## About

82

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101

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Introduction

I had been working in R&D for 20 years, 10 of them in the aerospace industry and from 2003 designing and operating Pulsotron reactors. Actually I build and operate compact Fusion Reactors to be used in desalination plants to irrigate the desert. Fusion is the best option to fight Climate Change and substitute obsolete nuclear plants in the short term.

Additional affiliations

March 2014 - present

**Pulsotron SL, Madrid, Spain**

Position

- Technical Head

## Publications

Publications (82)

Abstract
The measured results of two tests T3073 and T3074 performed in 28 August, 2020 are presented in this paper. Tests are conducted in the z-pinch type nuclear fusion reactor Pulsotron-3 with the target loaded with Hydrogen-Boron (H+B11) thermonuclear fuel. A group of Energy Recovery Coils (ERCs) were mounted to recover the electric energy dir...

This is version 10 of the excel table.
It has been added two new sheets: B field with a lot of new formulas to be used to calculated magnetic fields.
Also a new sheet with cross-sections of several fusion reactions that are used bu formula 11 and 11c of the Fisica chapter.
Repaired or improved:
11. Included loockup table to calculate barns from io...

An AC magnetic sensor is presented for measuring the high speed and high strength magnetic field generated in Z-pinch fusion machines. The proposed magnetic sensor provides the measurement of magnetic fields across a broadband frequency range. The simulation of magnetic probe is presented using a SPICE simulation software LTspice. The magnetic sens...

The magnetic field of a loop out of axis is calculated using both methods:
- Use of elliptic integrals of first and second order
- Biot-Savart law
In order to obtain the elliptic integral at higher speed the AGM method is used.

The measured results of two tests T3073 and T3074 performed in 28 August, 2020 are presented in this paper. Tests are conducted in the z-pinch type nuclear fusion reactor Pulsotron-3 with the target loaded with Hydrogen-Boron (H+B11) thermonuclear fuel. A group of Energy Recovery Coils (ERCs) were mounted to recover the electric energy directly fro...

An AC magnetic sensor is presented for measuring the high speed and high strength magnetic field generated in Z-pinch fusion machines. The proposed magnetic sensor provides the measurement of magnetic fields across a broadband frequency range, as example, a magnetic probe to measure magnetic fields from 159 Hz to 4.2 GHz is presented. Measurements...

This is the Version-9 of the excel tables.
Following formulas has been Repaired or improved:
22. Includes calculus of Skin Deph and Debye length
191. Ionizer parameters (repaired)
502. Langmuir triple probe current mode: repaired ok/fail checkout
New formulas:
023. Basic Plasma density & ion speed
151b Maximum current extracted from Ion guns.
191.4...

Several tokamaks structures containing 500 keV protons to be used in P-B11 fusion were simulated. In order to find the optimal confinement configuration, the simulation was helped by an evolutionary algorithm running 145,000 simulations. The results are presented in this paper. According to the simulations the tokamak structure can be operated to r...

It is simulated the increase of the magnetic field effect in the cross section and confination time needed to fusion

This is the Version-8 of the excel table. Following modifications are done corresponding to formulas at Fisica sheet:
011: Small improvement
012-016: New: Stopping power formulas (see below)
017 New: Shielding and scattering of composites, mixtures and materials
040 correction.
044. Improvements
120. Repaired when outgoing elements are 3
NEW FORM...

This is the Version-8 of the excel table. Following modifications are done corresponding to formulas at Fisica sheet: 011: Small improvement 012-016: New: Stopping power formulas (see below) 017 New: Shielding and scattering of composites, mixtures and materials 040 correction. 044. Improvements 120. Repaired when outgoing elements are 3 NEW FORMUL...

It contains useful formula to be used in high energy physics, astronomy and nuclear fusion. It is added two new sheets that helps in the design of any electromagnetic design

In order to measure capacitance in a point usually it is used a capacitance probe that consists on a plate connected to an amplifier and a voltage measurement instrument. The main problem is that the standard instrument probes and the input capacitance of the instrument amplifier has a small capacitance that can vary due temperature changes. As exa...

It was designed a specific simulator for magnetic simulation and inductance calculus by using the Biot-Savart law by splitting every confinement coil in small segments. The program was modified to create smaller segment close to the simulation point.
In order to calculate the system inductance it was done by using elliptic integrals.
The Simulator...

Goals are: Generate a useful excel table to be used by scientists.
RULES:
The units are the International MKS ones to avoid conversions between units. Ergs, inch, gallons are forbidden, so formulas must be converted.
The formulas should be USEFUL in the short term.
Also must contain the source. To increase the quality the links should be to a open...

The invention relates to the field of plasma physics, in particular to the area of compressing 5 and heating plasma for scientific and engineering purposes. The invention is useful for heating and compression of plasma, for measurement of plasma properties, generating neutrons, fusion reactions and generating energy.

Esta patente corresponde al dispositivo de Fusión Termonuclear Pulsotron-300k y sus variantes.
La invención pertenece al campo de la física de plasmas, en particular al área de 5 compresión y calentamiento de plasmas para aplicaciones científicas y de la ingeniería La invención sirve para calentar y comprimir el plasma, para medir propiedades del p...

Heavy ion beam probing (HIBP) is a unique diagnostics to study the core plasma potential and turbulence. Advanced HIBPs operate in the T-10 tokamak and TJ-II flexible heliac with fine focused (<1 cm) and intense (100 µA) beams. They provide measurements in the wide density interval = (0.3–5) × 10¹⁹ m⁻³, in a wide range of Ohmic and electron cyclotr...

Heavy ion beam probing (HIBP) is a unique diagnostic for core plasma potential. It operates in the T-10 tokamak and TJ-II flexible heliac. Multi-slits energy analyzers provide simultaneously the data on plasma potential (by beam extra energy), plasma density (by beam current) and B pol (by beam toroidal shift) in 5 poloidally shifted sample volum...

During the MIROR project framework a sound sensor intended for using in inspection of composite materials structure is designed.
The sound sensor is designed to be installed under a walking robot structure that moves to the desired inspection point.

Cuenca (Castilla la Mancha, Spain), this Technical Test Report has been generated after the Pulsotron-2 July 2015 test campaign.
The main issue to be solved in the plasma confinement time measurement is the possibility that thin plasma jets can escape from the reactor without being detected in the langmuir probes as they do not reach them. So a two...

Cuenca (Castilla la Mancha, España), este es el resultado de los ensayos realizados en la campaña de ensayos de Pulsotron-2 de Julio de 2015.
El principal problema es medir el tiempo de confinamiento teniendo en cuenta la posibilidad de que estrechos jets de plasma pudieran escapar del reactor sin ser detectados al no alcanzar las sondas de Langmu...

In the April 2015 test campaign a first stage railgun was tested in different configurations
The test objectives were to test reduction wearing systems and increase the efficiency over 5%

Last version of the useful excel table. It is introduced an index, corrected a few formulas, included new ones and added explanations to others. The new equations included are:
095. Speed& energy of ions from/to current
164. Voltage due charges in parallel surfaces
190. Ionization percentage accordingly Saha equation
200. Ion generator electrosta...

Transportation of goods and people by using Zeppelins uses less fuel, it was a successful method used during more than 30 years for passenger travel on commercial Zeppelins, tens of thousands of passengers flew on more than 2.000 flights, without a single injury. But the Zeppelin era of the passenger airship came to an end in a few minutes after th...

It is demonstrated the use of linear equations with matrices as argument. The method is especially useful when it is used lots of sums of large numbers of data
As a simple example a multidimensional solver is proposed, which can be used to interpolate data or to obtain estimations of results of one or more parameters as a function of other paramete...

Madrid, in the May 2014 It is provided as attached file an useful excel table that contains useful formula for plasma physics used in the Pulsotron project.
It contains Scattering equations, particle collisions, free path length, Bremsstrahlung losses, Paschen breakdown formula, elastic shocks, useful equations to be used in Nuclear fusion and conf...

Actually some nuclear fusion reactors are proposed by using cylindrical structure plasma with two magnetic mirrors. Accurate magnetic field of that structure is calculated by using directly the Biot-Savart law. Furthermore magnetic cusps are used in ion accelerator and electromagnetic thrusters and other electromagnetic devices.

Actually some nuclear fusion reactors based on magnetic mirrors are proposed. In the present article the confinement time is determined for some proposed reactants ions.

After reaching ignition conditions in October 2013 using Pulsotron-2, the Pulsotron 300K IIC is proposed

A C++ code example that calculates the following items is proposed:
- Complete elliptic integral of the 1st kind K(k) and 2nd kind E(k)
- Magnetic field at any point due a current loop
- Calculus of mutual and self inductance of a loops by using Maxwell method
- Multilayer coil inductance obtained by using the mutual inductance between every loop...

Se propone un ejemplo de código C++ que calcula:
- Integral elíptica de 1º orden completa K(k)
- Integral elíptica de 2º orden completa E(k)
- Cálculo de campo magnético en cualquier punto debido a un lazo de corriente en cualquier punto
- Cálculo de la inductancia de una bobina multivuelta y campo debido a la misma empleando el método de Maxwell

PRELIMINARY calculation of equivalent inductance of coils connected in parallel when mutual inductance is known.

El algoritmo propuesto calcula el número de reacciones teniendo en cuenta la sección eficaz y el área de colisión de los haces de partículas. Además substrae de las partículas incidentes y objetivo las que han reaccionado o han sido eliminadas durante la reacción.
El algoritmo puede ser usado en el cálculo de reacciones nucleares, apantallamiento d...

The proposed algorithm calculates the number of reactions taking into account the total cross section and the effective cross section. The algorithm also subtracts the number of incident and target particles which have reacted or been lost due to the reactions.
The algorithm can be used in nuclear fusion reactions, design of radiation shielding and...

This excel table demonstrates that using the obtained charge distribution with the proposed algorithm, it is recovered the initial voltage distribution within small error.

It is very easy to obtain the voltage if we know the charge distribution, we cannot measure the charge distribution easily but the voltage is easy to measure.
An algorithm that calculates the charge distribution is proposed for systems with known voltages of every metal part.
A sample C++ code is included where it is calculated in a multistage rail...

Es muy fácil obtener el voltaje sabiendo la distribución de cargas, sin embargo es fácil medir el voltaje pero no las cargas.
Se propone un algoritmo para la obtención de la distribución de carga electrostática en un sistema si se conoce el voltaje de todas las partes metálicas.
Se incluye un ejemplo de código C++ donde se calcula la distribución...

In this issue it is included some electrostatic formulas, Particle accelerators and ion thrusters equations, cyclorton period calculus and othes included in the change log.
Formula and useful tables. Include antenna design, Nuclear fusion formulas, Plasma Radiation, dielectric discharge formulas, reaction cross sections, Stefan Boltzmann radiation...

The object of this technical article is to obtain equation of movements for charged particles in low density plasmas when exposed to sinusoidal voltage versus constant voltage. The formulas must be used to calculate AC particle accelerators and ion thrusters. The optimum period to obtain the maximum final speed and energy of the particles is calcul...

Cuenca (Spain), this Test Report has been generated after the Pulsotron - 2 August 2014 campaign

Cuenca (España), este report ha sido generado tras la campaña de ensayos de Agosto de 2014 de Pulsotron-2

Cuenca. In the July 2014 test campaign different ion speed measurement sensors installed in the Pulsotron-2 test tower were tested. Using said sensors plasma jet emerging from 14 new plasma thrusters was measured.

Cuenca, Durante la campaña de ensayos de Julio de 2014 se ensayaron un total de 14 motores de plasma. Se midió la velocidad de salida del plasma empleando para ello diferentes sensores de medida de velocidad que fueron instalados en la nueva torre de ensayos de Pulsotron-2.

It is tested the algorithm Hamming (7,4) again single error bit error and double bit error.

Formula and useful tables. Include antenna design, patch antenna design, loop antenna, dipole or monopole antennas, Nuclear fusion formulas, Plasma Radiation, dielectric discharge formulas, reaction cross sections, Stefan Boltzmann radiation, Thermal Bremsstrahlung losses, Bremsstrahlung radiation, Thermionic electron emission, Blackbody radiation,...

Se instalan dos placas conductoras en paralelo de diferentes tamaños. Se instala además una fuente de alimentación entre ambas. Se mide el potencial del campo eléctrico entre ambas en función de la distancia a las mismas.
Se demuestra que el potencial no se corresponde con la teoría clásica a cortas distancias y se propone una ecuación que coincid...

June 2014.-Two different conductive squared plates of different sizes both in parallel were installed. A power supply between both plates was also installed. The Electric Field Potential between both plates was measured as a function of the distance between them. It is demonstrated that the potential does not correspond to the classical theory and...

Se mide el campo electrostático en el interior de dos configuraciones de motores de plasma

Se propone el llamado algoritmo "XDX11" que compara datos a alta velocidad
proveniente de dos vectores de datos entregando como resultado el error medio.
Este algoritmo es una modificación del anterior “XDX21” y como éste no le influye ni
el offset ni la amplitud local de la señal.

Madrid Spain, March 2014. It is defined the maximum temperature of plasma and its radiation as a function of injected energy and confinement time in different fusion machines accordingly Thermal Bremsstrahlung and Stefan Boltzmann equations

The electric field potential inside two plasma thruster configurations was measured.

Madrid, in the May 2014 it was built two capacitors with compensated internal inductance. It is calculated the theoretical parasitic inductance ESL and it was measured using standard equipment.

Please, check the last version (I can not make it appear here). Now is the:
December-18: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329829630_Useful_formula_and_excel_tables_for_plasma_physics_V08

Cuenca, in the May 2014 test campaign not only ion-heating plasma thrusters were tested but also various new electrodeless magnetic neutral beam plasma thrusters. The average injected power ranges from 20 to 120 megawatts. New plasma diagnostics specialized to measure the new devices were also tested.

Cuenca, en la campaña de tests de Mayo de 2014, se ensayaron tras motores de plasma de calentamiento iónico, siendo ensayados también varios nuevos motores de plasma sin electrodos de compresión magnética de plasma neutro.
La potencia media inyectada estaba en el rango de 20 a 120 megawatios
También se ensayaron unos primeros sensores de diagnóstic...

Madrid, in the May 2014 It is provided as attached file an useful excel table that contains useful formula for plasma physics used in the Pulsotron project. It contains Scattering equations, particle collisions, free path length, Bremsstrahlung losses, Paschen breakdown formula, elastic shocks, useful equations to be used in Plasma thrusters and pa...

Please, download the latest version:
Useful formula and excel tables for plasma physics V07
You can be advised of updated version by join the project "Useful formula and excel tables for plasma physics", here in RG
Best regards,
Javier Lopez

Cuenca, in the April 2014 test campaign the pressure ignition conditions were reached once again. Refurbished "RBR" plasma temperature sensors with enhanced shielding were used to measure Plasma performance. New Plasma Thrusters to be used in nuclear heavy or light particles bombardment fusion and also in spacecraft propulsion were tested. High spe...

Madrid, in the January 2014 test campaign the pressure ignition conditions were reached once again. New "RBR" plasma temperature sensors with needle filter were used to measure Plasma Temperature.

In the present paper the Presure Ignition Conditions verification will be described, these were performed in October 2013 by an external certification company which checked all operations that were carried out, using calibrated and standard instruments and conventional formulas only. This unprecedented procedure that was performed on a test fusion...

It is defined the maximum temperature of plasma and its radiation as a function of injected energy and confinement time in different fusion machines

Silicon PIN photodiodes have usually been used in Z -pinches as can be seen in references (2,3,4,5), they have also been used in measurements of partly ionized plasma temperature and output power or emissivity. One of the problems is that such high power emission saturates photodiodes so a filter must be used. It is difficult to find planar respons...

Here a sensor is described which covers from millimeter wavelength to soft X -rays. The sensor named "RBR" was used at Pulsotron-2 Z-pinch device

Silicon PIN photodiodes have usually been used in Z -pinches as can be seen in references (2,3,4,5), they have also been used in measurements of partly ionized plasma temperature and output power or emissivity. One of the problems is that such high power emission saturates photodiodes so a filter must be used. It is difficult to find planar respons...

It is proposed a system designed to allow full accessibility of blind people to transport infrastructures. The system guides the blinds using buried wires connected to control panels, by using radio frequency signals received by small receivers carried by the blind users

This algorithm has been designed to obtain the parameters of a noisy sinusoidal signal by using successive approximation that uses worms which look for the solution separately from the others. In every turn a list with better results is obtained and the algorithm discards the others.
As result the algorithm is more robust, converges always to give...

El algoritmo ha sido diseñado para obtener los parámetros de una señal con ruido mediante aproximaciones sucesivas mediante el uso de numerosos gusanos, estos gusanos buscan de forma independiente la mejor solución de una manera rápida. En cada vuelta del algoritmo se obtiene una lista con los mejores resultados elegidos descartándose el resto.
Com...

OBJETO DE LA INVENCIÓN La presente invención se refiere a un dispositivo de almacenamiento de energía de alta velocidad.

La presente invención se refiere a un dispositivo de ayuda al desplazamiento de personas privadas parcial o totalmente de visión. El sistema puede ser instyalado en aeropuertos y estaciones.

Abstract
Since the last IAEA Conference JET has been in operation for one year with a programmatic focus on the qualification
of ITER operating scenarios, the consolidation of ITER design choices and preparation for plasma operation with
the ITER-like wall presently being installed in JET. Good progress has been achieved, including stationary ELMy...

An algorithm named "XDX11" is proposed which compares two arrays of data at high speed giving as a result the average error. This algorithm is slightly different from previous "XDX21" ones. The modified algorithm does not depend on the average or local offset and amplitude of the signal as in the old one.

Se propone el llamado algoritmo "XDX11" que compara datos a alta velocidad proveniente de dos vectores de datos entregando como resultado el error medio.
Este algoritmo es una modificación del anterior “XDX21” y como éste no le influye ni el offset ni la amplitud local de la señal.

An algorithm named "XDX11" is proposed which compares two arrays of data at high speed giving as a result the average error.
This algorithm is slightly different from previous "XDX21" ones.
The modified algorithm does not depend on the average or local offset and amplitude
of the signal as in the old one.

An algorithm named "XDX21" is proposed which compares two arrays of data at high speed giving as a result the average error.
Initially designed to process Pulsotron-I test data, it can be used in some other uses.
The algorithm does not depend on the average or local offset and amplitude of the signal as in the old one.
It is provided also a means t...

## Questions

Questions (101)

I must measure temperature and ion density of 3-10eV plasma of hydrogen and boron at 5-50 pascals

As long as there are magnetic and electric fields, I can not install sensors inside

The first ionization energy of Hydrogen and Boron are 13.9eV and 8.3eV that corresponds to 91nm and 149nm, but there are no sensors for that frequencies

Accordingly Wikipedia, books, and papers the magnetic pressure is B^2/2mu.

I think it is wrong, because not take into account the plasma speed.

We could obtain it for almost static magnetic field formula of movement of particles in a magnetic field, that happens usually if the magnetic field is under 10khz:

(H is the height of the plasma column, as lower height, more pressure)

It seems that it is a forbidden question

Accordingly Stefan Boltzman equation, plasma radiation is 5.6704e-8*T^4 in Watts/m2

So if we have a plasma temperature of 150 million kelvin, we have radiation of 3e25 watts/m2, which must be more than the power of the whole world.

So perhaps if the density is very low, and plasma is magnetized the radiation is lower.

Does anybody have real data on plasma radiation?

I have a DC/AC high voltage transformer to feed a spark plug to generate plasma using an arc discharge.

The output voltage goes up to 30kVpp and 400khz

When connecting one of the secondary of the transformer to GND at 5% of the breakdown (then the secondary is open circuit because spark gap voltage is under breakdown) high energy current is discharged to ground breaking Push-Pull circuit.

I have set a 150 ohms resistor to ground and measured 260mA.

The problem gets worse if the ground is connected to the Large plasma steel structure

I can not explain the problem using classical approach

Here is the circuit:

## Projects

Projects (3)

Goals are: Generate a useful excel table to be used by scientists.
RULES:
The units are the International MKS ones to avoid conversions between units. Ergs, inch, gallons are forbidden, so formulas must be converted.
The formulas should be USEFUL in the short term.
Also must contain the source. To increase the quality the links should be to a open and stable place as Research gate.
It should be useful in the following areas:
- Nuclear Fusion
- Electromagnetics
- High Energy
- Plasma physics
- Space and astronomy
- Pulsotrons
Scientists that contribute to this excel table must send their contribution to me to add them, but I hope some others could do the duty later.
Indirectly scientists added to the project are supporting to the pulsotron project to allow humanity to reach fusion energy.
Javier Lopez Segura

Actually Pulsotron-3 recover a World Record of 88% from plasma, when reaching 200% we will power the world,.Please, follow "Project log" and https://pulsotron.com/progress.