Javier Millán

Javier Millán
University of Zaragoza | UNIZAR · Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2)

DVM, PhD
Working in wildlife diseases and vector-borne pathogens. Always interested in starting new collaborations.

About

181
Publications
31,795
Reads
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2,975
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Introduction
My field is wildlife diseases, chiefly the epidemiology of parasitic and infectious diseases in micro and mesomammals (carnivores, rodents, bats). Focus on vector-borne pathogens. Also interested in animal conservation, diseases shared by wild and domestic animals, wild and peridomestic disease reservoirs, zoonoses. Twitter: @millan_wildvet; Website: millanlab.wixsite.com/millanlab
Additional affiliations
May 2014 - November 2019
Universidad Andrés Bello
Position
  • Professor
December 2009 - April 2014
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • "Ramón y Cajal" Fellowship
May 2007 - November 2009
Fundación Natura Parc / Govern Illes Balears
Position
  • Project Manager
Education
December 1999 - January 2004
CSIC / Universidad de Zaragoza
Field of study
  • Veterinary Medicine
September 1993 - December 1998
University of Zaragoza
Field of study
  • Veterinary Medicine

Publications

Publications (181)
Article
The Iberian lynx, (Lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. To determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red...
Article
Full-text available
We collected blood and/or ectoparasites from 49 South American grey foxes (Lycalopex griseus) and two Andean foxes (L. culpaeus) caught in two National Parks of southern Argentine Patagonia (Bosques Petrificados, BPNP; and Monte León, MLNP) where dogs are nearly absent (density < 0.01 dog/km2). Common ectoparasites were the flea Pulex irritans (88%...
Article
Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have increasingly attracted the attention of wildlife disease researchers due to a combination of wide host range, high prevalence, and genetic diversity. A systematic review identified 75 articles that investigated hemoplasma infection in wildlife by molecular methods (chiefly targeting partial 16S rRNA gene se...
Article
Full-text available
We use a suite of meta-analytic and comparative methods to derive fundamental insights into how sampling effort, pathogen richness, infection prevalence, and seroprevalence vary across Carnivora taxa and Iberian geography. The red fox was the most studied species, the wolf and Iberian lynx were disproportionally studied, and the Arctoidea were unde...
Article
Full-text available
An understanding of the relationships of ticks and tick-borne pathogens can only be achieved by integrating data from multiple studies. The publication of raw material is a necessary step for wide-area meta-analyses and study design, data collection and reporting require harmonization. This is an opinion paper, not a consensus position, and is open...
Article
We investigated the co-occurrence of the nine of the most relevant canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBP) using conventional and real-time PCR and evaluated risk factors and potential non-apparent haematological alterations associated with co-infection in 111 free-ranging, owned, rural dogs in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. At least one pathogen...
Article
Darwin's fox is an opportunistic omnivorous predator native to Chile classified as Endangered by the IUCN Red List. Habitat use by Darwin's foxes can be negatively affected by the presence of free-ranging dogs that range freely across native and non-native habitats and can be a source of fox mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the...
Article
We screened serum and fecal samples from huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) and pudus (Pudu puda) from southern Chile for Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP). All but four samples were negative. The four positive sequences showed only 92-93% similarity with MAP and were detected in the populations from the remote Isla Riesco.
Article
Chile is a large country with a marked range of climate conditions that make it an ideal scenario for the study of vector-borne parasites; however, knowledge about their distribution is limited to a few confined areas of this country. The presence of Hepatozoon spp., piroplasmids, Leishmania spp. and filarioids was investigated through molecular an...
Article
Full-text available
Antibodies against Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii, investigated through indirect antibody immunofluorescence tests, were detected in serum samples from 3.1% and 0% of 358 rural dogs, respectively, and in none of 32 wild foxes tested. SFG Rickettsia seropositive dogs were only detected in the Mountain Desert 31 (8%) and t...
Article
The Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) is one of the most endangered carnivores worldwide, with the risk of disease spillover from domestic dogs being a major conservation threat. However, lack of epidemiologic information about generalist, non-dog-transmission-dependent protozoal and bacterial pathogens may be a barrier for disease prevention and m...
Article
Hemotropic mycoplasmas cause hemolytic anemia in a variety of wild and domestic mammals. Despite growing evidence about their widespread presence and genetic diversity in wildlife, their presence has never been investigated in Chilean artiodactyls. We aimed to describe the presence and diversity of hemoplasmas in pudus (Pudu puda), a small cervid n...
Article
Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis are members of the Anaplasmataceae family that cause disease in dogs and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus species group ticks. We performed a cross-sectional study on these pathogens across six bioclimatic regions of Chile, including 719 free-ranging rural dogs, 132 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culp...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria of critical importance for global health such as extendedspectrum beta-lactamases-producing (ESBL)-Escherichia coli have been detected in livestock, dogs, and wildlife worldwide. However, the dynamics of ESBL-E. coli between these animals remains poorly understood, particularly in small-scale farms of low and middle-in...
Article
Full-text available
Human transformation of natural habitats facilitates pathogen transmission between domestic and wild species. The guigna (Leopardus guigna), a small felid found in Chile, has experienced habitat loss and an increased probability of contact with domestic cats. Here we describe the interspecific transmission of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline...
Article
Full-text available
Blood samples of 626 rural dogs, 139 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus), and 83 South American grey foxes (L. griseus) from six bioregions of Chile spanning 3,000 km. were screened for Mycoplasma DNA by conventional PCR and sequencing. Risk factors of infection were inferred using GLMMs and genetic structure by network analyses. Overall, M. haemocan...
Article
Wild and domestic carnivores share ectoparasites, although molecular evidence is lacking. The goals of this study were to describe tick and flea infestation in sympatric free‐ranging dogs Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carnivora: Canidae) and Andean foxes Lycalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Canidae) and to determine whether inte...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites with considerable veterinary and economic impact worldwide. Ticks transmitting the disease belong to the Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera. Hyalomma genus is very common in Sicily (Italy) and represents the main Theileria annulata vector in the island. D...
Article
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The family of paramyxoviruses has received growing attention as several new species have been identified recently, notably two different clusters in domestic cats, designated as feline morbillivirus (FeMV) and feline paramyxovirus (FPaV). Their phylogenetic origin and whether wild felids also harbor these viruses are currently unknown. Kidney sampl...
Article
Landscape anthropization has been identified as one of the main drivers of pathogen emergence worldwide, facilitating pathogen spillover between domestic species and wildlife. The present study investigated Carnivore protoparvovirus‐1 infection using molecular methods in 98 free‐ranging wild guignas (Leopardus guigna) and 262 co‐occurring owned, fr...
Article
Full-text available
Feline morbillivirus infections have gained increased attention due to repeated reports of their association with urinary tract disease in cats. In the present study, 112 serum samples from free-roaming domestic cats in Chile were tested for antibodies against feline morbillivirus genotypes 1 and 2 (FeMV-1 and FeMV-2) using an indirect immunofluore...
Article
Intracellular pathogens were investigated for the first time in 55 Chilean bats belonging to five species. Using a conventional PCR protocol targeting a fragment of the ITS region, 21 bats (38%) were positive for DNA of Bartonella sp. Molecular characterization of fragments of the gltA, rpoB and fstZ genes and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indic...
Article
Full-text available
Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within...
Article
Full-text available
Native foxes face serious threats related to anthropic activities and the uncontrolled pets. However, the transmission of several pathogens such as parasites by domestic dogs is an important conservation issue with limited attention in Chile. The lack of a proper identification of the helminths of wild canids in the country, based mostly in coprolo...
Article
We report the presence of Babesia vogeli in dogs in Chile. During two surveillance campaigns separated by a year, sixty-three blood samples from free-ranging rural dogs in Coquimbo, Chile were analyzed through conventional PCR screening of the18S rRNA for Babesia species. Sequencing confirmed the presence of Babesia vogeli in 6.3% of the tested ani...
Article
Mycoplasma haemocanis is prevalent in the endangered Darwin’s fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in its main stronghold, Chiloé Island (Chile). The origin of the infection, its dynamics, its presence in other fox populations and the potential consequences for fox health remain unexplored. For 8 years, hemoplasmal DNA was screened and characterized in blood f...
Article
A combination of Ketamine (4.0±1.0 mg/kg in juveniles and 3.0±0.4 in adults) and Dexmedetomidine (0.055±0.01 and 0.049±0.01, respectively), reversed with Atipamezole (at 10 mg per milligram of Dexmedetomidine) was assessed in 57 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus) in field conditions. Induction times in juveniles and adults were 4.6±3.9 min and 4.3±2...
Article
Full-text available
No evidence of exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) was detected in 70 samples corresponding to 58 wild-trapped Darwin’s foxes (Lycalopex fulvipes) in Chile. Given its current endangered status and it being immunologically naive, in the event of a CDV spillover from dogs to foxes, high population mortality is expected.
Article
Full-text available
We present comments on an article recently published in Ecology and Evolution (“High‐resolution melting of the cytochrome B gene in fecal DNA: A powerful approach for fox species identification of the Lycalopex genus in Chile”) by Anabalon et al. that reported the presence of Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes), a temperate forest specialist, in the...
Article
The impact of carnivore parvovirus infection on wild populations is not yet understood; disease signs are mainly developed in pups and assessing the health of litters in wild carnivores has big limitations. This study aims to shed light on the virus dynamics among wild carnivores thanks to the analysis of 213 samples collected between 1994 and 2013...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is considered an emerging public health problem. Greater AMR development rate is associated with “antibiotic-using” environments. Wildlife thriving in anthropized landscapes could be good indicators of the burden of AMR and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in these areas. The aim of this study was to determine the p...
Article
The presence of DNA of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) was investigated for the first time in bats in Africa. Blood samples from 90 bats captured within or near human settlements in nine study areas from five states in Nigeria belonging to six genera of the families Pteropodidae, Rhinolophidae, and the Molossidae were analyzed using convention...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Canine vector-borne pathogens (CVBP) comprise a relevant and globally distributed group of disease agents. The aim of this study is to determine de co-occurrence of the most relevant CVBP of veterinary and zoonotic interest, in free-ranging, owned, rural dogs of central Chile, and to evaluate risk factors and potential non-apparent hema...
Conference Paper
La antropización del paisaje se considera una de las principales causas de emergencia de enfermedades en fauna silvestre. La güiña es un felino endémico de Chile y una parte de Argentina altamente amenazado por la transformación de su hábitat. Se han estudiado los efectos de la antropización del paisaje en la transmisión interespecífica de leucemia...
Article
Full-text available
The carriage of pathogenic Leptospira was investigated by PCR in 51 wild carnivores, 20 domestic dogs with outdoor access, and 27 free-roaming domestic cats sampled in periurban Barcelona (NE Spain). Overall prevalence was 7.7%, with DNA confirmed in 3/30 common genets (Genetta genetta) (serovars Icterohaemorraghiae and Sejröe), 1/9 red foxes (Vulp...
Article
Full-text available
The co-occurrence of domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and wild felids in rural landscapes can facilitate pathogen transmission. However, in the relatively-isolated regions of southern South America there have been no comprehensive studies to assess disease transmission risks between domestic cats and forest-dwelling wild felids such as guigna...
Article
Full-text available
Owned, free-roaming domestic cats are abundant in the Chilean countryside, having high probability of contact with wildlife and potentially participating as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. In the present study, 131 cats from two remote study areas (Valdivia and Chiloe Island) in southern Chile were analyzed for infection/exposure to eight pathoge...
Conference Paper
Antimicrobial resistance is a global emerging Public Health issue whose presence and impact in wildlife is widely unknown. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are considered environmental contaminants, suitable to evaluate the degree of anthropic impact on wildlife and the environment. The guigna (Leopardus guigna) is the smallest wild felid in t...
Article
Hemoplasma DNA was found in 22% (12/55) of samples from six bat species in Chile, including one of three big-eared brown bats (Histiotus macrotus), one of three small big-eared brown bats (Histiotus montanus), and 10 of 27 Chilean myotis (Myotis chiloensis). Characterization of the 16S rRNA gene identified three genotypes phylogenetically related t...
Article
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed for the first time in blue whales from the South Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites (DDTs), were determined in 40 blubber samples from 36 free...
Article
Two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in Spain were analyzed for the presence of DNA of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time PCR targeting a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Positive reactions were found for wolf (Canis lupus: 6/37), fox (Vulpes vulpes: 1/41), Eurasian badger (Meles meles: 49...
Article
The presence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health interest have received little attention in Chile. In Easter Island in particular, a Chilean territory in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, no information is available. To fill this gap, 153 rural dogs were inspected for ectoparasites during a sterilization campaign carried out in...
Article
Information about the role of micromammals in the epidemiology of Leishmania infantum and Babesia sp. in southern Europe is scarce. Wild micromammals were captured in natural areas in the Barcelona province (NE Spain) in 2011 and analysed by real-time PCR for the presence of DNA of Piroplasmida (n=253) and Leishmania infantum (n=166). The wood mous...