Javier Guitian

Javier Guitian
Royal Veterinary College | RVC · Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health

About

211
Publications
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Publications

Publications (211)
Article
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Background: Taenia saginata cysticercus is the larval stage of the zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata, with a life-cycle involving both cattle and humans. The public health impact is considered low. The current surveillance system, based on post-mortem inspection of carcasses has low sensitivity and leads to considerable economic burden. Therefore,...
Article
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Background: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diver...
Article
Johne's disease is a serious wasting disease of ruminants that is of high economic importance for the dairy sector in particular. The chronic nature of the disease, the fluctuations in antibody levels and the limited ability of diagnostic tests to identify cows at early stages of infection are huge challenges for the control of the disease. In the...
Article
A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evid...
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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are an important public health concern. Since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, active surveillance has been a key element of the European Union's TSE control strategy. Success of this strategy means that now, v...
Article
Previously, pig production was not covered in the Jordan University of Science and Technology’s (JUST) veterinary curriculum due to Jordan being a predominantly Muslim country, with few graduates practicing outside the Middle East. However, pig production, management, and health (PPMH) education is increasingly recognized as needed to meet the requ...
Article
Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter (campylobacteriosis) is the most prevalent bacterial disease associated with the consumption of poultry, beef, lamb and pork meat and unpasteurized dairy products. A variety of livestock industry, food chain and public health interventions have been implemented or proposed to reduce disease prevalence, some of...
Article
In the absence of epidemiological, microbiological or outbreak data, systematic identification of the hazards and food products posing the higher risk to the consumers is challenging. It is usually in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), where the burden of foodborne disease is highest that data tend to be particularly scarce. In this study, w...
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Perspective : We explain research gaps on Monkeypox (MPX) virus epidemiology in endemic countries and present hypotheses for the recent increase of MPX cases in West Africa as a possible explanation for the current epidemic in Europe, America, and Australia. The detection of >270 MPX cases in less than a month in May 2022, across many countries und...
Preprint
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Q fever represents an important ‘neglected zoonosis’, with high prevalences recorded across the Middle East region. Among rural desert-dwelling communities in the region, camel milk is largely consumed raw, due to perceptions of dromedaries as a uniquely clean livestock species mentioned in the Qur’an and Islamic hadith, while milk from other lives...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the absence of epidemiological, microbiological or outbreak data, systematic identification of the hazards and food products posing the higher risk to the consumers is challenging. It is usually in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), where the burden of foodborne disease is highest that data tend to be particularly scarce. In this study, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brucellosis imposes substantial impacts on livestock production and public health worldwide. A stochastic, age-structured model incorporating herd demographics was developed describing within- and between- herd transmission of Brucella abortus in dairy cattle herds. The model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional study conducted in Punjab State...
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Taenia solium is an important cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide and remains endemic in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Transmission of this parasite is still poorly understood despite the design of infection experiments to improve our knowledge of the disease, with estimates for critical epidemiological parameters, such as the probability of hu...
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Brucellosis caused by facultative intracellular bacteria, Brucella, remains a global threat to both animal and human health. In this study we aimed to identify potential risk factors of bovine brucellosis and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of livestock keepers in Hisar, India. A standardized questionnaire was used to colla...
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After the first detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in camels in Jordan in 2013, we conducted 2 consecutive surveys in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018 investigating risk factors for MERS-CoV infection among camel populations in southern Jordan. Multivariate analysis to control for confounding demonstrated that borrowing of...
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Background Coxiella burnetti, the causal agent of Q-fever, contributes to aetiologies of fevers of unknown origin (FUO) in West Africa. We compared its seroprevalence between Dakar, the largest urban centre in Senegal, and Niakhar, a rural area, and investigated the association to contacts with livestock and dairy products consumption. Methods Lar...
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Background Abattoir data are under-used for surveillance. Nationwide surveillance could benefit from using data on meat inspection findings, but several limitations need to be overcome. At the producer level, interpretation of meat inspection findings is a notable opportunity for surveillance with relevance to animal health and welfare. In this stu...
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In foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-endemic countries, vaccination is commonly used to control the disease, whilst in FMD-free countries, vaccination is considered as an option, in addition to culling the infected and in contact animals. FMD vaccines are mainly comprised of inactivated virions and stimulate protective antibodies to virus structural pro...
Article
Brucellosis is regarded as one of the highest burden zoonotic diseases to persist in many regions globally. While sustained vaccination against B. abortus in an endemic setting can markedly reduce the prevalence of large ruminant and human brucellosis and benefit local livelihoods, the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes...
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Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in...
Article
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Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease imposing significant impacts on livestock production and public health worldwide. India is the world’s leading milk producer and Punjab is the state which produces the most cattle and buffalo milk per capita. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis to provide evidence for con...
Article
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The study was conducted from June to August 2014 in Isiolo Central division of Isiolo Sub-County and Sericho division of Garbatulla Sub-County and comprised two components: (i) a cross-sectional study on the milk-handling hygiene practices, where milk traders' households were the study units and (ii) a case-control study on the risk factors for Bru...
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The dairy industry in Senegal is growing and evolving against a backdrop of rapid urbanisation and increasing consumer demand for dairy products. Consideration of appropriate cattle healthcare delivery and disease control in these evolving farming systems is of paramount importance given the risks posed by zoonotic pathogens and the economic conseq...
Article
Small ruminant brucellosis remains endemic in many low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs), where it poses a major economic and public health burden. Lack of resources to support long‐term vaccination, inherent characteristics of small ruminant production systems such as mixing of different flocks for grazing and limitations of the vaccines curren...
Preprint
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PREPRINT 2 Viraemic pigs entering the food chain are the most likely source of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pork meat: modelling the fate of HEV during slaughtering of pigs. ABSTRACT Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen and consumption of raw or undercooked pork products has been associated with increased risk of human infection....
Article
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen and consumption of raw or undercooked pork products has been associated with increased risk of human infection. This work represents the first attempt to evaluate the risk of HEV being present on pig carcasses and in meat at the end of the slaughtering process considering the steps of bleedi...
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Background: Milk is a nutrient-rich food that makes an important contribution to diets in several Low and Middle Income Countries such as Senegal. Milk can also harbour several pathogenic microorganisms. As in other low and middle income countries, the dairy industry in Senegal is growing, with an expansion of farms to meet rapidly growing demand...
Article
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Slaughterhouse condemnation of broiler chickens results from identification of polymorphic pathological conditions during meat inspection from arrival and on theslaughter line. While conditions that result in condemnation are multifactorial, identification of factors that are common for a number of categories could be valuable for developing strate...
Article
Background: Brucellosis is an important neglected zoonosis. Effective cattle vaccines are available but are infrequently used in India, where rural households commonly own one or two cattle as sources of protein and income. We assessed the prevalence of infection and risk factors in humans. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional sero-survey in...
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Free open access until 16 August 2019 here: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ZI9rB8cckQbG [copy and paste in your browser] Aquaculture systems are highly complex, dynamic and interconnected systems influenced by environmental, biological, cultural, socio-economic and human behavioural factors. Intensification of aquaculture production is likely to d...
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Ten herd-level cross-sectional studies were conducted in peri-urban dairy production areas of seven West and Central African countries (Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo). The objectives were to estimate herd level Brucella spp. seroprevalence and identify risk factors for seropositivity. In each of the ten study areas,...
Article
Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic condition of dairy cattle, and is endemic in the UK. Lack of understanding of the relative importance of different transmission routes reduces the impact of control scheme recommendations. The long incubation period for Johne's disease makes evaluation of con...
Article
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Predicting the likelihood of rare events is increasingly demanded by risk managers. A key challenge is dealing with different types of uncertainty, including epistemic uncertainties (lack of knowledge), stochasticity (inherent randomness) and natural variation. One potentially catastrophic event which is impacted by high levels of all three of thes...
Data
Likelihood maps for transmission of pathogens from domestic livestock to the Betpak Dala saiga population.
Article
Full-text available
Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, often associated with the consumption of undercooked poultry. In Jordan, the majority of broiler chicken production occurs in semi-commercial farms, where poor housing conditions and low bio-security are likely to promote campylobacter colonisation. While...
Article
The evisceration stage is one of the most critical steps in the slaughtering process of pigs when considering the risk of carcass contamination. Unfortunately, it is also characterized by a number of fundamental quantitative data gaps preventing modellers from reproducing events in probabilistic terms. Recognising the practical difficulties that a...
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Eimeria species parasites can cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, most notably in chickens where the economic and welfare implications are significant. Seven Eimeria species are recognized to infect chickens, although understanding of their regional occurrence, abundance, and population structure remains limited. Reports of Eimeria circulating i...
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Background The caecal microbiota plays a key role in chicken health and performance, influencing digestion and absorption of nutrients, and contributing to defence against colonisation by invading pathogens. Measures of productivity and resistance to pathogen colonisation are directly influenced by chicken genotype, but host driven variation in mic...
Article
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen with consumption of pork and derived products identified in different countries as a risk factor for human exposure to HEV. Great efforts have been made to understand the dynamics of virus transmission within domestic swine populations through modelling. However, from a food safety prospective, it is c...
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Background We conducted a systematic review to investigate avian influenza outbreaks and to explore their distribution, upon avian influenza subtype, country, avian species and other relating details as no comprehensive epidemiological analysis of global avian influenza outbreaks from 2010 to 2016 exists. Methods Data was collated from four databas...
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This study describes the occurrence of preterm calving in Great Britain and evaluates its associations with subsequent milk production and reproductive performances and survival on farm of dairy cows. A total of 53 British dairy farms and 5759 animals with detailed breeding and milk recording data available were used to form two study groups: prete...
Article
Brucellosis is a neglected endemic zoonosis in West and Central Africa. In this narrative review, evidence of livestock and human infection is presented along with details of past and current control strategies in 14 selected countrie