Jason T Machan

Jason T Machan
Rhode Island Hospital · Biostatistics Core

Sc.M., Ph.D.

About

233
Publications
46,482
Reads
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7,983
Citations
Introduction
I am a Ph.D. experimental psychologist, with a career as a biostatistician (since1999) running a biostatistics core (2004) and externship (2011) in a hospital system, with appointments in the Departments of Orthopaedics and Surgery (Brown) and Psychology (URI). My personal goals are to remove some of the smoke-and-mirrors associated with statistics and biostatistics and improve the handshake between statistical inference and the medical and biological sciences.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Lifespan & University of Rhode Island
Position
  • Director Biostatistics Externship
Description
  • The department of Psychology at URI has a statistics and methodology concentration in their graduate program. This externship hosts select students from that program, allowing them the opportunity to develop collaborative relationships and experience.
June 2009 - present
Alpert Medical School - Brown University
Position
  • Statistician
June 2004 - present
Lifespan
Position
  • Reseach Scientist
Description
  • I run a biostatistics core funded indirect funds and personal grant collaborations for % effort. Services are offered free of charge with the goal of making biostatistical support available to those who might not otherwise have the opportunity.
Education
June 1998 - May 2002
Brown University
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology
July 1995 - June 1998
Brown University
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology
August 1991 - December 1995
Kent State University
Field of study
  • Psychology/Philosophy

Publications

Publications (233)
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (SC2) and is more prevalent and severe in elderly and patients with comorbid diseases (CM). Because chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) is induced during aging and CM, the relationships between CHI3L1 and SC2 were investigated. Here, we demonstrate that CHI3L1 is a potent stimulator of the SC2 receptor angiotensin convertin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Determination of sedation type during gastrointestinal procedures is generally based on risk assessment via the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, but the reliance of anesthesia risk on clinical factors remains largely uninvestigated. We aim to determine the association between various clinical factors a...
Article
This study tested whether a new training tool, the Exposure Guide (EG), improved in-session therapist behaviors that have been associated with youth outcomes in prior clinical trials of exposure therapy. Sixteen therapists in practice settings treated 46 youth with an anxiety disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Therapists were randomly...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) can lead to long term morbidity. We created a sBPD multidisciplinary team in 2011 to optimize care and improve outcomes. Study design Retrospective chart review of three groups between 2008 and 2016: patients with sBPD born before 2011, patients with sBPD born after 2011, and patients with moderat...
Article
Full-text available
Hemorrhagic shock induces an aberrant immune response characterized by simultaneous induction of a proinflammatory state and impaired host defenses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of conditionally immortalized neutrophil progenitors (NPs) on this aberrant immune response. We employed a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock, follo...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (SC2) virus and is more prevalent and severe in the elderly and patients with comorbid diseases (CM). Because chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) is induced during aging and CM, the relationships between CHI3L1 and SC2 were investigated. Here we demonstrate that CHI3L1 is a potent stimulator of the SC2 receptor ACE2 and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patient‐reported outcome (PRO) measures often address quality of life (QOL) and help improve communication and shared decision‐making. The home parenteral nutrition patient‐reported outcome questionnaire (HPN‐PROQ) was developed for patients to self‐assess factors that influence QOL. The aim of this study was to establish construct valid...
Article
This study tested whether a new training tool, the Exposure Guide (EG), improved in-session therapist behaviors (i.e. indicators of quality) that have been associated with youth outcomes in prior clinical trials of exposure therapy. Six therapists at a Community Mental Health Agency (CMHA) provided exposure therapy for eight youth with Obsessive Co...
Article
This study measured therapist behaviors in relation to subsequent habituation within exposure tasks, and also tested their direct and indirect relationships (via habituation) with clinical outcomes of exposure therapy. We observed 459 videotaped exposure tasks with 111 participants in three clinical trials for pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorde...
Article
Background: Online portals have been shown to be a valuable tool for patients to improve compliance with medical treatments in numerous studies across medical specialties. Our aim was to study the effects of the use of web- based applications that allow patients to track their appointments, labs, and provider visit notes on achievement of renal tr...
Article
Background: Lymphocytes have become the target of cancer interventions through engineering or immune checkpoint antibodies. We previously found decreased lymphocyte counts to be a predictor of mortality and complications in trauma and cardiac surgery patients. We hypothesized lack of lymphocyte count recovery postoperatively would predict outcomes...
Article
Chondrosarcoma is a highly aggressive primary malignant bone tumor mostly occurring in adults. There are no effective systemic treatments, and patients with this disease have poor survival. miR-181a is an oncomiR that is overexpressed in high-grade chondrosarcoma and promotes tumor progression. Regulator of G-protein signaling 16 (RGS16) is a targe...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The precise mechanisms whereby cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have not been delineated. We reported that microvessels isolated from AD brains overexpress a diverse array of neurotoxic and inflammatory proteins, which is consistent with the process of vascular activation. In pre-clinical studies...
Article
Since stress fractures are common among adolescent athletes, it is important to identify bone assessment tools that accurately identify risk. We investigated the discriminative ability of two imaging technologies to classify at-risk athletes. Findings suggested that peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) has the ability to distinguish d...
Article
Full-text available
Transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are used to monitor the descending motor pathway during scoliosis surgery. By comparing potentials before and after correction, surgeons may prevent postoperative functional loss in distal muscles. There is currently no consensus as to which muscles should be monitored. The purpose of this study is to d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Achilles tendon tears are potentially career-ending injuries for professional athletes. For players in the National Football League (NFL), return requires not only surgery and extensive rehabilitation but also the ability to compete in a market with limited positions that annually introduces new recruits. Purpose/Hypothesis We authors s...
Article
Introduction: Protocolized automation of critical, labor-intensive tasks for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation may decrease Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider workload. A simulation-based assessment method incorporating objective and self-reported metrics was developed and used to quantify workloads associated with standar...
Article
Analyzing the reading grade level of online mental health information is an important first step in ensuring that information is largely accessible by the general public, so as not to perpetuate existing health disparities across socioeconomic groups. The present study systematically examined grade-level readability of mental health information rel...
Article
Objective: This study measured a variety of within-exposure fear changes and tested the relationship of each with treatment outcomes in exposure therapy. Method: We coded 459 videotaped exposure tasks from 111 participants in 3 clinical trials for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; POTS trials). Within exposures, fear level was observ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Recent studies in the US and abroad suggest that boys are undergoing puberty at a younger age. It is unknown if this secular trend extends to boys with central precocious puberty (CPP), who sit at the extreme end of the pubertal spectrum, and if neuroimaging should remain a standard diagnostic tool. Study design Retrospective chart revie...
Data
Temporal relationship between the diagnoses of a brain neoplasm and CPP in 15 patients. Squares indicate diagnosis of a brain neoplasm and triangles indicate CPP diagnosis. White squares indicate CPP diagnosed after the brain neoplasm, while gray squares indicate CPP diagnosis prior to neoplasm diagnosis. (TIF)
Article
BACKGROUND: Surgery for acute type-A aortic dissection (TAAD) in the elderly is associated with high morbidity and mortality. These older patients are often denied surgery. The natural history of TAAD is extremely poor without surgical treatment. We reviewed our surgical experience among patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS: A retrospective...
Article
Introduction: Osteoporosis affects about 14-42% of patients with IBD. Though screening is recommended in IBD patients with risk factors, it remains underutilized. In patients with newly diagnosed IBD, we used CT scans performed for other indications to identify and monitor progression of osteopenia. Methods: Using the Ocean State Crohn's and Col...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Post-transplant infections have been studied widely but data on comparisons of deceased donor liver transplants (DDLT) and living donor liver transplants (LDLT), type and timings of infections, and their relations to outcomes are not explored. Material and methods We analysed data from 612 participants of the Adult-to-Adult Living Don...
Poster
Full-text available
If given the opportunity, National Football League (NFL) athletes who suffer primary Achilles tendon tears are able to return to pre-injury levels of performance within two seasons of returning.
Article
Introduction: The tumor microenvironment is increasingly important in several tumors. We studied the relationship of key players of immune microenvironment with clinicopathological parameters in gastric adenocarcinomas. Methods: Tissue microarrays were constructed from gastrectomy specimens, 2004-2013. Immunohistochemistry was performed for prog...
Article
Background & aims: Up to 30% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery within the first 5 years from diagnosis. We investigated the recent risk of bowel surgery in an inception cohort of pediatric patients with CD and whether early use of biologics (tumor necrosis factor antagonists) alters later disease course. Methods: We collected...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a magnetic resonance T2 * relaxometry-based multiple linear regression model to predict the structural properties of the healing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) over a 24-week healing period following ACL repair in Yucatan minipigs. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) that a regression model based on ACL sub-vo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers' compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1) larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2)...
Article
Introduction: The immune microenvironment is a prognostic factor for various malignancies. The significance of key players of this immune microenvironment including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) in gastrointestinal strom...
Article
Full-text available
Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries pose a significant risk to the careers of players in the National Football League (NFL). The relationships between draft round and position on return to play (RTP) among NFL players are not well understood, and the ability to return to preinjury performance levels remains unknown for most positio...
Article
Full-text available
To explore early autonomic cardiac changes in pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have evaluated electrocardiologic measures of vagal tone for 63 adults (ages 55-75) at rest, during cognitive testing, and then again at rest. All subjects had multiple risk factors for AD, and all completed amyloid PET scans (18F-Florbetapir) to determine amylo...
Article
Preoperative hip joint space width (JSW) of ≤2 mm on plain radiography has been shown to be predictive of intraoperative findings of osteoarthritis, worse functional outcomes, and failure to total hip arthroplasty following hip arthroscopy. However, there is no evidence to suggest that hip joint space greater than 2 mm can definitively rule out the...
Article
The present study explored how seizure clusters may be defined for those with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a topic for which there is a paucity of literature. The sample was drawn from a multisite randomized clinical trial for PNES; seizure data are from participants' seizure diaries. Three possible cluster definitions were examined: 1...
Article
Introduction The present study examined seizure clusters as a primary outcome in patients receiving treatment for PNES. Cluster reduction is examined longitudinally using frequency threshold and statistical definitions of seizure cluster for patients. Possible risk factors for clustering will be examined along with clustering as a risk factor for p...
Article
Full-text available
The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II) investigated the benefit of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Primary outcomes focused on OCD symptom change and indicated benefit associated with a full course of CBT. Given that the majority of youth with OCD suffer from...
Article
Methods: In this prospective, randomized, crossover study, a convenience sample of practicing prehospital providers were recruited. Following standardized training in PPE use and specific training in the use of airway devices, subjects in Level C PPE were observed while performing endotracheal intubation on a stock airway in a Laerdal Resusci-Anne...
Article
Purpose: To investigate whether arthroscopy or stress radiography can identify instability resulting from single-ligament injury of the ankle syndesmosis and to determine whether either modality is capable of differentiating between various levels of ligament injury. Methods: Syndesmotic/deltoid ligament sectioning was performed in 10 cadaver le...
Article
Background: Sarcopenia is a condition of clinically relevant loss of muscle mass and function. Acetabular fractures in elderly patients are common and difficult to treat. This study aimed to determine if sarcopenia is common in elderly patients with acetabular fractures and correlates with lower-energy mechanisms of injury, higher rates of complica...
Article
Full-text available
Dopamine (DA) neuron subtypes modulate specific physiological functions and are involved in distinct neurological disorders. Embryonic stem cell (ESC) derived DA neurons have the potential to aid in the study of disease mechanisms, drug discovery, and possibly cell replacement therapies. DA neurons can be generated from ESCs in vitro, but the subty...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals with restrictive eating disorders present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders and many attempt to control symptoms using strenuous exercises that increase caloric expenditure. Yoga offers a safe avenue for the engagement in physical activity while providing an outlet for disease-associated symptoms. This study sought to exam...
Article
Background Medication shortages are frequent and have clinical and financial ramifications; however, their effect on drug prices remains unknown. Objective To examine price progression of medications affected by a shortage. Methods We collected prices of medications covered under Medicare Part B, reflective of general market prices, and data on cli...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is an extensive pathological overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD). Those diseases not only affect the same at-risk population, but they also share many common risk factors (Santos et al., 2016). In order to explore this relationship in pre-clinical AD, we have evaluated ch...
Article
Full-text available
Background Kidney donor outcomes are gaining attention, particularly as donor eligibility criteria continue to expand. Kidney size, a useful predictor of recipient kidney function, also likely correlates with donor outcomes. Although donor evaluation includes donor kidney size measurements, the association between kidney size and outcomes are poorl...
Article
Introduction Clinical care pathways reduce length of stay, variability in practice and costs, yet avoid compromising quality of care or increasing complications. In this study we describe a standardized care pathway, focusing on preoperative and postoperative education as well as immediate postoperative patient care after robotic assisted laparosco...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To date, evidence for the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been limited to case series and open-label clinical trials. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of FMT for treatment of recurrent CDI. Design: Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical...
Article
Background: Limited data exists on how to develop resident leadership and communication skills during actual trauma resuscitations. Methods: An evaluation tool was developed to grade senior resident performance as the team leader during full trauma team activations. Thirty actions that demonstrated the ACGME core competencies were graded on a Li...
Article
Introduction: Effective resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is challenging. Alternative resuscitative approaches using electromechanical adjuncts may improve provider performance. Investigators applied simulation to study the effect of an experimental automation-assisted, goal-directed OHCA management protocol on EMS pr...
Article
Proceedings: AACR 107th Annual Meeting 2016; April 16-20, 2016; New Orleans, LA Background: Assignment of breast cancer therapies is largely defined by immunohistochemical analyses that evaluate steroid hormone and growth factor receptor status in primary tumor biopsies. Patients whose tumors are devoid of these receptors have fewer treatment opti...
Article
Full-text available
This is a 25-year observational retrospective review of 372 consecutive participants with optic disc drusen or resolved papilloedema from idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The prevalence of optic disc drusen at 19% among eyes with resolved papilloedema was approximately 10 times higher and significantly increased (p < 0.001) as compared with th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Purpose: Psychological factors are significantly as...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing recognition of the impact of environmental toxins on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including the genes that play a critical role in neural development, neural function and neurodegeneration. We have shown previously that exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) in early life results in a latent over-expression of AD-...
Article
We sought to determine whether there is any association between a cardiac workload marker, rate pressure product (RPP), working memory, and cortical amyloid-β (Aβ) burden in 63 cognitively normal midlife adults (Mage = 62.8 years; range = 55 to 75 years) at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results show a small-to-moderate relationship between...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate infliximab (IFX) dosing and treatment durability relative to luminal disease burden in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Records from 98 pediatric patients treated with IFX between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. Disease extent was classified as "limited", "moderate" or "extensive" based on cumulative assess...
Article
Goals: We evaluated a cohort of patients referred to our center for presumed recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) to determine final diagnoses and outcomes. Background: As rates of CDI have increased, more patients are diagnosed with recurrent CDI and other sequelae of the infection. Distinguishing symptomatic patients with CDI from t...