Jay Johnson

Jay Johnson
Sandia National Laboratories · Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration

M.S. Mechanical Engineering

About

172
Publications
127,259
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Introduction
Jay Johnson currently works at the Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration, Sandia National Laboratories.
Additional affiliations
April 2010 - March 2020
Sandia National Laboratories
Position
  • Principal Member of Technical Staff
Education
August 2007 - December 2009
Georgia Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering
August 2003 - December 2006
Missouri University of Science and Technology
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (172)
Article
Full-text available
The 2011 National Electrical Code® (NEC®) added Article 690.11 that requires photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed DC arc fault protection device. To fill this new market, manufacturers are developing new Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs). Comprehensive and challenging testing has been conducted using a wid...
Article
Full-text available
With increasing penetrations of inverter-based, renewable energy resources on electrical grids around the world, new distributed energy resource (DER) interconnection and interoperability requirements have been introduced to address emerging power system operator needs. The inverter-based power conversion systems are capable of communicating with g...
Technical Report
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This report provides an introduction to cyber security for distributed energy resources (DER)—such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters and energy storage systems (ESS). This material is motivated by the need to assist DER vendors, aggregators, grid operators, and broader PV industry with cyber security resilience and describe the state-of-the-art for se...
Article
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The American distributed energy resource (DER) interconnection standard, IEEE Std. 1547, was updated in 2018 to include standardized interoperability functionality. As state regulators begin ratifying these requirements, all DER—such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters, energy storage systems (ESSs), and synchronous generators—in those jurisdictions mus...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cyber-secure, resilient energy is paramount to the prosperity of the United States. As the experience and sophistication of cyber adversaries grow, so too must the US power system’s defenses, situational awareness, and response and recovery strategies. Traditionally, power systems were operated with dedicated communication channels to large generat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As the U.S. electrifies the transportation sector, cyberattacks targeting vehicle charging could impact several critical infrastructure sectors including power systems, manufacturing, medical services, and agriculture. This is a growing area of concern as charging stations increase power delivery capabilities and must communicate to authorize charg...
Presentation
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SAND2022-9313 C
Article
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In the near future, grid operators are expected to regularly use advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions, defined in IEEE 1547-2018, to perform a range of grid-support operations. Many of these functions adjust the active and reactive power of the device through commanded or autonomous operating modes which induce new stresses on the p...
Presentation
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Conference Paper
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Inverters convert DC power to AC power that can be injected into the grid. Many inverters offer multiple, independent maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) to accommodate photovoltaic arrays with different orientations or capacities. No validated model for overall DC-to-AC power conversion efficiency is available for such inverters. Herein, we propo...
Article
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Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a linchpin for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have recently identified several...
Technical Report
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Currently, the solar industry is operating with little application-specific guidance on how to protect and defend their systems from cyberattacks. This 3-year Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office-funded project helped advance the distributed energy resource (DER) cybersecurity state-of-the-art by (a) bolstering industry aware...
Conference Paper
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The sophistication and regularity of power system cybersecurity attacks has been growing in the last decade, leading researchers to investigate new innovative, cyber-resilient tools to help grid operators defend their networks and power systems. One promising approach is to apply recent advances in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to aid grid oper...
Preprint
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As more countries seek solutions to their de-carbonization targets using renewable energy (RE) technologies, interconnection standards and national grid codes for distributed energy resources (DER) are being updated to support higher penetrations of RE and improve grid stability. Common grid-code revisions mandate DER devices, such as solar inverte...
Presentation
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IEEE ECCE 2021 Special Session on Cybersecurity for Power Electronics
Technical Report
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While computer systems, software applications, and operational technology (OT)/Industrial Control System (ICS) devices are regularly updated through automated and manual processes, there are several unique challenges associated with distributed energy resource (DER) patching. Millions of DER devices from dozens of vendors have been deployed in home...
Technical Report
Full-text available
There are now over 2.5 million Distributed Energy Resource (DER) installations connected to the U.S. power system. These installations represent a major portion of American electricity critical infrastructure and a cyberattack on these assets in aggregate would significantly affect grid operations. Virtualized Operational Technology (OT) equipment...
Presentation
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Slides from the Aug 26, 2021 SunSpec/Sandia DER Cybersecurity Workgroup Webinar Series including cybersecurity hardening technology survey and proactive intrusion detection and mitigation system design.
Presentation
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US DOE Wind Energy Technologies Office Peer Review Presentation
Presentation
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2021 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review Presentation
Technical Report
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Superstorm Sandy caused a major disruption to passenger-rail and other commuter systems throughout New York and New Jersey. To address this issue, New Jersey Transit (NJT) established the NJ TRANSITGRID project, an effort designed to power bus, ferry, and limited passenger-rail service during natural or man-made disasters. Given the importance of t...
Technical Report
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Recent trends in the growth of distributed energy resources (DER) in the electric grid and newfound malware frameworks that target internet of things (IoT) devices is driving an urgent need for more reliable and effective methods for intrusion detection and prevention. Cybersecurity intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are responsible for detecting t...
Article
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Real-time state estimation using a digital twin can overcome the lack of in-field measurements inside an electric feeder to optimize grid services provided by distributed energy resources (DERs). Optimal reactive power control of DERs can be used to mitigate distribution system voltage violations caused by increased penetrations of photovoltaic (PV...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cybersecurity for internet-connected Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is essential for the safe and reliable operation of the US power system. Many facets of DER cybersecurity are currently being investigated within different standards development organizations, research communities, and industry committees to address this critical need. This rep...
Chapter
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Energy storage systems (ESSs) are becoming an essential part of the power grid of the future, making them a potential target for physical and cyberattacks. Large-scale ESSs must include physical security technologies to protect them from adversarial actions that could damage or disable the equipment. Many grid-support applications require ESS equip...
Presentation
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PV Cybersecurity Update for CATSS
Poster
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An infographic for EVSE cybersecurity recommendations and best practices. Sandia National Laboratories Reference Number: SAND2020-11401 D
Article
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Increasing penetrations of interoperable distributed energy resources (DER) in the electric power system are expanding the power system attack surface. Maloperation or malicious control of DER equipment can now cause substantial disturbances to grid operations. Fortunately, many options exist to defend and limit adversary impact on these newly-crea...
Conference Paper
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Grid codes around the world are requiring grid-support functions (GSFs) and standardized interoperability inte rfaces for distributed energy resources (DERs) to address the rapid increase of renewable energy. However, these new GSFs ne e d to be assessed to ensure the desired power and communication capabilities exist in the field. The IEEE 1547.1...
Article
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Grid operators are now considering using distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide distribution voltage regulation rather than installing costly voltage regulation hardware. DER devices include multiple adjustable reactive power control functions, so grid operators have the difficult decision of selecting the best operating mode and settings f...
Article
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The integration of smart grid technologies in interconnected power system networks presents multiple challenges for the power industry and the scientific community. To address these challenges, researchers are creating new methods for the validation of: control, interoperability, reliability of Internet of Things systems, distributed energy resourc...
Presentation
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Project Update for the 2020 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review
Conference Paper
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In 2016, 1.2 GW of photovoltaic (PV) power tripped off in California during the "Blue Cut Fire" when PV inverters miscalculated the grid frequency during a line-to-line fault. In response, the 2018 edition of the IEEE 1547 interconnection standard was updated to mandate distributed energy resource (DER) devices "ride-through" voltage phase angle ch...
Presentation
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DOE SETO-funded project to develop DER cybersecurity standards. Poster for the 2020 DOE SETO peer review.
Technical Report
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Increasing solar energy penetrations may create challenges for distribution system operations because production variability can lead to large voltage deviations or protection system miscoordination. Instituting advanced management systems on distribution systems is one promising method for combating these challenges by intelligently controlling di...
Presentation
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Presentation on the DOE Roadmap for Wind Cybersecurity and briefing on DOE WETO Wind Hardening Project.
Presentation
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Attack graphs for the EV/EVSE ecosystem with attack vectors and consequences of concern.
Presentation
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Summary of the voltage regulation work in the ENERGISE ProDROMOS project.
Conference Paper
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Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) equipped with standardized, interoperable, grid-support functionality have the capability to provide a range of services for power system operators. These requirements have been recently codified in the 2018 revision of the American DER interconnection and interoperability standard, IEEE Std. 1547, as well as the...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive deployment of interoperable distributed energy resources (DER) is increasing the power system cyber security attack surface. National and jurisdictional interconnection standards require DER to include a range of autonomous and commanded grid-support functions which can drastically influence power quality, voltage, and bulk system frequen...
Article
To ensure reliable and predictable service in the electrical grid between distributed renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) it is important to gauge the level of trust present within critical components and DER aggregators (DERAs). Although trust throughout a smart grid is temporal and dynamically varies according to measured states, it is...
Presentation
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Article
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While the concept of aggregating and controlling renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide grid services is not new, increasing policy support of DER market participation has driven research and development in algorithms to pool DERs for economically viable market participation. Sandia National Laboratories recently undertook a three...
Conference Paper
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The Ideal Transformer Method (ITM) and the Damping Impedance Method (DIM) are the most widely used techniques for connecting power equipment to a Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) real-time simulation. Both methods have been studied for their stability and accuracy in PHIL simulations, but neither have been analyzed when the hardware is providing g...
Conference Paper
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Power outages are a challenge that utility companies must face, with the potential to affect millions of customers and cost billions in damage. For this reason, there is a need for developing approaches that help understand the effects of fault conditions on the power grid. In distribution circuits with high renewable penetrations, the fault curren...
Patent
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Systems, methods and computer program products for maintaining and controlling distributed energy resources (DERs), such as wind, solar, water and storage renewable energy resources, within an acceptable error margin are disclosed. The systems and processes control the energy output of these DERs in real time within the error margin.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The integration of communication-enabled grid-support functions in distributed energy resources (DER) and other smart grid features will increase the U.S. power grid's exposure to cyber-physical attacks. Unwanted changes in DER system data and control signals can damage electrical infrastructure and lead to outages. To protect against these threats...
Patent
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The present invention relates to systems for generating an arc fault in an electrical circuit, as well as methods thereof. In particular, the system provides a platform that can produce an arc discharge in a controlled manner, while measuring various parameters to characterize that discharge. Such parameters include voltage measurements, current me...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Extensive deployment of interoperable distributed energy resources (DER) on power systems is increasing the power system cyber security attack surface. National and jurisdictional interconnection standards require DER to include a range of autonomous and commanded grid support functions which can drastically influence power quality, voltage, and bu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An increasing number of public utility commissions are adopting Distributed Energy Resource (DER) interconnection standards which require photovoltaic (PV) inverters, energy storage systems, and other DER to include interoperable grid-support functionality. The recently updated national DER interconnection and interoperability standard, IEEE 1547-2...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An increasing number of jurisdictions are adopting Distributed Energy Resource (DER) interconnection standards which require photovoltaic (PV) inverters, energy storage systems, and other DER to include interoperable grid-support functionality. These functions provide grid operators the nobs to support local and bulk power system operations with DE...
Presentation
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Typhoon HIL Webinar Slides from 14 March 2019
Presentation
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Update on the ENERGISE project's Opal-RT simulations.
Presentation
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Update on Solar Cybersecurity R&D
Technical Report
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Recently developed Distributed Energy Resource (DER) interoperability standards include communication and cybersecurity requirements. In 2018, the US national interconnection standard, IEEE 1547, was revised to require DER to include a SunSpec Modbus, IEEE 2030.5 (Smart Energy Profile, SEP 2.0), or IEEE 1815 (DNP3) communication interface but does...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper describes the design and implementation of the Controller-Hardware in the Loop (C-HIL) test platform for the pre-certification of the grid code compliance for Solar Inverters. The results obtained from C-HIL tests are successfully validated using setups both connected to a Digital Real Time Simulator (DRTS) running a model of the converte...
Article
Full-text available
Interoperable distributed energy resources (DER), including photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are capable of providing a number of grid services by receiving commands from grid operators, aggregators, or other third parties. In many control scenarios, the grid operator must determine the operating mode and parameters for the devices to achieve a specifi...
Presentation
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Recommendations for accelerated DER deployment in Mexico by creating interconnection and interoperability grid codes that incorporate grid-support functions.
Presentation
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Condensed collection of hosting capacity studies.
Presentation
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Short DER Cybersecurity Update Sept 2018