Javier Campos

Javier Campos
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | ULPGC · Departamento de Análisis Económico Aplicado (DAEA)

MSc Economics, PhD Economics

About

76
Publications
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Introduction
Additional affiliations
July 1991 - present
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
The economic appraisal of transport projects is commonly based on the calculation of time savings, operating cost reduction, avoided accidents, quality improvements, and project costs. This is the change in willingness to pay and resources approach. This paper describes this method for the assessment of the economic effects of any project and then...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper contributes to the literature on how firms change their advertising strategies after a corporate scandal by providing both a theoretical model and an empirical evaluation based on the idea that advertising acts as a quality signal that is modulated by the number of competing substitutes in the market. This result is new in this literatur...
Chapter
This chapter empirically examines the impacts of the arrival and consolidation of the high-speed rail (HSR) on the tourism industry of the most depopulated provinces in Spain, by evaluating the increase in the number of visitors, average stays, occupancy rates, and hotel beds. Our results confirm that HSR is not necessarily able to promote the tour...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cualquier mejora en las infraestructuras o servicios de transporte que se obtenga como resultado de un proyecto de inversión o de un cambio en las políticas existentes en dicho sector puede analizarse, desde el punto de vista económico, como una intervención exógena en los mercados de transporte, que desplaza el equilibrio inicial de la economía de...
Technical Report
Full-text available
La evaluación económica de un proyecto de inversión en el sector ferroviario se sustenta sobre los mismos principios de análisis coste-beneficio (ACB) que se aplican a otros modos de transporte. Sin embargo, estas normas generales también deberían tener en cuenta las peculiaridades técnicas y económicas de un sector que no solo se caracteriza por o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A lo largo de este informe demostramos que la eficacia de cualquier política orientada a aumentar la conectividad aérea de los residentes depende en gran medida de las características particulares de cada ruta, tales como el nivel de competencia, la proporción de pasajeros residentes, la forma de las funciones de demanda de los residentes y los no...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Transport improvements, as a consequence of both investment projects and policies, can be typically contemplated as exogenous interventions in transport markets, which move the economy from one equilibrium to another, commonly through the reduction of the generalized price (monetary price, time, and other disutility components) borne by transport u...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The economic assessment of rail investment projects relies on the same cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles that are applied in other transport modes. However, these general rules should also take into account the technical and economic peculiarities of a sector which is defined not only by its capacity to provide fast and regular services to a l...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Throughout this document, we prove that the effectiveness of any policy aiming at increasing residents’ air connectivity strongly depends on the particular characteristics of the route, such as the level of competition, the proportion of resident passengers, the shape of residents’ and non-residents’ demand functions, airlines’ operating costs, etc...
Preprint
Full-text available
We examine changes in the advertising strategies of car manufacturers after the Dieselgate scandal broke in 2015, exposing that the Volkswagen Group had cheated about their pollutant emissions in some of its brands. Using a theoretical model, we first show that advertising can be a credible means to transmit information to environmentally concerned...
Article
Since the mid-twentieth century, economic growth has yielded a major transformation in the maritime transport industry and, subsequently, in the way ports are organized and managed. The generalization of containerised cargo, accompanied by the increasing size of container ships, have not only changed port infrastructure and operations, but also aff...
Article
Full-text available
There are a multitude of factors, both internal and external, that may affect the development and success of any transport project. ‘Success’ is both context-dependent and quite difficult to measure. This paper distinguishes between four types of ‘success’ variables: (lack of) cost overruns; (lack of) time delays; (ex-post) level of traffic; and (g...
Article
This paper analyses from an empirical point of view the relationship between the provision of high-speed rail services (HSR) and the evolution of tourism at the local level in Spain. We have built a database of 124 municipalities during the 2005–2012 period to study the effects of the introduction of new HSR corridors on the number of visitors and...
Technical Report
El transporte ferroviario en España tiene una naturaleza dual. Como en la vieja tradición platónica, coexisten en él dos elementos aparentemente antagónicos que configuran de manera conjunta un sector que – aun resultando vital para el desarrollo y la modernización de la economía española – muestra simultáneamente notables dificultades para adaptar...
Working Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyses from an empirical point of view the relationship between the provision of high-speed rail services (HSR) and the evolution of tourism at the local level in Spain. We have built a database of 124 municipalities during the 2005-2012 period to study the effects of the introduction of new HSR corridors on the number of visitors and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this document is to conduct a critical review of the literature and international experiences on social discount rates from the central point of view of its usefulness for policy evaluation. - See more at: https://publications.iadb.org/handle/11319/7206?locale-attribute=en
Article
This paper studies – both from a theoretical and empirical perspective – a case of contestability in the Canary Islands' domestic air transport market. We show how after the exit of its rival in an initially duopolistic market, the remaining airline did not increase its prices in order not to provoke the entry of new rivals. According to our view,...
Article
This paper empirically studies the competitiveness of selected Short Sea Shipping (SSS) corridors by comparing the generalised costs of different alternatives to move cargo from Spain to several European destinations either by road or by using a SSS multimodal corridor. In the context of fair and efficient intermodal competition promoted by Europea...
Article
Using a dataset of consumption patterns in the island of Gran Canaria collected by the authors, this paper attempts to quantify some non-positive effects of tourism on destinations retail markets for goods and services. In particular, we empirically prove, controlling by factors such as population, size of supermarkets or number of competitors, two...
Article
Full-text available
Using a dataset from consumption patterns in the island of Gran Canaria collected by the authors, this paper attempts to quantify some non-positive effects of tourism on local destination retail markets for goods and services. In particular, we empirically prove, controlling by factors such as population, size of supermarkets or number of competito...
Article
Full-text available
Tras recopilar información sobre 166 proyectos de alta velocidad ferroviaria en todo el mundo, este documento de trabajo analiza algunas de las cuestiones empíricas más relevantes relacionadas con el desarrollo que ha tenido en los últimos años este nuevo modo de transporte. El estudio comienza discutiendo la definición económica de alta velocidad,...
Article
Full-text available
aztertzen du, bai eta XXI. mendeko gizartean sortu diren mugikortasun iraunkorraren eta irisgarritasunaren arazoak ebazteko politika horiek izan behar duten eginkizuna ere. Abiapuntua duela gutxiko garraio-politiken arrakasta eta porrot nagusien azterketa ekonomikoaren ikuspegitik egindako ebaluazio kritikoa izan da. This paper discusses the future...
Book
Full-text available
Many countries are taking into consideration the construction of new high-speed rail lines. The European Commission explicitly deems the expansion of high- speed rail as a priority within the trans-European networks, allocating an important part of the community funds for its development with the declared aim of increasing the market share of rail...
Article
Many European governments still advocate a so-called ‘cultural exception’, intended to protect consumers and smaller bookshops, to keep their book markets isolated from competition. Other countries, with similar aims in mind, have chosen liberalization schemes instead. To reconcile these opposing views, this paper provides a theoretical framework t...
Article
After collecting information on 166 high-speed rail (HSR) projects across the world, this paper examines some of the most relevant empirical issues related to the implementation of this transport technology in recent years. We firstly discuss the economic definition of HSR, trying to identify its different development and operating models. Then, we...
Article
Full-text available
Tras recopilar información sobre 166 proyectos de alta velocidad ferroviaria en todo el mundo, este documento de trabajo analiza algunas de las cuestiones empíricas más relevantes relacionadas con el desarrollo que ha tenido en los últimos años este nuevo modo de transporte. El estudio comienza discutiendo la definición económica de alta velocidad,...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo el proceso de descentralización de la política de defensa de la competencia emprendido desde el nivel nacional hacia los organismos regionales puede tener impli-caciones notables para determinadas decisiones empresariales, ya que el nivel de información y las posibilidades de captura regulatoria...
Article
After a brief historical overview of its main achievements, this paper examines some of the most relevant characteristics of the Spanish rail system and its performance in recent years. It particularly focuses on the new organizational model emerging from the 2003 Railroad Law which, after January 2005, introduced vertical separation and competitio...
Article
Full-text available
High Speed Railways (HSR) is currently regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. At the beginning of 2008 there were about 10,000 kilometres of new high speed lines in operation around the world and, in total (including upgraded conventional trac...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection a...
Article
Full-text available
El presente Manual de Evaluación Económica de Proyectos de Transporte se ha elaborado a partir de un objetivo general y de nueve principios que se desprenden del análisis económico y de las lecciones aprendidas en la práctica del análisis coste-beneficio (ACB) por agencias nacionales y supranacionales. El objetivo general de este Manual es dotar al...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo realiza una revisión crítica de los principios subyacentes a la política de transporte europea y estudia cómo se han aplicado dichos principios en los últimos años. El análisis se centra en tres ideas principales: la integración/desintegración vertical entre infraestructuras y servicios de transporte como mecanismo que favorece o dific...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses how the current trend towards increased private participation in the rail industry is reshaping the way in which Governments should address the main regulatory challenges arising from the particular economic and technical characteristics of this industry. We review the role of railroads in the last two decades and examine the c...
Article
The changes faced by the global rail industry in recent years have brought a redefinition of some of the traditional regulatory instruments available in this sector. This paper, focusing on price and quality regulation, discusses how these instruments have been applied in several countries where private sector participation in railways has been int...
Article
We present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) New Keynesian model with indivisible labor and a dual labor market: a Walrasian one where wages are fully flexible and a unionized one characterized by real wage rigidity. We show that the negative effect of a productivity shock on inflation and the positive effect of a cost-push shock are...
Article
Full-text available
En los últimos años, tanto en la Unión Europea como en España, se ha procedido a descentralizar algunos aspectos relevantes de la política de defensa de la competencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la interacción entre información y riesgo de captura asociada a esta nueva situación, partiendo de algunos modelos clásicos de regulación. Nu...
Article
Full-text available
When competition in the market is not feasible or desirable, as it happens in many transport markets, it has been usually considered that competition for the market and/or between markets yields similar results. In this paper we consider that interurban transport services in Spain could possibly provide a good laboratory to empirically test some of...
Article
Full-text available
When major investors own shares in several firms in the same industry, the traditional approach to concentration measurement by the Hirschman–Herfindahl Index (HHI) fails to accurately reflect the level of competition in the market. To address this problem we derive a generalized HHI formula (GHHI) based on the investors degree of control over each...
Article
Full-text available
Building on the existing literature and the new data emerged in recent years, this paper discusses the results of the rail restructuring experiences of Latin America countries during the 1990s. We critically evaluate how rail services and infrastructures were transferred from Government hands to private operators, particularly in the three largest...
Article
The paper uses the analysis of the main regulatory problems in Argentina’s privatised railways to illustrate the importance of regulatory processes for the long run sustainability of privatisation strategies. Although many of the conflicts have been magnified by the recent crisis, we argue that they are in fact the result of a failure to create a s...
Article
Full-text available
Contenido: Principios de la economía del transporte; La producción de actividades de transporte; Los costes del transporte; La demanda de transporte; Criterios de fijación de precios; La regulación económica del transporte; Inversión en infraestructuras de transporte; Externalidades en el transporte; Estructura de los mercados de transporte; Datos...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. It is well-known that the legal form adopted by a firm determines the type of legal responsibility borne by its owners in case of bankruptcy. In this paper we argue that a firm under a limited liability status should be characterized by a higher than average bankruptcy probability, which ultimately captures their risk exposure when output...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the evolution of competition policy during the 20th century. It identifies the major principles underlying these policies and shows that two major challenges will have to be faced in the near future. On one hand, the technological changes introduced by the so-called 'new economy' are rapidly replacing some old rules, by reshaping...
Article
Este trabajo analiza el grado de concentración y desigualdad existente entre las 2.350 mayores empresas del mundo, aportando como novedad la utilización de información publicada anualmente por el ranking de empresas del Financial Times, lo cual permite realizar comparaciones sectoriales y por zonas geográficas; y el uso de una medida dinámica de lo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses several competition issues that have emerged in the Latin American rail industry after the recent restructuring experiences started during the 1990s. The analysis focuses on Brazil and Mexico providing a brief account of the main characteristics of the concessioning process in each of these two countries. The relevant competiti...
Article
Full-text available
Almost a decade after Argentina began privatizing its railways, resolution of conflicts between regulators, users, and operators continues to take longer, and to be more difficult, than expected. The authors contend that many of these conflicts arose because there are no rules for interactions between the key stakeholders: government, regulators, u...
Article
This paper argues that many of these conflicts are the result of a failure to create a set of rules of interactions between the key stakeholders -- government, regulators, users, unions and the media. Most concession contracts proved to be incomplete in terms of the information requirements needed to anticipate pricing and investment related proble...
Article
This paper describes the rail restructuring processes in Brazil and Mexico during the 1990s. It first reviews the way in which the transfer of public railroads to private concessionaires was accomplished in these countries, and then focus on the major challenges faced by them just after the privatization. From this analysis, at least three core les...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo presenta un modelo teórico que permite analizar las consecuencias de la pregresiva sustitución en España durante los últimos años del sistema de precios fijos en los libros de texto por un sistema de descuentos o precios libres. Nuestros resultados prueban formalmente que esta política de liberalización comercial no genera necesariamen...
Article
The authors present an empirical analysis of the effects of the deregulation processes carried out in the European air transport industry during the period from 1986 to 1994, prior to the 1997 complete liberalization of the industry. Using individual data for 44 city-pair intra-European scheduled routes, the authors estimate several price equations...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, transport regulation has been viewed as an exercise in second-best optimization, acknowledging the existence of huge information problems. Then the rail industry was deeply restructured worldwide to halt erosion of the sector's share of transportation markets. Restructuring took different forms in different countries, ranging from si...
Article
Full-text available
Any company operating in a network industry may use the structure of its network – the location of the nodes and the links among them – as a means by itself to exercise market power. To provide competition agencies with adequate instruments to evaluate the relevance of this problem, this paper proposes several new tools for concentration measuremen...
Article
Full-text available
1 Strong would like to acknowledge the assistance and support of the Inter-American Development Bank, especially Juan Benavides, and the World Bank. The sections of the paper on concession performance and renegotiation is based on research and the results of a major World Bank project evaluating private participation in infrastructure, led by J. Lu...

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Projects (2)
Project
The objective of this project is to evaluate the socioeconomic contribution of high-speed rail, its impacts on intermodal competition and its effects on regional and personal disparities.