Jason M. Tylianakis

Jason M. Tylianakis
University of Canterbury | UC · School of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

157
Publications
90,320
Reads
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16,336
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Imperial College London
Position
  • Chair in Ecology and Biodiversity (part-time)
Description
  • 20% position within the Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment initiative
October 2006 - present
University of Canterbury
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
Species roles in ecological networks combine to generate their architecture, which contributes to their stability. Species trait diversity also affects ecosystem functioning and resilience, yet it remains unknown whether species' contributions to functional diversity relate to their network roles. Here, we use 21 empirical pollen transport networks...
Article
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The loss of interactions from mutualistic networks could foreshadow both plant and animal species extinctions. Yet, the characteristics of interactions that predispose them to disruption are largely unknown. We analyzed 12 pollination webs from isolated hills (“sierras”), in Argentina, ranging from tens to thousands of hectares. We found evidence o...
Article
The main drivers of global environmental change (CO2 enrichment, nitrogen deposition, climate, biotic invasions and land use) cause extinctions and alter species distributions, and recent evidence shows that they exert pervasive impacts on various antagonistic and mutualistic interactions among species. In this review, we synthesize data from 688 p...
Article
The cross-edge spillover of subsidized predators from anthropogenic to natural habitats is an important process affecting wildlife, especially bird, populations in fragmented landscapes. However, the importance of the spillover of insect natural enemies from agricultural to natural habitats is unknown, despite the abundance of studies examining mov...
Article
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Global conversion of natural habitats to agriculture has led to marked changes in species diversity and composition. However, it is less clear how habitat modification affects interactions among species. Networks of feeding interactions (food webs) describe the underlying structure of ecological communities, and might be crucially linked to their s...
Article
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Despite many sectors of society striving for sustainability in environmental management, humans often fail to identify and act on the connections and processes responsible for social–ecological tipping points. Part of the problem is the fracturing of environmental management and social–ecological research into ecosystem domains (land, freshwater, a...
Article
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Global environmental and societal changes threaten the cultures of indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC). Despite the importance of IPLC worldviews and knowledge to sustaining human well-being and biodiversity, risks to these cultural resources are commonly neglected in environmental governance, in part because impacts can be indirect and...
Article
Ecological restoration aims at recovering biodiversity in degraded ecosystems, and it is commonly assessed via species richness. However, it is unclear whether increasing species richness in a site also recovers its functional diversity, which has been shown to be a better representation of ecosystem functioning. We conducted a quantitative synthes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumers can potentially adjust their diet in response to changing resource abundances, thereby achieving better foraging payoffs. Although previous work has explored how such adaptive foraging scales up to determine the structure and dynamics of food webs, consumers may not be able to perform perfect diet adjustment due to sensory or cognitive li...
Preprint
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Species interactions can propagate disturbances across space, though ecological and biogeographic boundaries may limit this spread. We tested whether large-scale ecological boundaries (ecoregions and biomes) and human disturbance gradients increase dissimilarity among ecological networks, while accounting for background spatial and elevational effe...
Article
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Biological pest control (i.e. ‘biocontrol’) agents can have direct and indirect non-target impacts, and predicting these effects (especially indirect impacts) remains a central challenge in biocontrol risk assessment. The analysis of ecological networks offers a promising approach to understanding the community-wide impacts of biocontrol agents (vi...
Article
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Human activity is changing the biosphere in unprecedented ways, and addressing this challenge will require changes in individual and community patterns of behavior. One approach to managing individual behaviors is “top-down” and involves imposing sanctions through legislative frameworks. However, of itself, a top-down framework does not appear suff...
Article
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Sustaining multiple ecosystem services across a landscape requires an understanding of how consistently services are shaped by different categories of land uses. Yet, this understanding is generally constrained by the availability of fine-resolution data for multiple services across large areas and the spatial variability of land-use effects on ser...
Article
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Understanding the function of social networks can make a critical contribution to achieving desirable environmental outcomes. Social-ecological systems are complex, adaptive systems in which environmental decision makers adapt to a changing social and ecological context. However, it remains unclear how multiple social influences interact with envir...
Article
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Customary harvests of wildlife underpin the livelihoods, cultural identities, well‐being and ecological knowledge of many Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC), whereas government restrictions on harvests can erode these relationships. Supporting IPLC in place‐based resource management, including sustainable customary harvests, can aid wi...
Article
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How species coexistence (mathematical 'feasibility') in food webs emerges from species' trophic interactions remains a long-standing open question. Here we investigate how structure (network topology and body-size structure) and behaviour (foraging strategy and spatial dimensionality of interactions) interactively affect feasibility in food webs. M...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological pest control (i.e. ‘biocontrol’) agents can have direct and indirect non-target impacts, and predicting these effects (especially indirect impacts) remains a central challenge in biocontrol risk assessment. The analysis of ecological networks offers a promising approach to understanding the community-wide impacts of biocontrol agents (vi...
Article
In ecological networks, neutral predictions suggest that species’ interaction frequencies are proportional to their relative abundances. Deviations from neutral predictions thus correspond to interaction preferences (when positive) or avoidances (when negative), driven by non‐neutral (e.g. niche‐based) processes. Exotic species interact with many p...
Article
Scale mismatches in social–ecological systems constrain conservation by obscuring signals of environmental change, which could otherwise feed back to inform adaptive responses and solutions. We argue that engaging indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) in place-based environmental management could generate the fine-resolution information a...
Article
Full-text available
Morphology and phenology influence plant–pollinator network structure, but whether they generate more stable pairwise interactions with higher pollination success remains unknown. Here we evaluate the importance of morphological trait matching, phenological overlap and specialisation for the spatio‐temporal stability (measured as variability) of pl...
Article
Niche and neutral processes jointly influence species interactions. Predictions of interactions based on these processes assume that they operate similarly across all species. However, species characteristics could systematically create differences in the strength of niche or neutral processes for each interspecific interaction. We used national‐le...
Preprint
Global environmental and societal changes threaten the cultures of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC). Despite the importance of IPLC worldviews and knowledge systems to human well-being and biodiversity, risks to these cultural resources are commonly simplified or neglected in environmental impact assessments, in part because cultural...
Article
A large-scale field experiment in a prey–enemy system demonstrates that spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics can both drive and respond to evolution. This is a crucial step in scaling up our understanding of how ecology and evolution are intertwined in mosaic landscapes.
Article
Habitat loss is the primary driver of biodiversity decline worldwide, but the effects of fragmentation (the spatial arrangement of remaining habitat) are debated. We tested the hypothesis that forest fragmentation sensitivity-affected by avoidance of habitat edges-should be driven by historical exposure to, and therefore species' evolutionary respo...
Article
Full-text available
The foraging behaviour of species determines their diet and, therefore, also emergent food‐web structure. Optimal foraging theory (OFT) has previously been applied to understand the emergence of food‐web structure through a consumer‐centric consideration of diet choice. However, the resource‐centric viewpoint, where species adjust their behaviour t...
Article
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In network ecology, landscape-scale processes are often overlooked, yet there is increasing evidence that species and interactions spill over between habitats, calling for further study of inter-habitat dependencies. Here we investigate how species connect a mosaic of habitats based on the geography of their mutualistic and antagonistic interaction...
Article
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Indigenous peoples' roles in conservation are important because they offer alternate perspectives and knowledge centred on the quality of the human-environment relationship. Here, we present examples of Māori cultural constructs, mechanisms, legislative warrants and customary (traditional and contemporary) interventions fundamental to the developme...
Article
The occurrence of plant-associated oomycetes in natural ecosystems and particularly during long-term ecosystem development is largely unknown. Using DNA sequencing, we investigated the frequency and host relationships of plant-root-associated oomycete communities along a 120 000 y glacial chronosequence, comprising site ages with rapid compositiona...
Article
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Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Article
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Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) often use natural resources as both a reason and mechanism for environmental management, yet a number of environmental, social, and economic drivers disrupt this relationship. Here, we argue that these drivers can also trigger a set of feedback mechanisms that further diminish the efficacy of local ma...
Preprint
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Land-use change creates acute trade-offs among ecosystem services that support wellbeing. We comprehensively assess trade-offs and synergies in ecosystem service provisioning across land covers. We systematically surveyed published literature (1970 - 2015) for New Zealand, to quantify 1137 individual land cover - ecosystem services relationships fo...
Preprint
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Tracking progress towards biodiversity targets requires indicators that are sensitive to changes at policy-relevant scales, can easily be aggregated to any spatial scale and are simple to understand. The Biodiversity Intactness Index (BII), which estimates the average abundance of a diverse set of organisms in a given area relative to their referen...
Article
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Environmental changes alter the diversity and structure of communities. By shifting the range of species traits that will be successful under new conditions, environmental drivers can also dramatically impact ecosystem functioning and resilience. Above and belowground communities jointly regulate whole-ecosystem processes and responses to change, y...
Preprint
Global environmental change and humanity's growing demands for resources have generated concerns regarding how much pressure Earth systems can absorb without drastic, potentially irreversible consequences. In natural resource production systems, tipping points can generate immediate threats to human well-being. However, empirically exploiting conce...
Article
Full-text available
The success of biological control may depend on the control agent co-evolving with its target pest species, precluding the emergence of resistance that often undermines chemical control. However, recent evidence of a decline in attack rates of a sexual pest weevil by its asexual parasitoid suggests that evolutionary arms races may not prevent the e...
Article
Biogeography has traditionally focused on the spatial distribution and abundance of species. Both are driven by the way species interact with one another, but only recently community ecologists realized the need to document their spatial and temporal variation. Here, we call for an integrated approach, adopting the view that community structure is...
Article
Pollination is an essential ecosystem service that can be affected by habitat features in the immediate environment, termed here ‘local landscape features’. This study tested how five local landscape features (bare ground, native biodiversity plantings, homestead gardens, shelterbelts, and control areas of pasture) affect local pollinator communiti...
Article
The processes whereby ecological networks emerge, persist and decay throughout ecosystem development are largely unknown. Here we study networks of plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities along a 120 000 year soil chronosequence, as they undergo assembly (progression) and then disassembly (retrogression). We found that network ass...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rapid Biocontrol Evolution in New Zealand’s Species-sparse Pasturelands S.L. Goldson1,2, F. Tomasetto1, J.M.E. Jacobs1,2, B.I.P. Barratt3, S.D. Wratten2, R.M. Emberson4 and J. Tylianakis5,6 1AgResearch Lincoln, Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND, stephen.goldson@agresearch.co.nz, 2Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln, NEW ZEALAND, s...
Article
Ecological networks have a long history in ecology, and a recent increase in network analyses across environmental gradients has revealed important changes in their structure, dynamics, and functioning. These changes can be broadly grouped according to three nonexclusive mechanisms: (a) changes in the species composition of the networks (driven by...
Preprint
The processes whereby ecological networks emerge, persist and decay throughout ecosystem development are largely unknown. Here we study networks of plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities along a 120,000 yr soil chronosequence, as they undergo assembly (progression) and then disassembly (retrogression). We found that network assem...
Article
Full-text available
Species interactions are traditionally seen as the outcome of both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. Among them, the two most frequently studied are the neutral role of species abundances in determining encounter probability and the deterministic role of species identity (traits and evolutionary history) in determining the compatibility of in...
Article
Full-text available
A pressing challenge for ecologists is predicting how human-driven environmental changes will affect the complex pattern of interactions among species in a community. Weighted networks are an important tool for studying changes in interspecific interactions because they record interaction frequencies in addition to presence or absence at a field si...
Preprint
The occurrence of plant-associated oomycetes in natural ecosystems and particularly during long-term ecosystem development is largely unknown, despite the importance of many oomycetes as plant pathogens. Using DNA sequencing from roots, we investigated the frequency and host relationships of plant-associated oomycete communities along a 120 000 yea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as oth...
Chapter
This book contains 33 chapters focusing on taxonomy, population dynamics, biological characteristics, feeding behaviour, crop damage, disease transmission, control, monitoring and forecasting of aphid pests of various crops. The efficacy of various methods (biological, chemical, cultural and host resistance) and their combinations for the control o...
Article
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This paper presents a catalogue of the Coleoptera specimens in the Goulandris Natural History Museum collection that have potential forensic interest. Forensic entomology can help to estimate the time elapsed since death by studying the necrophagous insects collected on a cadaver and its surroundings. In this paper forty eight species (369 specimen...
Article
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Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolution of pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pest management. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppression, partly because evolution of resistance to predators and parasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or temporal refuges from attacks, rec...
Article
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This is a detailed list of 223 species (727 specimens) of the family Scarabaeidae, the subfamilies Dynastinae (21 species), Melolonthinae (11 species), Rutelinae (29 species), Aphodiinae (104 species), Cetoniinae (59 species), represented in G.P. Moazzo’s collection at the Goulandris Natural History Museum. All label data for each specimen are give...
Article
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The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used t...
Article
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Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing over-all ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per ye...
Article
Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasito...
Article
Full-text available
Species have strong indirect effects on others, and predicting these effects is a central challenge in ecology. Prey species sharing an enemy (predator or parasitoid) can be linked by apparent competition, but it is unknown whether this process is strong enough to be a community-wide structuring mechanism that could be used to predict future states...
Article
Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Euro...
Article
Understanding the effects of biodiversity on community persistence and productivity is key to managing both natural and production systems. Because rare species face greater danger of extinction, species evenness, a measure of how similar abundances are across species in a community, is seen as a key component of biodiversity. However, previous stu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biogeography has traditionally focused on the spatial distribution and abundance of species. Both are driven by the way species interact with one another, but also by the way these interactions vary across time and space. Here, we call for an integrated approach, adopting the view that community structure is best represented as a network of ecologi...
Article
Species interactions, ranging from antagonisms to mutualisms, form the architecture of biodiversity and determine ecosystem functioning. Understanding the rules responsible for who interacts with whom, as well as the functional consequences of these interspecific interactions, is central to predict community dynamics and stability. Species traits s...