Javier Cuadros

Javier Cuadros
Natural History Museum, London · Department of Earth Sciences

About

119
Publications
40,851
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3,063
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
1624 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
The efficient use of REE as tracers of weathering processes requires further data acquisition to establish robust connections between mechanisms, mineral assemblages and REE concentration patterns. Here, results are provided corresponding to rocks from four locations in the Iberian Pyrite Belt that were altered with different intensity by sulfuric...
Article
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Microbial activity following invasion of human-made structures and artifacts can have profound social and economic consequences including the permanent loss of cultural heritage. The unique frescoes in the 11th century Saint Sophia's Cathedral (Kyiv, Ukraine) have recently suffered from dark-spot biodeterioration. The aim of this work was to elucid...
Article
On Earth, trioctahedral (Mg-rich) vermiculite occurs as a transient alteration product of Mg/Fe²⁺-mica and chlorite, pyroxene, olivine, amphibole and even plagioclase where there is a nearby Mg source, indicating mild/short-lived weathering or hydrothermal conditions. On Mars, the abundant mafic rocks and low water availability suggest the likeliho...
Article
Hundreds of ancient lake basins detected on Mars via orbital remote sensing represent rare oases of hydrosphere–atmosphere–lithosphere interactions with great astrobiological potential. These palaeolake basins, and associated lacustrine deposits, could preserve evidence of biogenesis on Mars, and their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry place str...
Article
Mangroves are intertidal tropical ecosystems influenced by marine and terrigenous input. They are important sinks of trace elements, like Rare Earth Elements (REE), which are recognized as excellent indicators of geochemical processes in estuaries. REE data of bulk soil samples from eight mangroves located along the Brazilian coast were correlated...
Article
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The environmental availability of mineral nutrients plays a role in the adaptation and evolution of soil fungi and fungus-plant symbiotic systems. As nutrient availability is different from soil to soil, it is expected that the most adapted fungi can express multiple genes to promote different mechanisms of mineral attack and of metabolic routes to...
Article
The model of Fe3+ distribution between octahedra and tetrahedra in dioctahedral smectites by Decarreau and Petit (2014) used data from infrared analysis. From their own and other general evidence, the resulting data are likely to be affected by significant uncertainty. This aside, their model has limited application because it is based on synthetic...
Article
The cameras on the Pathfinder probe (Imager for Pathfinder) and the rovers Spirit and Opportunity (Panoramic Camera), Curiosity (Mast Camera) and Perseverance (Mast Camera-Z) produce visible-range spectra of limited wavelength resolution but of great target resolution which allows mineralogical analysis of selected areas within martian rocks. Labor...
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Modified clay minerals on Mars Sedimentary rocks exposed in Gale crater on Mars contain extensive clay minerals. Bristow et al. analyzed drill samples collected by the Curiosity rover as it climbed up sedimentary layers in the crater. They found evidence of past reactions with liquid water and sulfate brines, which could have percolated through the...
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Phlogopite flakes strewn on the soil of Caldara di Manziana (Italy) display multiple minute perforations. The site is a caldera linked to recent volcanism (90 ka to 0.8 Ma) with present emanations of CO2 (~150 t d−1) and H2S (~2.55 t d−1). Stereomicroscopy and SEM–EDX observation of the phlogopite crystals shows holes and depressions <200 µm to 2 m...
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Plain Language Summary Mars is a volcanic planet with a surface dominated by basalt and sedimentary rocks derived from basalt, similar to oceanic crust on Earth (though Mars’ crust is thicker). For decades, Mars has been considered a “one plate planet” where plate tectonics never occurred and where continental type rocks never formed. Recent observ...
Preprint
Silicates make up about 90% of the Earth's crust and constitute the main source of mineral nutrients for microorganisms and plants. Fungi can actively weather silicates to extract nutrients. However, it is unclear whether they are able to obtain the same amounts of nutrients and use the same mechanisms when tapping into different mineral sources. W...
Article
Iron electronic transitions produce intense colors in minerals with moderate to high Fe content, which phenomenon allows using color and visible spectroscopy to identify and quantify Fe-bearing minerals. This approach is especially useful for Mars investigation due to the limited analytical instruments available at Mars. The challenges are: (1) ove...
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Plain Language Summary Lake sediments contain a rich archive of information about past climate change. Clay minerals in such sediments, in particular, can potentially provide important insight into changes in humidity and aridity in the terrestrial environment by recording changes in precipitation as reflected in lake salinity. Until now, the clima...
Article
Fe(II) only occupies octahedral sites in phyllosilicates, whereas Fe(III) can occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The controls on Fe(III) distribution between tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been a matter of great interest to understand the interplay between formation environment (Fe abundance, redox conditions) and crystal-chemical...
Article
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McLaughlin crater is a 92-km diameter complex crater that formed on Mars ~4 billion years ago. The resulting basin was the site of a large (~3,000 km ² ), deep (~500 m), voluminous (~1,500 km ³ ) Martian lake circa 3.8 Ga. While there is strong evidence that hundreds of lakes have existed on Mars at some point during the same time period, the geolo...
Article
Investigation of Earth analogs and their environments is crucial for the full interpretation of geologic outcrops and processes on Mars. Phyllosilicates are important indicators of aqueous processes and their characterization is a significant piece of the geologic puzzle of Mars. They are chiefly investigated with Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy f...
Article
A range of phyllosilicate compositions have been detected spectroscopically on Mars, but the largest fraction by far corresponds to clay minerals rich in Fe and Mg. Given that most of our understanding of Martian clays comes from remote sensing data, it is critically important to explore the details of how compositional variation affects spectral f...
Article
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Earth analogs are indispensable to investigate mineral assemblages on Mars because they enable detailed analysis of spectroscopic data from Mars and aid environmental interpretation. Samples from four sites in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (El Villar, Calañas, Quebrantahuesos, and Tharsis) were investigated using mineralogical, chemical, and spectroscopi...
Article
Decomposing fungi translocate Mn as demonstrated by the fact that Mn has been found to accumulate on decomposing leaves associated with individual fungal hyphae and forming insoluble Mn(III,IV) oxides that remain concentrated in diffuse patches. We studied here Mn translocation and precipitation by the saprophytic fungus Alternaria sp. strain FBL50...
Article
Mangrove soils have peculiar chemical and physical conditions generated by the variable water salinity, cyclic tidal changes and intense biological activity that produce complex clay suites. In this study, the crystal-chemical characteristics of clay minerals from two mangrove soils were investigated in detail to further our understanding of the pr...
Article
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Mineral weathering processes in soils are important controls on soil characteristics and on bio-and geochemical cycling. Elucidation of these processes and their mechanisms is crucial for understanding soil environments and their influence globally. An Umbric Podzol from the Falkland Islands was studied while investigating possible ways to countera...
Article
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The Eridania region in the southern highlands of Mars once contained a vast inland sea with a volume of water greater than that of all other Martian lakes combined. Here we show that the most ancient materials within Eridania are thick (>400 m), massive (not bedded), mottled deposits containing saponite, talc-saponite, Fe-rich mica (for example, gl...
Article
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Background: Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the chara...
Article
Most known clay mineral reactions are slow. Clay formation by weathering is recognized as faster (hundreds of thousands to few million years) than clay reverse weathering (few to tens My), even if the latter takes place in deep diagenetic conditions at temperatures above 100 °C. Identifying hot spots of fast clay retrograde reactions acting as effe...
Conference Paper
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Colonization of the land by plants during the Early Paleozoic was fundamental to the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems, biologically-mediated weathering, and the development of soils. However, the method by which communities of primitive land plants and their fungal and bacterial symbionts microscopically weathered their substrates to produce cla...
Article
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Fungi dissolve soil minerals by acidification and mechanical disruption. Dissolution may occur at the microscale (contact between fungus and mineral) and medium scale (entire mineral grains). Mineral weathering by fungi and other microorganisms is thought to be of significant global contribution, perhaps producing specific weathering signatures. We...
Article
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The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the pedogenic and lacustrine modification of clay minerals. Some of these modifications are of special interest because they constitute reverse weathering reactions, rare in surface environments, and because there is not yet an accurate assessment of their global relevance in mineralogical a...
Article
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The detection of organic molecules associated with life on Mars is one of the main goals of future life-searching missions such as the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars and NASA 2020 mission. In this work we studied the preservation of 25 amino acids that were spiked onto the Mars-relevant minerals augite, enstatite, goethite, gypsum, hematite, jarosite, labra...
Article
A 3-m deep soil profile from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, has been studied. The profile is interesting because soil development on mafic tephra produced a pattern of clay mineral and carbonate distribution. Carbonates precipitated abundantly, increasingly towards the bottom, making up 20–90 wt% of the soil. Sepiolite and calcite are dominant at th...
Article
With the arrival of Curiosity on Mars, the MSL has started its ground validation of some of the phyllosilicate characterization carried out with remote sensing near-IR spectroscopy from orbital instruments. However, given the limited range of action of the rover, phyllosilicate identification and characterization will have to rely mainly on orbital...
Conference Paper
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Paleoenvironmental reconstructions are critical to fully understanding paleoclimate change and hominin evolution. Authigenic clays have been identified as a potential proxy for paleoclimate change because Mg-rich clays form in saline and alkaline conditions. With these minerals as a proxy, we can identify fluctuations between saline and freshwater...
Conference Paper
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Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian pro...
Article
Saharan dust can travel long distances in different directions across the Atlantic and Europe, sometimes in episodes of high dust concentration. In recent years it has been discovered that Saharan dust aerosols can aggregate into large, approximately spherical particles of up to 100 μm generated within raindrops that then evaporate, so that the agg...
Article
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Soil formation occurs through numerous physical and chemical weathering processes acting to alter the parent rock on the Earth's surface. Samples of surface soils were collected over a range of elevations (2000-3600 m) from profiles directly overlying basaltic to more felsic parent rocks, over a region in NW Ethiopia. The soils were investigated to...
Article
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Near-infrared remote sensing data of Mars have revealed thousands of ancient deposits of Fe/Mg-rich smectitic clay minerals within the crust with relevance to past habitability. Diagnostic metal–OH infrared spectroscopic absorptions used to interpret the mineralogy of these phyllosilicates occur at wavelengths of 2.27–2.32 μm, indicating variable F...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages suggesting processes for which Earth analogues exist. One of these cases is represented by aluminous clay-sulphate assemblages, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue for such Martian p...
Article
The Curiosity rover on Mars, landed in 2012, is capable of mineralogical investigation using X-ray diffraction, complementing the abundant infrared remote sensing data already available on clay minerals. We can, however, expect that the in situ X-ray diffraction information will convey a more complex picture than that inferred from infrared spectro...
Article
Transformation of kaolinite to dickite is a common diagenetic reaction. The present report is part of a wider study to investigate the pathways of this polytype change. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to attempt quantification of the relative proportions of kaolinite and dickite, validated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results,...
Article
The mechanism of kaolinite transformation into dickite has been investigating using 13 samples from the Froy and Rind oil fields (Broad Fourteens basin, North Sea), 3 kaolinite specimens with different crystal order (KGa-2, Kaolinite API 17, Keokuk kaolinite), and 2 dickite-rich samples (Natural History Museum collection). Detailed analysis of XRD,...
Article
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This study investigated soil clay mineralogy of mangrove forests along the Brazilian coast in eight regions of different environmental characteristics, with a focus on the crystallochemical features and genesis of 2: 1 phyllosilicates. Samples from two different depths (0-30 and 60-90 cm) and two clay size fractions (<2 and <0.2 mu m) were studied....
Article
Trends established in laboratory analyses of Fe-rich clays allow for precise interpretation of the crystal chemistry of martian clays from remote infrared data.
Book
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This book has taken origin from the lectures presented at the ASYS, the AIPEA School for Young Scientists, held in Bari (Italy), in June 2009, just before the 14th International Clay Conference. It is not a tentative to address the controversial is-sues that constellate the universe of mixed-layer clay minerals but aims at bringing together ideas a...
Article
The effect of oil on As(V) adsorption on clay minerals has been investigated using batch experiments at low and high pH, NaCl concentration and oil contents. Four clay minerals were chosen because of their abundance in sediments and their different crystal chemistry: illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and chlorite. The values for pH were 4 and 8 a...
Article
Rhyolitic obsidian was reacted with natural waters to study the effect of water chemistry and biological activity on the composition and formation mechanisms of clay. Two sets of experiments (18 months, 6 years) used fresh, hypersaline water (Mg-Na-SO4-Cl- and NaCl-rich) and seawater. The 6-year experiments produced the transformation of obsidian i...
Article
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Biological activity plays a substantial role in the geochemistry of the Earth's surface. Particularly interesting are effects on clay formation because clays are abundant and have high surface-to-volume ratio, resulting in clays making up a large fraction of the overall mineral-fluid interface and having an effective control of mineral reactions. T...
Article
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By the time eukaryotic life or photosynthesis evolved on Earth, the martian surface had become extremely inhospitable, but the subsurface of Mars could potentially have contained a vast microbial biosphere. Crustal fluids may have welled up from the subsurface to alter and cement surface sediments, potentially preserving clues to subsurface habitab...
Article
Aluminous clay deposits on Mars are recognized from remotely sensed infrared spectral features similar to those of montmorillonite, beidellite, and/or kaolinite. The nature of aluminous clay deposits on Mars is of interest because they likely indicate a different formation mechanism than that of Fe–Mg clays, which are widespread on Mars and likely...
Article
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Six-year experiments of volcanic glass reacting with waters of different chemistry (two freshwaters, seawater and brine) at ∼22 °C have produced the thorough transformation of mm-size glass chips into quartz, with minor alunite and calcite. These results contradict the current thinking about glass weathering and quartz formation. The reaction from...
Article
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Chemical and mineralogical transformations of phyllosilicates are among the most important in diagenetic environments in all types of rocks because they can exert a large control on the processes taking place in such environments and/or provide constraints for the conditions in which phyllosilicate transformation occurred. Dissolution-precipitation...
Conference Paper
We searched for evidence of groundwater upwelling in deep martian craters and found only rare evidence for such processes. However, some cases suggest that groundwater-fed lakes have existed and led to the formation of lacustrine clays and carbonates.
Article
Infrared remote sensing results from the OMEGA and CRISM experiments have revealed 1000s of exposures of Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates on Mars, including many smectite compositions intermediate between nontronite (Fe3+ endmember) and saponite (Mg2+ endmember). In addition, many of the deposits contain spectral evidence for putative higher temperature...
Article
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The Al-clay-rich rock units at Mawrth Vallis, Mars, have been identified as mixtures of multiple components based on their spectral reflectance properties and the known spectral character of pure clay minerals. In particular, the spectral characteristics associated with the similar to 2.2 mu m feature in Martian reflectance spectra indicate that mi...
Article
—Clay processes, mineral reactions, and element budgets in oceans continue to be important topics for scientific investigation, particularly with respect to understanding better the roles of chemistry, formation mechanism, and input from hydrothermal fluids, seawater, and non-hydrothermal mineral phases. To that end, the present study was undertake...
Article
Hydrated silica has been identified in many outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region [1-3] often mixed with Al-bearing phyllosilicates such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. To determine which form of hydrated silica could be mixed with the Al-phyllosilicates at Mawrth Vallis, spectra of intimate mineral mixtures were measured in the lab and compared t...
Article
Purpose Mineral dust pollution is a concern for human health due to the reaction of mineral particles in the organism and their role as pathogen carriers. Human activity generates unconsolidated sediments that become a dust source. This study investigates the effect of microbial growth on dust stabilization through aggregation in order to help alle...
Article
The legendary cruise of H.M.S. Challenger (1872–1876) around the globe must always occupy an eminent place in the annals of oceanography, as being the first systematic attempt made on a global scale to explore the ocean. This expedition made fundamental discoveries in biology and geology which have not been surpassed by any later scientific cruise....
Article
The preparation of ultra-thin clay mineral films promises to open novel applications for more sensitive sensors, stronger plastics and other unexpected functionalities. However, most natural and synthetic clay particles necessarily need often tedious preparation procedures to remove crystalline impurities and to obtain completely exfoliated forms....
Article
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The clay mineralogy and chemistry of a green lacustrine marl that has been pedogenically modified in the upper part was investigated in order to better understand the formation of low-temperature Fe-rich 10 Å clay. Twelve samples in a vertical sequence have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis, scanning electron micros...
Article
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Many CRISM spectra measured at Mawrth Vallis appear to be mixtures of montmorillonite with hydrated silica, kaolinite, or beidellite. Here we analyze spectra of quantified mixtures of these components and compare them to CRISM spectra.
Article
The mechanism for the kaolinization of smectite is extremely complex. The purpose of this study was to explore this mechanism by providing more microscopic information about kaolinite-smectite (K-S) intermediate phases. Crystal-chemical changes were investigated and integrated in a model of the transformation mechanism. Eight K-S samples from three...
Article
Full-text available
The extent of natural weathering of phlogopite crystals in a karstic environment and the composition of its weathering products have been examined through a multi-method investigation carried out on a volcanoclastic deposit discovered in the Grotta del Cervo cave, Pietrasecca, central Italy. Phlogopite crystals are a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes...
Article
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Mineralogical and geochemical analyses of ultrafine (<0.1μm) extracts of Pliocene clays from Olduvai Gorge reveal the complexities of clay diagenesis in saline, alkaline paleo-waters. Multiple authigenic phases are routinely present; these may be distinguished and quantified by decomposition of XRD (060) peaks coupled with geochemical (microprobe,...
Article
Amino acid-smectite interaction may have catalyzed prebiotic reactions essential for the emergence of life. Lysine solutions (0.05 M) were reacted with Na-smectite in adsorption-desorption experiments. The lysine-smectite complexes were heated at 80 degrees C for 10 days to investigate (1) possible slow processes taking place at surface temperature...
Article
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An active seafloor hydrothermal system subjects the background sediments of the Grimsey Graben (Tjörnes Fracture Zone) to alteration that produces dissolution of the primary volcaniclastic matrix and replacement/precipitation of sulfides, sulfates, oxides, oxyhydroxides, carbonates and phyllosilicates. Three types of hydrothermal alteration of the...