided...
Article
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In sub-Saharan Africa, urbanisation and food systems change contribute to rapid dietary transitions promoting obesity. It is unclear to what extent these changes are mediated by neighbourhood food environments or other factors. This paper correlates neighbourhood food provision with household consumption and poverty in Khayelitsha, South Africa and...
Article
Ultra-processed food: its nature, cost, reformulation, and global impact. Letter to Cell Metabolism responding to the Hall et al randomised controlled trial. In April Cell Metabolism, a US journal with an impact factor of over 20, published a randomised controlled trial showing that consuming ad libitum diets of ultra-processed foods as defined by...
Article
This study evaluated global trends in ultraprocessed food and drink (UPFD) volume sales/capita and associations with adult body mass index (BMI) trajectories. Total food/drink volume sales/capita from Euromonitor for 80 countries (2002-2016) were matched to mean adult BMI from the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2002-2014). Products were classified...
Article
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In March 2018, the French parliament launched an inquiry into industrial food and its ‘nutritional quality, role in the emergence of chronic diseases, and the social and environmental impact of its origin’. Our aim was to analyse the food industry’s submissions to the inquiry, particularly discussions around the role that the food industry has play...
Article
The aim of this study is to have an exploratory insight on how a sample of Brazilian adults classify food, attempting to identify the main factors involved in this process, and to compare these classifications to the NOVA food classification of the 2014 Brazilian dietary guidelines. An exploratory and qualitative approach was conducted with a selec...
Article
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The present commentary contains a clear and simple guide designed to identify ultra-processed foods. It responds to the growing interest in ultra-processed foods among policy makers, academic researchers, health professionals, journalists and consumers concerned to devise policies, investigate dietary patterns, advise people, prepare media coverage...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products and its association with the nutrient profile of the Colombian diet in 2005. Materials and methods: Food consumption based on 24-hour dietary records from 38 643 men and women was classified into four NOVA groups according to the extent and purpose of food processi...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary contains a clear and simple guide designed to identify ultra-processed foods. It responds to the growing interest in ultra-processed foods among policy makers, academic researchers, health professionals, journalists and consumers concerned to devise policies, investigate dietary patterns, advise people, prepare media coverage, and w...
Article
Full-text available
Almost all foods are processed to some extent, if only by preservation, and it is therefore unhelpful to criticise foods as being ‘processed’. A number of food classifications have been devised that pay special attention to types of processing. A systematic review has shown that, of these, NOVA is the most specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and...
Article
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The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and...
Article
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In Table 3, there were missing values in the Physical activity and Smoking status sections. The correct version of Table 3 is displayed here.
Article
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Objectives To assess the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in the Canadian population. Methods Cross-sectional study including 19,363 adults aged 18 years or more from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2. Ultra-processed food intake was estimated using daily relative energy intake of ultra-proces...
Article
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The BMJ’s introduction to its series on the science and politics of nutrition states: “More articles are planned.” The BMJ should commission a further series with more authors from countries where fresh foods and freshly cooked regular meals are common. This should generate policies and actions that further protect public health as well as culture,...
Article
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A response to the BMJ series Science and politics of nutrition. We suggest that the BMJ follows this series on the science and politics of nutrition with a further co-ordinated series of papers involving more authors from regions and countries whose food systems expressed as freshly prepared regular meals still survive. Nutrition scientists should...
Article
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Objective To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity. Design Ecological, cross-sectional study. Setting Europe. Subjects Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surve...
Article
We investigated the food types consumed by 3276 First Nations citizens from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study (FNFNES) living on-reserve in Canada. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were classified into NOVA categories: fresh or minimally processed foods (MPF), processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed f...
Technical Report
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(Jean-Claude Moubarac is author of this report. I supported him with research, writing and editing). Chronic diseases such as diabetes, stroke, heart disease and metabolic syndrome, as well as obesity, amount to a public health crisis in Canada, other high-income countries, and now globally. They result in loss of well-being and productive life, a...
Article
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It is now generally agreed that the impact of the current nature, purpose and extent of food processing on human well-being, health and disease needs to be better understood and explained, in order to improve public health. The special issue of Public Health Nutrition devoted to the concept of ultra-processing of food, and the NOVA classification o...
Conference Paper
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Background and Objective: A rapid simultaneous increase in sales of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity and other diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) has been observed in Latin America over the past decades. Our study describes the consumption of ultra-processed foods and its association with the nutrient profile of di...
Article
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Objective: To estimate the impact of reducing saturated fat, trans-fat, salt and added sugar from processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet on preventing cardiovascular deaths by 2030. Design: A modelling study. Setting: Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey 2008/2009. All food items...
Article
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Objective: The present paper aimed to identify the stakeholders, as well as their arguments and recommendations, in the debate on the application of a food processing-based classification system to the new Brazilian Food Guide. Design: Qualitative approach; an analysis was made of documents resulting from the consultation conducted for the devel...
Article
Objective To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve...
Article
Objective To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context. Design The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed pr...
Article
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Given evident multiple threats to food systems and supplies, food security, human health and welfare, the living and physical world and the biosphere, the years 2016–2025 are now designated by the UN as the Decade of Nutrition, in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. For these initiatives to succeed, it is necessary to know which foods...
Article
This study describes food consumption patterns in Canada according to the types of food processing using the Nova classification and investigates the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the nutrient profile of the diet. Dietary intakes of 33,694 individuals from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey aged 2 years and abo...
Article
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Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processe...
Article
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NOVA is the food classification that categorises foods according to the extent and purpose of food processing, rather than in terms of nutrients. In recent decades some attention has been paid to the increasing importance of food processing in global food supplies and dietary patterns, and its role in the pandemics of diet-related non-communicable...
Article
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To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather tha...
Article
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Background Sales and consumption of ultra-processed products (UPP) haven risen rapidly in middle-income countries in recent decades. These products are likely to contribute to the growing cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in these countries because they are heavily marketed and nutritionally imbalanced, being typically high in unhealthy fats, sal...
Data
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity indicators among Brazilian adults and adolescents. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on 30,243 individuals aged ≥10years from the 2008-2009 Brazilian Dietary Survey. Food consumption data were collected through 24-h...
Article
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10...
Article
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to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity indicators among Brazilian adults and adolescents. We used cross-sectional data on 30,243 individuals aged ≥10 years from the 2008-2009 Brazilian Dietary Survey. Food consumption data were collected through 24-hour food records. We classified food items accord...
Article
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To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014. The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects o...
Article
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OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of t...
Article
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The global burden of non-communicable diseases partly reflects growing exposure to ultra-processed food products (UPPs). These heavily marketed UPPs are cheap and convenient for consumers and profitable for manufacturers, but contain high levels of salt, fat and sugars. This study aimed to explore the potential mortality reduction associated with f...
Article
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This is the 50th issue of WN, which since our launch has published just over 3,500 pages. In 2014 our 11 issues averaged just over a modest 100 pages. Our 117 named authors of contributions published in the year come from many countries and all continents, and we have thanked them all, for their time, skills, wisdom and encouragement, freely given...
Article
Building greater reciprocity between traditional and modern food systems and better convergence of human and economic development outcomes may enable the production and consumption of accessible, affordable, and appealing nutritious food for all. Information being key to such transformations, this roadmap paper offers a strategy that capitalizes on...
Technical Report
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(Those listed here were responsible for the technical coordination and formulation of these official national dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian federal Ministry of Health. The abstract is taken from the preamble by the General Coordination of Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Brasília) The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends,...
Article
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Background The world faces a growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This partly reflects the global exposure to Ultra-Processed food Products (UPPs). UPPs are cheap, abundant, heavily marketed and convenient for consumers and highly profitable for manufacturers. However, the increasing production and consumption of UPPs is highly damag...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Processed foodstuff may have a lower nutritional value than natural products. AIM: To analyze the impact of ready-to-consume products on diet quality of Chilean households. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A national representative sample of 10,096 households, based on the 6th Survey on Household Budget and Expenses (VI Encuesta de Presupuestos...
Article
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Background: Processed foodstuff may have a lower nutritional value than natural products. Aim: To analyze the impact of ready-to-consume products on diet quality of Chilean households. Material and Methods: A national representative sample of 10,096 households, based on the 6th Survey on Household Budget and Expenses (VI Encuesta de Presupuestos y...
Article
This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of...
Article
Purpose: A classification of foods based on the nature, extent, and purpose of industrial food processing was used to assess changes in household food expenditures and dietary energy availability between 1938 and 2011 in Canada. Methods: Food acquisitions from six household food budget surveys (1938/1939 , 1953, 1969, 1984, 2001, and 2011) were cl...
Article
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Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence...
Article
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Purpose: A classification of foods based on the nature, extent, and purpose of industrial food processing was used to assess changes in household food expenditures and dietary energy availability between 1938 and 2011 in Canada. Methods: Food acquisitions from six household food budget surveys (1938/1939 , 1953, 1969, 1984, 2001, and 2011) were...
Article
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(This is the second position paper, which supersedes the first paper also available on ResearchGate). Reformulation of processed food and drink products is a prime nutrition policy priority. It justifies ‘public-private partnerships’ at which agreements concerning product formulation are made. Reformulation that reduces the amount of fat or sugar o...
Article
The relationship between the global food system, and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases, is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing...
Article
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Objective: To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. Methods: Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in t...
Article
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This paper tests the hypothesis that one important factor determining household availability of ready-to-consume products is their cost relative to the rest of the diet. National food expenditure surveys in the UK (2008) and Brazil (2008-09) were used. Purchased food quantities were converted into dietary energy (calories) and classified into three...
Article
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A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review...
Article
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To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. A cross-sectional study. A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadia...