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Jean-Claude Croizet

Jean-Claude Croizet
Université Clermont-Auvergne · Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale et Cognitive LAPSCO UMR CNRS 6024

About

73
Publications
101,253
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3,379
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
1577 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Exposure to social norms is a popular way to foster healthy food behavior. Testing the robustness of this effect, we report a field study assessing the impact of a vegetable-related descriptive norm message on vegetables purchase. The first contribution was to rely on a cluster randomized crossover design: Two canteens were randomly selected to dis...
Article
Full-text available
The relationships between subjective status and perceived legitimacy are important for understanding the extent to which people with low status are complicit in their oppression. We use novel data from 66 samples and 30 countries (N = 12,788) and find that people with higher status see the social system as more legitimate than those with lower stat...
Preprint
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Confronted with a task of a given level of objective difficulty, students can experience different subjective feelings of difficulty (i.e., cognitive fluency). In this paper, we propose that in evaluative contexts, this subjective experience of difficulty is enough to threaten self-image and thereby disrupt performance. Across two pilot and one pre...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research on romantic relationships suggests that being in love involves a blurring of self–other cognitive boundaries. However, this research has focused so far on conceptual self-representation, related to the individual’s traits or interests. The present study tested the hypothesis that passionate love involves a reduced discrimination betw...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers the idea that the educational system participates in the (re)production of social inequality. After outlining and discussing the sociological hypothesis that institutions play a role in the perpetuation of inequalities, we present social psychological research that highlights how educational settings engage students in a way...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining a higher education is critical to financial security, high-status career opportunities, and an increased quality of life. As such, understanding the barriers to educational attainment that certain disadvantaged groups must scale is paramount to creating a more equitable, productive, and diverse workforce. This special issue presents seven...
Article
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Cette note revient sur la manière dont l’école contribue à la production des inégalités scolaires dès l’école maternelle. Il existe sur cette question une litté- rature conséquente. Mais l’axe privilégié ici est original à double titre. Il cible, pour l’essentiel, un niveau scolaire peu investi scientifiquement, et pourtant décisif pour la suite de...
Article
This article examines how the educational system participates in the reproduction of social inequality. After exposing the basics of the Social Reproduction Theory developed in sociology by Bourdieu and Passeron in 1977, we examine the research in social psychology that documents the reality of 'symbolic violence' that is the symbolic power that op...
Article
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Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., hig...
Article
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Until recently, social class has been rarely studied in psychology, and when it was taken into account it was rather as a control demographic variable than as a variable of interest. The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated review of recent research in social psychology that examines how social class influences psychological functioning an...
Article
Our daily interactions are influenced by the social roles we endorse. People however underestimate these role constraints in their everyday explanation relying on individual dispositions to make sense of behaviors. Two studies investigated whether this bias is exacerbated when role structure is legitimated and when power matches the advantages conf...
Article
Full-text available
Ce texte explore la manière dont les orientations de l'apprentissage à l'école maternelle contribuent à faire des écarts de ressources entre élèves, des facteurs de différenciation et, surtout, des occasions d'éprouver concrètement les inégalités scolaires.
Article
Full-text available
Age-related stereotype concerns culturally shared beliefs about the inevitable decline of memory with age. In this study, stereotype priming and stereotype threat manipulations were used to explore the impact of age-related stereotype on metamemory beliefs and episodic memory performance. Ninety-two older participants who reported the same perceive...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high-perceptual load preventing distraction from any irrelevant information. However when being under evaluative pressure individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them also more distractible...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate how selection policiesthe rules defining access to a valued positioncan act as situational cues signaling social identity threat or safety among women and men. College students took a logic test ostensibly determining their assignment to a position of leader or subordinate for a subsequent task. Study 1 showed that when only the test...
Article
Full-text available
People's ability to resist cognitive distraction is crucial in many situations. The present research examines individuals' resistance to attentional distraction under conditions of evaluative pressure. In a series of 4 studies, participants had to complete various attentional tasks while believing their intelligence was or was not under the scrutin...
Article
We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical-decision task (LDT). Both nouns and verbs referred to dynamic or static situations. The characteristics of our material were specified at both the formal level (number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the semantic level (dy...
Article
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This paper examines the first moments of the emergence of "psychometrics" as a discipline, using a history of the Binet–Simon test (precursor to the Stanford–Binet) to engage the question of how intelligence became a "psychological object." To begin to answer this, we used a previously-unexamined set of French texts to highlight the negotiations an...
Chapter
Psychology has penetrated many domains of society and can be considered as a very successful social science. It is widely present in education, in the workplace, in court and not to mention in people’s private life. This success owes to a large extent to the fact that psychology offers a scientific credit to an important and key cultural principle...
Article
Full-text available
The present research examines when and how upward social comparison (USC) affects basic attentional processing. We first propose that USC affects attention only when the dimension of comparison is self-threatening. Sec- ond, using a visual probe task, two studies tested whether self-threatening USC results in withdrawing attention from peripheral e...
Article
We analyzed the differential processing of nouns and verbs in a lexical decision task. Moderate and high-frequency nouns and verbs were compared. The characteristics of our material were specified at the formal level (number of letters and syllables, number of homographs, orthographic neighbors, frequency and age of acquisition), and at the semanti...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory capacity, our ability to manage incoming information for processing purposes, predicts achievement on a wide range of intellectual abilities. Three randomized experiments (N = 310) tested the effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention designed to boost working memory efficiency (i.e., state working memory capacity) by allevi...
Article
The detrimental consequences of negative stereotypes on performance have been demonstrated in a variety of social groups with various stereotypes. The present studies investigate the minimal conditions for stereotype threat using newly created groups. Results of three experiments (total N = 184) demonstrate that in the negative stereotype condition...
Article
This article focuses on intelligence testing and discusses its role in the process of group domination between whites and blacks and more generally between the haves and the have-nots. The article first argues that standardized testing, from its inception, has constituted an institutionalized arrangement aimed at expropriating resources from domina...
Chapter
Full-text available
Each year, the profile report issued by the College Board systematically reveals that Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores are strongly related to parental annual income (College Entrance Examination Board, 2009). The very rich get the best scores, the very poor the lowest. This chapter focuses on the ways in which stereotypes that portray the p...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes may influence performance of stereotyped individuals by means of stereotype internalization and/or by means of stereotype threatening situations. The present study investigated the joint influence of those mechanisms on women’s math performance, taking stereotype endorsement as a proxy for internalization. Results show that, congruent w...
Article
The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (...
Article
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Achievement gaps between social groups may result from stereotype threat effects but also from stereotype lift effects—the performance boost caused by the awareness that an outgroup is negatively stereotyped. We examined stereotype lift and threat effects in the motor domain and investigated their mediation by task involvement and self- confidence,...
Article
It has long been argued that stigmatized individuals can ultimately internalize the stereotype alleging their inferiority. The present article investigated whether the internalization of the reputation of math inferiority that targets women can affect their math performance and whether this influence is caused by a disruption of working memory. A f...
Article
Full-text available
Can the salience of gender identity affect the math performance of 7–8 year old girls? Third-grade girls and boys were required to solve arthmetical problems of varied difficulty. Prior to the test, one half of the participants had their gender identity activated. Results showed that activation of gender identity affected girls’ performance but not...
Article
Full-text available
Based on Eccles’ (1987) model of academic achievement-related decisions, we tested whether women, who are engaged in mathematical fields at university, have internalized, to some extent, the stereotype about women’s inferiority in math. The results indicate that men and women do not assess their ability self-concept, subjective value of math, or pe...
Article
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Cet article livre une synthèse sur les effets encore assez méconnus et mani-festement complexes du maquillage facial, en particulier celui appliqué quotidiennement par de nombreuses femmes, en matière d'inférences per-sonnologiques et donc de perception sociale. Tantôt positifs tantôt négatifs, à l'instar de ceux liés à l'attractivité physique, ces...
Article
This paper offers a review about the still neglected and manifestly complex effects of cosmetics use, especially facial make-up, on personality inferences and thus social perception. Sometimes positive and sometimes negative, like those related to physical attractiveness, these effects appear irreducible to the latter and thus seem to reflect the i...
Article
Full-text available
Can a group reputation of intellectual inferiority interfere with memory efficiency? Students targeted by a stereotype of lower ability had to memorize letter-number pairs (C-49) in a task presented either as a test of learning ability (diagnostic condition) or as a laboratory exercise (non diagnostic condition). The difficulty of the task was mani...
Article
The effects of cosmetics on impression formation were tested with students from either psychology or business and aesthetic schools. They were presented photographs of young and older female targets wearing or not wearing facial makeup and rated them for both physical attractiveness and a number of personality traits. In contrast with Graham and Jo...
Article
Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds perform worse on standardized tests than other students. Two experiments investigated whether the testing situation per se contributes to the relationship between social class and intellectual achievement. In study 1, students from low or high social class took a GRE-like test that was described either as...
Article
Full-text available
Research on stereotype threat has repeatedly demonstrated that the intellectual performance of social groups is particularly sensitive to the situational context in which tests are usually administered. In the present experiment, an adaptation of the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test was introduced as a measure of cognitive ability. Results...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments tested whether the use of facial make-up elicits positive or negative implicit attitudes. Students in psychology, business, and aesthetics performed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IAT) measuring the link between portrayed women wearing or not wearing make-up and high versus low status professions, pleasant versus unpleasa...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of subliminal primes (faces of Afro-Caribbean and white European people) on social behavior (competitiveness in a Prisoners' Dilemma Game) and whether these automatic category activation effects would be affected by prejudice level. In the first experiment (N = 48), prejudice level was fou...
Article
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In J. C. Croizet & J. P. Leyens (Eds.).
Article
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Students holding less prestigious technological baccalaureates underachieve in college compared to those who have a general baccalaureate. Because they are also suspected of having lower intellectual ability, the stereotype threat hypothesis (C. M. Steele, 1997) was tested as a possible explanation for this difference. It was expected that activati...
Article
This article proposes a critical review of the literature on stereotype threat. First, we present the pioneering studies of Steele and Aronson (1995). We discuss the originality of their approach and review the research that has established the generality of the stereotype threat phenomenon. Then, we examine the conditions necessary for this phenom...
Article
Full-text available
This article proposes a critical review of the literature on stereotype threat. First, we present the pioneering studies of Steele and Aronson (1995). We discuss the originality of their approach and review the research that has established the generality of the stereotype threat phenomenon. Then, we examine the conditions necessary for this phenom...
Article
Full-text available
According to Steele (1997), negative stereotypes about intellectual abilities can act as a threat that disrupts the performance of students targeted by bad reputations. Previous research on stereotype threat has showed that on a stereotype-relevant test, stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) performed worse than others on an intellect...
Article
Full-text available
This research extended stereotype-threat effects outside of the academic domain and to a nonstigmatized group. Female and male students performed three decision tasks: lexical, valence, and affective processing. Half of the participants were told that, in general, men are poorer performers than are women in affective processing tasks. No difference...
Article
Two studies investigated how social goals moderate priming effects on judgment. Strong motivation to judge was hypothesized to compensate for the low judged usability (see Higgins, 1996) of a general evaluative activation following nonapplicable priming. Supporting this hypothesis, the results of two experiments showed that when participants felt e...
Article
Full-text available
Students from poorer families perform worse on intellectual tasks than do other students. The authors tested the stereotype threat hypothesis as a possible explanation for this difference. Students from relatively poor backgrounds, such as members of other stereotyped groups, risk confirming a negative reputation of low intellectual ability. The au...
Article
This study investigated the facilitation and inhibition effects of several types of valenced subliminal primes on the decision latencies of the positive or negative valence of different personality trait targets. The subjects' task was to decide, as quickly as possible, whether each of a series of traits (targets) connoted something positive or neg...

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Project (1)
Project
France is one of the countries where socio-economic status (SES) has the greatest influence on academic achievement. This influence of SES is observed very early during development as at the age of 2 low SES children already have lower verbal skills than high SES children. In France, preschool is designed to reduce these initial inequalities by providing low SES children with greater familiarity and readiness in counting, speaking and pre-reading. However, existing studies do not indicate that preschool actually reduces these initial inequalities. Although early and regular attendance in preschool confers to all children an advantage in first grade (e.g., alphabet recognition, speaking), attending preschool does not reduce social inequalities in educational outcomes. Indeed, low SES children enter first grade lagging behind high SES children in terms of speaking, reading and writing. The first objective of the project is to examine why preschool settings fail to reduce initial academic disparities related to SES. Our main hypothesis is that preschool settings do not allow equal participation of children from different SES. Because of academic norms that match middle and high SES children socialization but mismatch low SES children socialization, we assume that low SES children have a lower level of oral participation during collective exchanges than middle and high SES children. Regarding the children, we predict that compared to middle and high SES children, low SES children are not only less likely to speak after being solicited but also less likely to “take the floor” (i.e., speak without being asked to or interrupt) during collective exchanges. Indeed, starting preschool while being less familiar with academic knowledge and skills (e.g., names of the letters, books for children), and the expression of personal opinions, but also with less family experiences to value (e.g., cultural activities such as visit of museums, travel) do not facilitate active participation in the classroom. Regarding the teachers, we expect them to be (unintentionally) less likely to foster low SES children’s participation by asking them fewer questions and giving them less opportunities to speak, but also to be less likely to allow low SES children to “take the floor”. Adopting a developmental perspective, the second objective of the project is to investigate how these SES differences in oral participation evolves from the beginning to the end of preschool. Indeed, although there is some research showing a strong correlation between SES and verbal skills before preschool and after preschool, to our knowledge no research has addressed the evolution of these inequalities during preschool socialization. The third objective is to design, implement and assess an intervention aiming at changing teachers’ practices in order to improve low SES oral participation and thereby reduce initial academic disparities. The underlying principle of this intervention is to make teachers aware of initial cultural disparities between the children but also to provide them with strategies to foster oral participation of low SES children. To address the two first objectives, we will conduct observations in 20 French classrooms, for a total sample of around 500 children. In order to overcome some limitations inherent to direct observations in natural settings, we will use a video recording and a coding device to examine children’s and teachers’ behaviors in preschool settings. This device allows collection of quantitative data by recording videos of class sessions for behavior coding. To address the third objective, we will develop, implement and assess an intervention aimed at changing teachers’ practices. Participants will be 40 teachers, for a total sample of around 1000 preschoolers. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, children’s verbal skills will be assessed in September before the intervention and in June at the end of the academic year.