Javier Sanz-Cañada

Javier Sanz-CañadaSpanish National Research Council | CSIC · Instituto de Economía, Geografía y Demografía

16.77
· Ph D in Agricultural Economics
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    Projects (5)
    Project
    Assess if and how the valorization of Origin products and Geographical indications can take in account social and environmental issues, identify successful strategies, evaluate the effects
    Project
    Este proyecto pretende consolidar un enfoque de gobernanza territorial por medio del análisis de los sistemas agroalimentarios localizados y otros sistemas productivos que configuran unterritorio como lugar y espacio de la construcción de redes de relaciones, identidad y cultura basados en el anclaje de las actividades.
    Research
    Research Items (42)
    The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS). The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i) multi-level coordination; (ii) democratic participation and accountability; (iii) cooperation among producers and other stakeholders and (iv) relationships with the environment. We verify, as a hypothesis, that the typology of markets to which the identity-based products are directed plays a decisive role in the way that processes of territorial governance of LAFS are constructed. The results of an empirical research, developed in four LAFS in Mexico, are presented: prickly pear cactus in Morelos, blackberry in Michoacán, cuitlacoche (corn smut) in Tlaxcala and coffee in Veracruz. Two types of territorial governance of LAFS may be distinguished: those that can be strengthened by the geographical and organisational proximity of the markets and the action of local stakeholders and governments—prickly pear cactus and cuitlacoche—versus those which are devoted to export and are conducted by large companies in which marketing networks involve certification mechanisms and a large number of institutions—coffee and blackberry. Keywords: territorial governance; Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS); Mexico; multi-level coordination; accountability; cooperation; environment
    Quality production is an unavoidable option in some Local Food Systems, such as Sierra de Segura, because of the low food prices and margins of mainstream agriculture. However, such economic pressures do not necessarily imply the emergence of common approaches to quality issues. In the case of Sierra de Segura, the development of a territorially differentiated production of olive oil has become the main source of profound and long-lived social conflict. Such confrontation is explained not only by the competition for surplus appropriation but also by relevant normative elements. Convention Theory provides theoretical tools for understanding not only coordination but also conflicts inside Local Food Systems. Additionally, Convention Theory contributes to our understanding of how conflicts shape the positions of individuals and social groups in Local Food Systems and differentiated quality strands. The analysis of the case of Sierra de Segura shows that normative issues (related to the prominence of civic conventions) have been essential elements not only in the development of organic olive oil production but also in the existence of alternative approaches to quality. It also shows that quality olive oil production in general and organic production in particular must be understood in the context of broader processes of social innovation supported by specific embedded rationalities and closely related to the development of discursively generated compromises. In particular, the present paper will emphasise the central role of those compromises.
    Project - EXTERSIAL
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    The aim of this line of research is to improve the knowledge on analysis and valuation of territorial externalities created by Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS) of typical products, as the protected designations of origin (PDO). The inter-disciplinary approach connects the theories on LAFS with normative theories on Multifunctionality and incorporates Agro-ecological methodologies. The objective is to contribute to the research on territorial externalities in a series of methodological innovative areas: i) integrating approaches to both supply and demand for externalities within a general model; ii) the targets of research are the LAFS, as opposed to the general predominance of research on agricultural systems; iii) incorporating to the environmental externalities analysis, externalities associated with institutional capital, social capital or other factors inherent to territorial governance of LAFS. The project focuses on the olive oil sector.
    The objectives of this project are to: i)…
    Se estudió el estado de algunas iniciativas de Canales Cortos de Comercialización (CCC) en Panamá. Los objetivos fueron: identificar algunas fortalezas y debilidades existentes y contribuir con lecciones prácticas que ayuden a identificar formas en las que productores, consumidores y el sector público pueden actuar (e interactuar) para promover los CCC. La metodología consistió en revisión bibliográfica de casos y entrevistas. Como resultado se identifican fortalezas y debilidades de los casos panameños estudiados y se plantean recomendaciones. Las limitaciones fueron la escasa literatura científica sobre este tema en Panamá y la inexistencia de registros de los participantes en estas iniciativas. Se concluye que la participación de la comunidad es la principal fortaleza, mientras que la falta de capacitación adecuada es la principal debilidad.
    Agricultural intensification and farm abandonment in Europe have induced dramatic social, economic, and ecological issues. Sustainable management may solve these issues by providing a viable economic margin and preserving biodiversity. Specifically, we propose herein monetary compensation for farmers maintaining or restoring lands as nonagricultural areas. The mechanism for funding this compensation is based upon spatial analysis of two olive-grove landscapes. These exhibited different land-use patterns, a simple landscape and a complex one presenting a 50% higher diversity index and an 80% higher complexity index.We estimated olive-oil production and profitability. Results showed that the complex landscape contains three times more protected habitats. Neither landscape was economically viable, with the simple one showing values of 43% below the threshold, and the complex one 185%. The mechanism proposed to fund farmer subsidies was developed by means of the spatial and economic data estimated. This conservation payment system considers a non-linear relationship between the subsidies paid and the preserved area of agricultural use. The farmers of the simple landscape would receive a subsidy of 299, 394, and 464 €/ha for 10, 20, and 30% of preserved area, respectively. Inversely, the farmers of the complex landscape would be granted a reduction of 38 and 80€/ha in their monetary incentives for the loss of 10 and 20%, respectively, of natural areas. Using this funding mechanism, conservation of biodiversity in agricultural areas would no longer constitute a factor limiting profitability, but would rather complement earnings.
    The objective of this chapter is, on one hand, to explain some of the main environmental and territorial problems and potentialities involving the Spanish olive-oil local systems and, on the other, to think about what kind of research, innovation and transfer programs could be implemented either for solving the problems or for fostering the potentialities. The RDI national system suffers from a generalized deficit in terms of knowledge transfer actions and requires to be conceived with a trans-disciplinary approach.
    La presente investigación realiza un estudio de casos de canales cortos de comercialización en Panamá, para identificar las dificultades existentes para el desarrollo de canales cortos de comercialización en este país. Las etapas de este trabajo han sido (1) identificar las dificultades existentes para el establecimiento exitoso de canales cortos de comercialización en Panamá y (2) subrayar los factores de éxito o fracaso de diferentes casos de estudio externos a Panamá. El objetivo final es contribuir a identificar formas en la que productores, consumidores y el sector público de Panamá pueden actuar (e interactuar) para promover estas cadenas de comercialización. Finalmente, se exponen las lecciones aprendidas de cada una de las experiencias estudiadas y se plantean recomendaciones sobre posibles ámbitos de acción.
    The present paper aims to provide a critical review with respect to the literature on Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS) in America and Europe over the last two decades, devoted to investigating the geographies of the relationships between territory and identity-based food products. In studies on LAFS, the concept of origin of food products is based upon a historical and bio-cultural analysis of food identity. Debates on territorial anchorage focus on the causal factors-natural, cultural and socio-economic-that a distinctive territory imprints on the specific attributes of identity-based foods. Moreover, the notion of geographical and organisational proximity aligns with a socio-cultural and economic approach to collective action aiming at rural development. A LAFS implies a certain spatial density and a network of mutually cooperating farms, firms and institutions, specialised in producing and marketing an identity-based food product, what can in turn be used to valorise the food identity both on the markets and also by contributing to the creation of common and public goods. A transdisciplinary view is required both for comprehending the emergence and evolution over centuries of the identity-based foods and also for understanding the role they play in constructing more sustainable rural development in the future.
    This special issue includes a collection of articles providing a sample of the great environmental, cultural, historical, socio-economic and sectoral diversity of the LAFS existing in America and Europe. The selection of papers seeks to contribute to the research on the role of territorial anchorage factors and of local governance processes in the survival and sustainability of LAFS. Cases included in this issue represent a variety of agro-ecosystems in different geographical areas in America and Europe, such as agro-forest systems with extensive cattle farming, historical saltworks, mountain grasslands and pastures, artisanal aquaculture areas, and permanent woody crops. A wide range of collective organisation and governance schemes is also exposed in this collection, such as those based on GIs, on producers’ organisations and cooperatives, on public-private partnerships, and on concentric diversification strategies combining food production, tourism and other amenities.
    Les systèmes alimentaires territorialisés sont encore en Espagne dans une phase embryonnaire de développement. L'article pésente quelques-unes des expériences déjà en place, les principales politiques publiques existantes, tant à l'échelle nationale que régionale et locale, pour conclure sur les perspectives de développement qui peuvent être anticipées pour les prochaines années.
    Free download: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1R61W_61OxokPl Abstract The link between food and the environment constitutes a core issue from the consumer’s point of view and in the political debate. Geographical indication products, due to their association with specific territories and links to specific local resources, can improve economic, social and environmental sustainability. The present paper investigates the relationship between the legal protection of geographical indications and the environment, analyzing the Product Specifications of the 107 olive-oil geographical indications registered in the European Union. We performed the analysis using a set of indicators related to six thematic areas of potential environmental impact, including tree varieties, intensity of production, phytosanitary and fertilization methods, soil and water management, harvesting and post-harvesting techniques, and environmental awareness. Results indicate that environmental concerns are not considered to a great extent in the Product Specifications; indeed, they result more from the need to attain specific product qualities than from any direct interest in the environment. In any case, some relevant differences do exist between all six thematic areas (rules on the use of specific rare varieties and on maximum production limits are the most widespread ones in this sense) and between European Union countries (France and Italy are characterized by the highest levels of environmental care). We identified some cases in which producers recognize that territorial specificities are highly important in shaping the quality of the product, and they consequently pay specific attention to positive environmental effects. Moreover, the data analysis shows a ‘greening’ of Product Specifications over time, which evidences a trend towards a more comprehensive conception of typical products and GIs, related not only to organoleptic and hedonistic characteristics, but also to environmental and social ones. In conclusion, although protection of geographical indications cannot be considered to constitute an environmental tool per se, it can potentially play a positive role in environmental conservation, acting as a barrier to the increasing intensification of the olive-oil sector and thus preserving traditional farming systems. Indeed, geographical indications provide the opportunity for territorialisation of environmental-friendly production rules, taking into account local specificities. The paper also argues that public policies can play a significant role in supporting the producers' initiatives towards “greener” geographical indications.
    Traditional mountain olive groves – on slopes greater than 15%, non-irrigated and low-yielding – constitute 40% of the Jaén olive cultivation land. We estimate the profitability of the Jaén’s olive oil value chain and its spatial differentiation, segmenting the analysis by: types of cultivation systems; its location in mountain or lowland areas; phases of the supply chains; and bulk and bottled oil chains. A first objective is to examine the competitive disadvantages of local mountain olive oil systems, verifying that a great majority of the mountain oils have a negative private profitability. Another objective is to prove if mountain oils present characteristics of typicity, compared to lowland oils, which may generate marketing-mix attributes that enhance obtaining differentiation-related income. Special attention is paid to designation of origin and organic farming labels. Key words: profitability, value added, mountain farming, quality labels, olive oil.
    A relevant topic investigated in ‘Local Agro-Food Systems’ studies (LAFS) is the key role of collective action in the dissemination of innovations and knowledge aimed at the organization of quality on a local scale. The scope of this article deals with the methodological tools for typifying the relationships made, in LAFS hosting a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), between the relational social capital and the differential quality of firms. The objective of this work is to categorize the agro-industrial firms into hierarchies for implementing rural development policies, with respect to their technical and managerial advice relationships and their score achieved in terms of product and process quality. The study takes into account the LAFS of “Estepa” and “Sierra de Segura”, Andalusia (S Spain), corresponding to two important olive oil PDOs. The methodological approach comprises, firstly, the elaboration of a quality synthetic indicator on processes and products of the mills. Secondly, social network analysis is applied to the technical/managerial advice networks of the mills. Thirdly, a mill typology was established by means of factor analysis which employs quality and relational indicators. It is proved that the Regulatory Boards, as well as the second-step cooperatives, can assume a role of integrating poles with respect to the collective action developed in the LAFS, particularly in terms of dissemination of knowledge and innovations, which enhances the process and product quality of local firms. The existence of networks is a necessary condition to improve and homogenize the quality in a diffuse local agro-food structure.
    The first objective of this research was to obtain a consensual picture of research, development, innovation and transfer issues and priorities in the national research, development and innovation system (RDI) relating to the olive oil sector in Spain. A second objective was to design a structured series of strategic recommendations to improve that system. The results obtained from three in-person expert panels applied a sequence of social research techniques based on Metaplan methodology were analysed. Discussion group and strategic participation workshop techniques were employed to achieve these objectives. The three panels broached the following broad areas of knowledge: (i) olive growing and olive and olive oil by-products; (ii) olive oil technology, health and new products; and (iii) agro-food social sciences. The experts concluded that there was a pressing need to remedy the current general lack of innovation and knowledge transfer from the national system to businesses and farmers. They also agreed on the need to broach RDI activities from interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary angles.
    El trabajo tiene como primer objetivo obtener una visión consensuada de los problemas y prioridades de investigación, desarrollo, innovación y transferencia del sistema nacional de I+D+i sobre el sector oleícola en España. Un segundo objetivo del artículo es diseñar una serie estructurada de recomendaciones estratégicas destinadas a la mejora del sistema. Se analizan los resultados de la celebración de tres paneles presenciales de expertos a los que se aplicó respectivamente una secuencia de técnicas de investigación social, basada en la metodología denominada Metaplan. Se aplicaron las técnicas de grupos de discusión y de talleres de participación estratégica para cumplir respectivamente los objetivos mencionados. Los tres paneles abordaron respectivamente las siguientes grandes áreas de conocimiento: i) olivicultura y subproductos oleícolas; ii) elayotecnia, salud y nuevos productos; iii) ciencias sociales agroalimentarias. Los expertos concluyeron en la urgencia de paliar el déficit actualmente generalizado de acciones de transferencia de innovaciones y conocimientos por parte del sistema nacional a las empresas y a los agricultores. Asimismo, se acordó la necesidad de abordar las acciones de I+D+i mediante enfoques interdisciplinares y transdisciplinares.
    El olivar tradicional de montaña, que responde mayoritariamente a plantaciones tradicionales en pendientes de más del 15%, en secano y de bajo rendimiento, representa el 40% de la superficie olivícola provincial jienense. La investigación tiene como finalidad estimar y analizar las cadenas de valor de los aceites de montaña en Jaén y su diferenciación territorial, con el fin de aportar información para la aplicación de políticas públicas sobre los productos agroalimentarios de calidad diferencial en la UE. El análisis de rentabilidad se segmenta por tipos de sistemas de cultivo de olivar y por zonas oleícolas de montaña -con DOP y sin DOP- y de campiña. El trabajo tiene como objetivo preliminar definir las coordenadas territoriales, tanto a nivel económico como social y ambiental, de los sistemas oleícolas locales de montaña en Jaén, que permiten explicar cómo se conforman las respectivas cadenas de valor y su variabilidad espacial en un contexto de análisis de la calidad de los aceites: se hace un especial énfasis en el estudio de las relaciones entre los agentes económicos e institucionales locales y el territorio. El objetivo final del trabajo es examinar las desventajas competitivas, en términos de rentas diferenciales, de los sistemas oleícolas locales de montaña, en comparación con los de campiña, en materia de ingresos, costes y rentabilidad: se desagrega el análisis por etapas productivas de las cadenas oleícolas -olivicultores, almazaras y empresas comercializadoras-, se diferencia el análisis entre las cadenas de aceite a granel y de aceite envasado y se consideran especialmente el aceite ecológico y el aceite con etiqueta de DOP. La investigación también pretende verificar si los aceites jienenses de montaña presentan características de tipicidad, en comparación con los aceites de campiña, que puedan generar atributos específicos de marketing-mix destinados a obtener rentas de diferenciación mediante las etiquetas de las DOP, que contrarresten las desventajas productivas de los agentes y empresas oleícolas de montaña. La metodología del trabajo combina la compilación y el análisis de fuentes secundarias, estadísticas y bibliográficas, con la generación de información procedente de fuentes primarias, centradas en la realización de entrevistas a expertos locales y testigos privilegiados. Además, para estudiar los sistemas oleícolas locales, se ha dispuesto de una valiosa información territorializada suministrada por la Unidad de Prospectiva de la Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca de la Junta de Andalucía, que ha sido imprescindible para la investigación. Los resultados del trabajo reflejan que el grado de marginalidad económica del olivar tradicional de montaña, en alta pendiente y en secano, es considerablemente alto y afecta a una gran extensión de la geografía de la provincia de Jaén. Se demuestra que esta tipología de sistema de cultivo tiene en todas las zonas oleícolas jienenses una rentabilidad media negativa, no sólo en términos de rentabilidad privada, sino incluso también si incluimos en dicha estimación las subvenciones de la PAC. Por otra parte, un atributo de comercialización que puede ser empleado por las empresas de aceite de montaña que producen aceite de calidad diferencial, integrándose también en el “marketing mix” de los sellos de DOP y ecológico, es la diferenciación físico-química y organoléptica entre los aceites de montaña y los aceites de campiña, lo que ha sido escasamente utilizado por las DOP jienenses hasta el momento actual.
    Tras ofrecer un análisis crítico de la literatura internacional sobre alimentos, ciencias sociales y territorio, en este trabajo se exponen y debaten propuestas de investigación que integran enfoques procedentes de las escuelas franco-mediterráneas sobre los sistemas agroalimentarios locales (SIAL) y de las teorías sobre la multifuncionalidad de los espacios rurales. Prevalece una visión multidisciplinaria que incorpora a los enfoques de análisis territorial otras aproximaciones procedentes de diferentes ciencias sociales y de las cien-cias agroalimentarias y ambientales. After first providing a critical analysis of the international literature on food, social sciences and territory, this work introduces and debates research proposals from the French-Mediterranean schools of thought on Local Agri-food Systems (LAFS) and theories on multifunctionality in rural spaces. A multidisciplinary approach combining territorial analysis methods with other social science methods, along with agri-food and environmental sciences, seems to prevail.
    Local agro-food production does not simply produce commercial goods, but it contributes increasingly to the supply of public goods. The aim of this work is to value the territorial externalities produced by the economic-institutional activities of Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS) with respect to typical food products, such as those linked to protected designations of origin (PDOs). The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology for the analysis and the valuation of non-market goods, in order to implement public policies. The project focuses on the olive oil sector. The field areas chosen are the PDOs of Estepa (Sevilla and Cordoba) and Sierra de Segura (Jaen). From the point of view of the demand for territorial externalities, the paper seeks to develop a methodology focusing on the valuation of non-market goods in PDOs, using multi-criteria decision techniques Analytic Network Process (ANP)-based on the opinions of experts and the subsequent methods for obtaining consensus. As a methodological innovation, the demand for other public goods has been incorporated to the demand for agri-environmental externalities, for example those related to the origin, to the social capital or to the cultural heritage, using a cross-section approach inherent to the territorial analysis. Results show that the most influencing criteria on the expert preferences schemes are the collective action in marketing, the differential quality, and the creation of an innovative environment.
    A wide range of global biodiversity is concentrated in rural landscapes. Indeed, many wild species and natural habitats are directly or indirectly associated with agricultural systems. In turn, some genomes of wild species can contribute, on one hand, to agricultural productivity and quality and, on the other, to ongoing biological control of crop-specific pests. Thus, management of these landscapes should consider applying agricultural practices adapted to biodiversity conservation, which will also result in enhanced production levels. One way to infer the state of conservation of biodiversity in rural landscapes is through knowledge of their spatial structure, i.e., the configuration and composition of different land uses and remnant natural vegetation. This knowledge can serve to evaluate the behavior of the ecological processes associated with the above mentioned structure and to assess the integrity of the landscape and its potential biodiversity. The current spatial pattern of the landscape is the result of changes in land uses and management practices therein throughout time, essentially as a result of socioeconomic changes. Study of these changes enables us to propose future scenarios based upon the design and implementation of management policies that consider the history of the aforementioned changes. Moreover, it is interesting to note the growing interest of agricultural policies, at different levels (for example, the Common Agriculture Policy at European level), in ecological compensation measures for agricultural areas (specific subsidies) involving conservation and improvement of biodiversity. The receiving of certain subsidies depends on the correct application of feasible agro-environmental models. In this sense, spatial analysis of the landscape and changes therein can be useful for more effective conservation of biodiversity while maintaining an optimum level of productivity, which can be seen in the diverse models applied in different regions. The present study, conducted in Andalusia in southern Spain, consisted of analysing the spatial structure of a rural landscape of olive groves, as well as the dynamics of change in land uses and land cover over a period of 50 years. The study results show a trend towards intensification of olive cultivation (mainly irrigation and increased energy inputs), a greater area occupied by these crops and maintenance of the area covered by natural vegetation and even an increase therein. As a result of these processes, the landscape has maintained an acceptable level of connectivity, diversity of land uses and spatial heterogeneity. This situation enabled us to infer a good situation for biodiversity conservation and for the potential restoration of the rural landscape studied. Our results highlight the need for an agro-environmental model at landscapescale for the conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of a reasonable level of profitable productivity. We therefore recommend the abandonment of less productive farmland and a spatial landscape configuration of based upon the ‘land sparing’ alternative. This alternative involves the persistence of remnants of useful native vegetation such as: natural or semi-natural habitats (essential for species specialised in agricultural systems); discontinuous corridors (stepping stones) and the potential restoration of native vegetation.
    Resumen Las producciones agroalimentarias locales llevan a cabo, además de su función comercial, otras funciones, cada vez más importantes para la sociedad, que se refieren a la generación de bienes públicos. Este trabajo valora las externalidades territoriales producidas por los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Locales (SIAL) de alimentos típicos, como son los vinculados a las denominaciones de origen protegidas (DOP). Se ha desarrollado una metodología de valoración de externalidades territoriales, destinada a su uso en el diseño de políticas públicas. Nuestro objeto de estudio es el aceite de oliva y las zonas para el análisis empírico son las DOP de Estepa (Sevilla y Córdoba) y Sierra de Segura (Jaén). Desde el punto de vista de la demanda de externalidades territoriales, el artículo aporta una metodología de valoración de externalidades en las DOP mediante técnicas de decisión multicriterio –Proceso Analítico de Red (ANP)– basadas en las opiniones reveladas por expertos y la subsiguiente obtención de consensos. Como avance metodológico, se incorporan a los análisis de demanda de externalidades agroambientales la demanda de otros bienes públicos, como los vinculados al origen, al capital social y al patrimonio cultural, con un enfoque transversal de análisis territorial. Los resultados indican que los criterios que más influyen en los esquemas de preferencias locales son la acción colectiva en materia de comercialización, la calidad diferencial y la creación de un entorno innovador. Abstract Territorial externalities valuation in olive oil protected designations of origin using the Analytical Notwork Process Local agro-food production does not simply produce commercial goods, but it contributes increasingly to the supply of public goods. The aim of this work is to value the territorial externalities produced by the economic-institutional activities of Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS) with respect to typical food products, such as those linked to protected designations of origin (PDOs). The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology for the analysis and the valuation of non-market goods, in order to implement public policies. The project focuses on the olive oil sector. The field areas chosen are the PDOs of Estepa (Sevilla and Cordoba) and Sierra de Segura (Jaén). From the point of view of the demand for territorial externalities, the paper seeks to develop a methodology focusing on the valuation of non-market goods in PDOs, using multi-criteria decision techniques –Analytic Network Process (ANP)– based on the opinions of experts and the subsequent methods for obtaining consensus. As a methodological innovation, the demand for other public goods has been incorporated to the demand for agri-environmental externalities, for example those related to the origin, to the social capital or to the cultural heritage, using a cross-section approach inherent to the territorial analysis. Results show that the most influencing criteria on the expert preferences schemes are the collective action in marketing, the differential quality, and the creation of an innovative environment.
    Spanish olive oil LAFS host a wide environmental diversity and a great variety of olive grove management systems. The types of collective action and territorial governance also differ significantly from one LAFS to another. The main objectives of this chapter are: i) to analyse and valuate the main environmental and territorial problems affecting the olive oil LAFS; ii) to assess research and innovation priorities that the Spanish R&D&I system must enhance; iii) the relationship between the problems and the research programmes. The methodology has a cross-interdisciplinary approach, based on Social, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. A Delphi analysis is applied to a panel of experts in order to valuate the problems and the programmes. The quantitative scores are supplemented by qualitative information obtained from a round table of experts and from the comments made through the Delphi survey. As a result, seven R&D&I programmes, grouped under two big categories, are established: i) agro-environmental externalities corrective actions; ii) actions that address the olive oil LAFS and its multifunctionality. These programmes are relatively harmonised with the main problem categories. Soil erosion and degradation appears as the most important problem, whilst changes in the olive grove geography also emerge as a key territorial issue. Keywords: Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS); research and innovation priorities; environmental and territorial problems; multifunctionality; Spanish olive oil; Delphi analysis.
    We present the results and methodology of a project aimed to contribute to public policies decision making processes, regarding olive oil production territorial externalities. This research is framed within the Extersial project (Plan Nacional I+D+i: MICIN), carried out by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) along with other researchers from different universities and research centres. In order to study environmental externalities such as the preservation of agricultural landscapes, the reduction of the soil erosion or the protection of the agricultural systems’ biodiversity, a GIS (Geographic Information Sytem) based methodology was designed, relying on physical, environmental and agro- systemic characterization of the designations of origin in southern Spain of Estepa and Sierra de Segura , in Andalusia, Spain. Main inputs of our model are obtained through the use of geographical information such as satellite imagery, topographic and edaphic maps; indices of the extent and state of vegetation-covered land and flags elaborated through geo-referenced statistical information. This methodology allows the targeting of marginal olive groves and the assessment of their suitability for native vegetation regeneration. Thus we have been able to identify main bio-physical, ecological and landscape factors affecting potential restoration of native vegetation, enabling the mapping of marginal olive groves with high and medium potential of regeneration. These results can be used for an organised abandonment that would lead to an effective regeneration of vegetation, helping biodiversity and landscape heterogeneity conservation or restoration.
    El principal objetivo del trabajo es identificar, definir, seleccionar y priorizar, mediante la información extraída a un colectivo amplio de expertos, las líneas y los programas de investigación e innovación que sería conveniente potenciar en el ámbito del sistema nacional de I+D+i sobre el sector del olivar y del aceite de oliva en España. Esta elección de prioridades se efectúa en función del análisis de los problemas y las oportunidades que afronta el sector oleícola español, que son a su vez definidos y jerarquizados. Asimismo, otros objetivos del trabajo son exponer de forma estructurada recomendaciones estratégicas destinadas a emprender objetivos de política científica, así como reflejar los principales debates y opiniones expresados por los expertos. El trabajo aporta una metodología secuencial en tres fases consecutivas que combina diferentes técnicas de investigación social, individuales y grupales, aplicadas a paneles de expertos: entrevistas en profundidad, grupos de discusión, talleres de participación estratégica, análisis Delphi y mesas redondas. Se combinan enfoques orientados por áreas longitudinales del conocimiento con una investigación interdisciplinaria y transversal basada en la interrelación del conocimiento técnico (agronómico, elayotécnico, ecológico, etc.) con el relativo a las Ciencias Sociales (económico, social, geográfico, cultural, etc.). Los programas y las líneas de I+D+i son agrupados finalmente en dos grandes áreas intersdisciplinarias de conocimiento: i) sostenibilidad, territorio y desarrollo rural; ii) cadena de valor, calidad, seguridad alimentaria y consumo. El trabajo corresponde al informe final de la investigación realizada por el CSIC en el ámbito de su participación en ALENTA / Plataforma Tecnológica del Olivar.
    Spanish olive oil Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS) are a good example of multifunctional tendencies, offering a wide variety of agro-environmental viewpoints, such as the contribution of LAFS to land-use governance. The main objectives of this report are: i) to analyse and evaluate the main environmental and land-use problems affecting the olive sector LAFS; ii) to analyse and evaluate research and innovation priorities that the national R&D&I system must drive in regards to sustainability, land-use and rural development; iii) the relationship between the problems and research programmes. Methodologically, a multidisciplinary approach will be used that transversally integrates focuses established by Social Sciences and Agronomy and Environmental Sciences. A Delphi analysis is applied to a panel of experts in order to evaluate the problems and programmes. The quantitative information is supplemented by qualitative information obtained from the conference of experts and comments made by the experts through the Delphi survey. As a result, seven R&D&I programmes, grouped under two different categories, are established: firstly, agro-environmental corrective actions, and secondly, actions that address the olive sector LAFS and its multifunctionality. Keywords: research and innovation priorities; environmental and land-use problems; multifunctionality; Spanish olive oil; Delphi analysis
    Au cours de ces dernieres annees, les systemes agroalimentaires ont connu au niveau international d’importants changements du fait de la globalisation croissante des marches. L’elargissement de l’espace economique des grandes entreprises alimentaires et de distribution a ete influence non seulement par les accords internationaux en matiere de reduction des barrieres douanieres et non douanieres, mais aussi par un changement de paradigme technologique des activites de logistique et de distribu...
    The objective of the paper is to elaborate the guidelines for an innovative methodological proposal on the analysis and the assessment of the territorial externalities created by the economic and institutional activities of Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS), such as those linked to protected designations of origin (PDOs) of olive oil in Spain. We base our analysis in the case studies carried on by the author and by the international bibliography on this subject. We use a multi-disciplinary approach relating to the LAFS theories, coming from the Franco Mediterranean scholarship, as well as to the perspectives of Agricultural and Rural Multifunctionality theories. The relevance of olive oil LAFS in Spain may be found in the fact that they are a fine example for the analysis of the multifunctional behaviour and their potential in contributing to territorial governance. They have important implications on the environmental and landscape management, corresponding a farming type in which landscapes of high environmental and cultural value, made up of traditional olive groves, are set to become more and more marginalised economically as a result of the global intensification of the olive farming process, having dramatic problems of erosion. On the other hand, PDOs can create interesting formulas for the institutional and the inter-professional organisation of identity-based food products. In order to provide suitable guidelines for related public policies which aim to maintain and improve these olive landscapes, methodological developments on the analysis and valuation of a series of territorial externalities is required.
    Le concept de « Système agroalimentaire localisé » (Syal) connaît depuis une dizaine d’années une large diffusion au niveau international. La référence au territoire et aux cultures alimentaires locales constitue un élément central de cette approche fondée sur l’étude des relations homme/produit/territoire. C’est l’analyse des spécificités territoriales qui permettra de caractériser les Syal, de comprendre leur diversité et leur dynamique. C’est donc autour de ces spécificités que nous avons structuré cet article : i) spécificité des hommes et de leurs institutions ; ii) spécificité des produits et des processus de qualification associés ; iii) spécificité des consommateurs et de leurs cultures alimentaires. Nous concluons au plan scientifique que le concept de Syal, en tant qu’objet de recherche et cadre théorique, peut contribuer à la construction d’une approche agroalimentaire à base territoriale pour comprendre l’organisation et le fonctionnement d’un ensemble d’activités productives, sociales, culturelles, qui « font système ». Sur le plan opérationnel, en tant que cadre d’action, le concept de Syal ouvre une nouvelle perspective de réflexion pour les politiques publiques et les projets de développement territorial et régional. Abstract : For about the last ten years, the localized agrifood systems (LAFS) concept has spread considerably worldwide. Territory and local food crops are central elements of the approach based on the study of relationships between man, products and territory. It is through the analysis of territorial specificities that LAFS can be characterized and their diversity and dynamics understood. These specificities are at the core of the present paper and are analyzed as follows: (i) specificities of the persons and their institutions; (ii) specificities of products and associated qualification processes; and (iii) specificities of consumers and their food crops. At a scientific level, we conclude that LAFS as a research object and a theoretical framework can help develop a territorial agrifood approach aiming at understanding the organization and functioning of various activities “forming a system”, whether they are productive, social, cultural…At a practical level, as a framework for action, LAFS opens new perspectives for public policies, and for territorial and regional development projects.
    This article addresses, from a socio-economic and territorial approach, the analysis of innovation diffusion relationships in local agro-food branches within Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) institutions. Empirical analysis is applied to the case study of the PDO of olive oil from Sierra Magina, Andalusia, a zone typical of mountain Mediterranean Localized Agrifood Systems. Until the 1990s a depressed area, it has very recently undergone a process of institutional and local development with the help of public policies. The scientific scope of our study is limited to the institutional analysis of the effects of PDO on territorial governance. The debate centres on the differences between the methods and timescales by which technical innovations, compared to organisational innovations, are adopted.
    For about the last ten years, the Localized Agrifood Systems (LAS) concept has spread considerably worldwide. Territory and local food crops are central elements of this approach based on the study of relationships between man, products and territory. It is through the analysis of territorial specificities that LAS can be characterized and their diversity and dynamics understood. These specificities are at the core of the present paper and are analyzed as follows: i) specificities of the people and their institutions; ii) specificities of products and associated qualification processes; and iii) specificities of consumers and food crops. At a scientific level, we conclude that LAS as a research object and a theoretical framework can help develop a territorial agrifood approach aiming at understanding the organization and functioning of various activities "forming a system," whether they are productive, social or cultural. At a practical level, as a framework for action, the LAS concept opens new perspectives for public policies as well as for territorial and regional development projects.
    This article examines the interrelations between establishment of territorial quality certification systems (Protected Designations of Origin or PDOs), diffusion of innovations through local agro-food chains, and the role of the institutions overseeing geographical designations. Empirical analysis is applied to olive oil PDOs in Spain and entails a detailed case study of the “Sierra Mágina” PDO in Andalusia. Making use of the neoinstitutional concept of ‘organised proximity’—and focussing specifically on the problematic of organizational quality—the article assesses characteristics that support the competitive positions of local certified-product production systems. In particular, the authors find that collective organisation and coordination between PDO agents who are locally responsible for quality assurance and protection can enhance local competitiveness. Three hypotheses are confirmed. First, PDO labels can, through the action of PDO regulators, become quality assurance systems for distributors. Second, PDO Regulatory Boards can enhance and coordinate local inter-professional activities, particularly with respect to the diffusion of quality-enhancing innovations and knowledge. Third, the study indicates that local certified-product systems are starting to incorporate quality attributes linked to the environment and sustainable development, although much remains to be accomplished in this regard.
    [ES] El sector del aceite de oliva se caracteriza por el hecho de que sus intercambios comerciales en el mercado mundial se han encontrado hasta la actualidad escasamente interrelacionados. Sin embargo, una serie de hechos económicos, como son los cambios en el entorno normativo del comercio internacional y de las políticas oleícolas, así como la existencia de un punto de inflexión al alza en las tendencias de crecimiento de la oferta y de la demanda mundiales, determinan que este sector comience a encontrarse inmerso en un proceso de emergente globalización de dichos intercambios. En este contexto, el objetivo del trabajo es investigar cuáles son los elementos explicativos de la estructura organizativa de la cadena española del aceite de oliva que determinan un posicionamiento diferencial de los distintos tipos de agentes empresariales de la "filière" ante el proceso de creciente globalización del comercio. Mediante un análisis del grado de articulación horizontal y vertical de dichos agentes, se verifica, entre otras conclusiones, que son precisamente los grupos transnacionales de segunda transformación industrial, que previamente se han situado en el mercado español en posiciones estratégicas, en un esquema de globalización de los flujos de inversión, quienes mejor han reestructurado sus estrategias competitivas para abordar estos fenómenos de potencial ampliación de mercados. Por el contrario, también se comprueba que tiene lugar un significativo grado de "ruptura" en la coordinación vertical de las etapas de la cadena más alejadas del consumidor -cooperativas de primera transformación integradas por olivicultores-, que les aparta de buena parte de los beneficios resultantes del proceso. [EN] Recent economic developments in international trade and also in oil policies, plus the growth both in the demand and the offer of olive oil worldwide, have placed the Spanish olive oil sector in a new position. The objective of this article is to understand the organizational structure of the Spanish chain of production and marketing of olive oil. The analysis of the vertical and horizontal integration of entrepreneurs and enterprises in that chain shows that transnational groups participating in the second industrial transformation are the ones which have better restructured their competitive strategies. On the contrary, there is a relevant break in vertical coordination of the chain links farther away from the consumer -such as producers cooperatives- something that places them outside the benefits of the process. [EN] À l'heure actuelle, les échanges commerciaux dans le marché mondial de l'huile d'olive se trouvent très peu internationalisés. Cependant, une série de faits économiques favorisent l'émergence des processus de globalisation dans ce secteur. Parmi ces faits, notons des chagements des normes et des politiques regissant le commerce international et une tendance à l'accroissement de l'offre et de la demande modiales du produit. L'objectif de cet article es d'expliquer l'estructure d'organisation de la filière de production d'huile d'olive en Espagne et de déterminer la position stratégique de leurs divers agents, face au processus de globalisation. Le problème est traité à partir de l'analyse du dégré d'intégration horizontale et verticale. Les résultats permettent d'affirmer que, dans un schéma de globalisation des flux d'investissements, les groupes transnationaux sont les mieux placés stratégiquement à l'intérieur de la filière. Ils ont égalément structuré les stratégies compétitives les plus performantes pour faire face au phénomène d'ampliation potentielle des marchés. Au contraire, les résultats démontrent une rupture de la coordination verticale des coopératives de première transformation, constituées par les producteurs primaires. Ce groupe est ainsi privé de certaines bénéfices qui pourrait leur rapporté la participation à des activités se développant en aval de la filière. Peer reviewed
    El presente trabajo consiste en una exposición de la propuesta teórica sobre el análisis espacial de la Industria Agroalimentaria (IAA). Se contemplan un enfoque de la problemática locacional del sector desde el punto de vista de los procesos de desarrollo regional, frente a la habitual consideración exclusiva de los objetivos de la empresa individual. Tras examinar el contexto general del debate sobre la industrialización del medio rural, se define el modo de incorporar al análisis espacial de la IAA los criterios de eficiencia y equidad. A partir de ahí se examinan, por una parte, los elementos causales relacionados con la distribución territorial de la IAA y sus factores potenciales de localización. Por otra, se estudian los efectos de las implantaciones agroindustriales sobre los sistemas socioeconómicos del medio rural. Por último, se analizan las repercusiones futuras de los procesos de internacionalización agroalimentaria.
    La finalidad del artículo es exponer una serie de reflexiones que constituyan una base de partida para la elaboración de estadísticas que cuantifiquen las estructuras y modos de funcionamiento del Sistema Agroalimentario (S.A.A.). Exponemos brevemente, en primer lugar, los enfoques metodológicos que sirven para estimar, con una óptica integrada, las relaciones horizontales y verticales entre las tres grandes etapas del S.A.A.: análisis de "filiéres", paradigma Estructura-Conducta-Resultados, análisis de grupos empresariales, tablas Input-Output y Balance Alimentario. A partir de ahí, tomando como referencia el caso español, se procede a especificar una serie de proposiciones de carácter metodológico que nos permitan avanzar en la puesta en marcha de un sistema estadístico sobre los intercambios entre los distintos agentes y etapas de un subsector concreto. Nuestro objetivo es la estimación de los flujos verticales, en términos físicos y de valor, que concurren a la formación del producto alimentario. Nos centramos, por tanto, en la cuantificación de una "filiére" determinada a partir de los balances de sus respectivos productos agrarios y agroindustriales, abarcando el conjunto de la cadena alimentaria. También indicamos una serie de pautas generales para la puesta en práctica de otros métodos complementarios, basándonos en algunos de los enfoques mencionados y en la homogeneización de las estadísticas estructurales existentes para cada una de las tres etapas del S.A.A. En suma, pretendemos resaltar la conveniencia de ampliar el alcance de los sistemas estadísticos nacionales o plurinacionales, que ya ha comenzado a trasladarse desde el producto agrario al producto alimentario.
    El presente artículo tiene como finalidad efectuar una caracterización de la Industria Agroalimentaria de 1.' Transformación en las áreas urbano-industriales, a partir de un análisis estructural del sector en la Comunidad de Madrid. En primer lugar se lleva a cabo una primera aproximación a la economía del sector, examinando los principales rasgos de su evolución, peso específico y estructura macro y microeconómicas. A continuación, el estudio se centra particularmente en la distribución espacial y subsectorial de la IAA (1.') de Madrid, interrelacionando finalmente ambos aspectos mediante la realización de un mapa agroindustrial. La IAA (1.') de Madrid se encuentra más condicionada estructuralmente por el contexto de urbanización o industrialización de la aglomeración metropolitana que por el supuesto teórico de constituir un sector de 1.' elaboración ligado a los recursos agrarios locales. Sin embargo, esta caracterización no puede generalizarse a la escasa industria ubicada en el medio rural regional.
    Un rasgo característico de la evolución del sector del aceite de oliva ha sido el escaso nivel de internacionalización de sus intercambios comerciales, que tradicionalmente se han centrado casi en exclusiva en el ámbito de los propios países productores. Sin embargo, en los últimos tiempos se viene perfilando un nuevo escenario de referencia para los agentes económicos que operan en el sector: por una parte, las tendencias de progresiva liberalización del comercio internacional contribuyen a un emergente proceso de globalización de los intercambios internacionales del producto; por otra, las estrategias de los agentes empresariales se encuentran cada vez más influidas por una cadena agroalimentaria crecientemente orientada desde la demanda. Además de estas premisas, que son generalizables al conjunto del Sistema Agroalimentario, nos encontramos con otros factores explicativos del cambio estructural específicos del sector del aceite de oliva, como son las transformaciones en el marco normativo de la política oleícola y la tendencia al alza tanto de la oferta como de la demanda a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente trabajo es efectuar una reflexión, desde una perspectiva de demanda, sobre las nuevas coordenadas donde se sitúan las estrategias empresariales de comercialización del aceite de oliva a escala internacional, en un contexto de potencial ampliación de mercados. Se abordan, en primer lugar, los condicionantes de carácter macroeconómico de la comercialización del aceite de oliva en el exterior y, en segundo término, se efectúa el análisis de una serie de factores microeconómicos que configuran las estrategias de los agentes empresariales con respecto a la comercialización del producto.
    En el contexto teórico de la creciente contractualización que tiene lugar entre los agentes económicos de la cadena alimentaria, el objetivo del trabajo es establecer una propuesta metodológica que sirva para caracterizar las relaciones verticales entre la IAA y la DA, enmarcándolas en el proceso de reestructuración del SAA. Para ello, se parte de la elaboración de una fuente primaria de información, a partir de la opinión de los fabricantes, consistente en un "mailing" dirigido al estrato de empresas más dinámico y avanzado tecnológicamente del sector de elaborados cárnicos. Se lleva a cabo una disección de los elementos que componen los acuerdos contractuales entre la IAA y la DA, agrupando los aspectos a analizar del siguiente modo: estrategias comerciales, estrategias organizativas y, a modo de resultados, una evaluación de la capacidad de negociación y una tipología empresarial inherentes a la problemática de competencia vertical de las industrias cárnicas. Entre las principales conclusiones, se detecta que la lógica del predominio contractual de la DM se ha canalizado hasta ahora con mayor intensidad precisamente en el ámbito de los factores de carácter comercial, en un contexto de "confrontación" entre fabricantes y distribuidores. Sin embargo, la presión contractual que la DM está ejerciendo sobre las estrategias comerciales experimenta una cierta tendencia a la saturación y, como consecuencia, comienzan a establecerse estrategias de "colaboración" entre fabricantes y distribuidores en el ámbito de los factores de carácter organizativo, donde destaca el papel central que adquieren las tecnologías de la información.
    [FR] L’article analyse, sous les angles socio-économique et territorial, les processus d’innovation dans les filières agroalimentaires locales qui émergent au sein des institutions de gestion et de gouvernance des Appellations d’origine protégée (AOP). L’analyse empirique porte sur l’AOP d’huile d’olive de Sierra Mágina, en Andalousie. Cette zone est représentative des Systèmes agroalimentaires localisés (Syal) méditerranéens de montagne, qui correspondaient à des zones défavorisées jusqu’aux années 1990 et qui ont connu très récemment un processus de développement institutionnel et local, avec l’aide des politiques publiques. Notre cadre scientifique est l’analyse institutionnelle des effets des AOP sur la gouvernance territoriale. Les différences entre les modes et les temps des innovations techniques, par rapport aux innovations organisationnelles, se trouvent au centre du débat. Nous vérifions la validité de l’hypothèse que les AOP peuvent présenter, vues sous l’angle des processus d’innovation, des traits caractéristiques d’une organisation interprofessionnelle à l’échelle locale. Nous constatons que, suite aux mécanismes de régulation et d’organisation collective mis en place par l’AOP en matière d’assurance de la qualité spécifique, l’adoption d’innovations, tant à l’échelle des processus qu’à l’échelle des produits, a atteint à Sierra Mágina un niveau remarquable. Néanmoins, de nouveaux défis concernant les innovations organisationnelles et commerciales sont apparus. Tout d’abord, l’augmentation de la qualité du produit n’aboutit pas à une vraie création de valeur à l’échelle locale. Par ailleurs, les dynamiques innovantes des AOP ne doivent pas porter que sur la qualité sensorielle et la typicité du produit ; elles doivent aussi incorporer à l’huile d’olive de nouveaux attributs liés au respect de l’environnement et participer à la mise en valeur du patrimoine naturel et culturel oléicole, dans une optique de multifonctionnalité. [EN] This article addresses, from a socio-economic and territorial approach, the analysis of innovation diffusion relationships in local agro-food branches within Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) institutions. Empirical analysis is applied to the case study of the PDO of olive oil from Sierra Mágina, Andalusia, a zone typical of mountain Mediterranean Localized Agrifood Systems. Until the 1990s a depressed area, it has very recently undergone a process of institutional and local development with the help of public policies. The scientific scope of our study is limited to the institutional analysis of the effects of PDO on territorial governance. The debate centres on the differences between the methods and timescales by which technical innovations, compared to organisational innovations, are adopted. Peer reviewed
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