Jason Brandt

Jason Brandt
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Ph.D.

About

409
Publications
89,240
Reads
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28,730
Citations
Citations since 2017
18 Research Items
7588 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Additional affiliations
September 1984 - present
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 1981 - present
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1975 - May 1981
Boston University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (409)
Article
Importance: Preventive trials of anti-amyloid agents might preferably recruit persons showing earliest biologically relevant β-amyloid (Aβ) binding on positron emission tomography (PET). Objective: To investigate the timing at which Aβ-PET binding starts showing associations with other markers of Alzheimer disease. Design, setting, and particip...
Article
Importance: National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) workgroups have proposed biological research criteria intended to identify individuals with preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective: To assess the clinical value of these biological criteria to identify older individuals without cognitive impairment who are at near-te...
Poster
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Poster
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Objective: With the increasing focus on reducing medical errors and the aging of the physician workforce has come growing concern for cognitive impairment among physicians. This study sought to establish and validate an approach to detecting neuropsychological impairment among physicians. Method: The neuropsychological test performance of 30 physic...
Article
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The role of nutrition in health and disease has been appreciated from time immemorial [...]
Article
Objectives This study provides a standardized Arabic language neuropsychological test battery and tests its ability to distinguish patients with left and right hemisphere epileptic foci who are candidates for surgical resection. Methods: An Arabic language battery of 15 tests was developed based on the neuropsychological test battery used at the Jo...
Article
Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's Disease (PD). Despite the improvement of motor symptoms in most patients by sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) DBS and its widespread use, the neurobiological mechanisms are not completely understood. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effects of su...
Article
Sex is an important factor to consider when evaluating memory with older adults. This present study aimed to examine sex differences in memory within a clinical sample of older adults (N = 1084). Raw learning and recall scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test, Revised (BVMT-R) were compared be...
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Background In 1983, Huntington's disease (HD) was the first genetic disease mapped using DNA polymorphisms. Shortly thereafter, presymptomatic genetic testing for HD began in the context of two research studies. One of these trials was at the Johns Hopkins University Huntington's Disease Center. Methods As part of the protocol, risk perception (RP...
Article
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treatment of motor complications of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) but occasionally has been associated with multidomain cognitive decline. Patient- and caregiver-reported cognitive decline are clinically meaningful and increasingly recognized as important to consider when...
Article
This qualitative study gathered opinions about genetic testing from people who received presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease (HD) 20-30 years ago and have lived with the implications of that testing for decades. During the last section of a semi-structured interview, participants were asked open-ended questions about their opinions on th...
Article
Objective: Mnemonists, memory champions, and persons with highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) are apparently rare breeds, with no more than a few dozen cases of each described in the neuroscientific literature. This report describes a newly discovered HSAM case who has extraordinary memory for a wider range of material than has heretofo...
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Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transpo...
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Resting-state functional connectivity alterations have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before the observation of AD neuropathology, but mechanisms driving these changes are not well understood. Serotonin neurodegeneration has been observed in MCI and AD and is associated with cognitive deficits and...
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Identifying, recruiting, and enrolling persons in clinical trials of dementia treatments is extremely difficult. One approach to first-wave screening of potential participants is the use of online assessment tools. Initial studies using the Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA)-which includes a previously validated recognition memory test-support the use...
Article
While Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined clinically by its motor symptoms, it is increasingly recognized that much of the disability and worsened quality of life experienced by patients with PD is attributable to psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a model of multidisciplinary care that enables these symptoms to be effectively managed. They...
Article
Background: In Parkinson's disease, the association between objective and patient-reported measures of cognitive dysfunction is unknown and highly relevant to research and clinical care. Objective: To determine which cognitive domain-specific Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) subscores are most strongly associated with patient-reported cognit...
Article
Bodin and Grote convey their opinion that the field of clinical neuropsychology would be best served by a match system for recruitment into postdoctoral training. We critically review their arguments and offer an alternative point of view. Our view considers the current state of the match system in neuropsychology, incorporates comparisons with oth...
Article
Objective: Executive dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be due to the limited relationship between EF test scores and behaviors. Rating scales provide a potential way to supplement test...
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Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after non-cardiac surgery, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that decrements in cognition 1 month after non-cardiac surgery would be associated with evidence of brain injury detected by elevation of plasma concentrations of S100β, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and/or the...
Article
Objective: To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Method: Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13);...
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Apathy and depression are associated with poor cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the cognitive signature of each syndrome is not well understood. The cognitive consequences of having apathy or depression, versus apathy and depression, are also unclear. This study investigated the unique and combined effects of apathy and...
Article
Objective: The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) and Follow-up Study (ADAPT-FS) examined effects of naproxen and celecoxib on cognition in the elderly. We report here results describing trajectories of cognitive evaluation test scores. Methods: A total of 2356 participants completed baseline and at least one follow-up c...
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Objective: Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) increases impulsivity or induces excessive reward seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on 3 laboratory tasks of risk taking and decision making. They are compared w...
Article
The extent to which social cognitive changes reflect a discrete constellation of symptoms dissociable from general cognitive changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unclear. Moreover, whether social cognitive symptoms contribute to disease severity and progression is unknown. The current multicenter study investigated cross-sectional and longitudina...
Article
Neuropsychological evaluations of preoperative epilepsy surgical candidates have been a routine portion of the multidisciplinary evaluation at most epilepsy centers for decades. Neuropsychology assessments have been explored as a means to predict and identify postoperative cognitive deficits after resections (chiefly temporal lobe), and in numerica...
Article
The clinical syndrome of Huntington's disease (HD) is notable for a triad of motor, cognitive, and emotional features. All HD patients eventually become occupationally disabled; however, the factors that render HD patients unable to maintain employment have not been extensively studied. This review begins by discussing the clinical triad of HD, hig...
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Background/aims: Although disturbed sleep is associated with cognitive deficits, the association between sleep disturbance and Alzheimer’s disease pathology is unclear. In this pilot study, we examined the extent to which sleep duration, sleep quality, and sleep-disordered breathing are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brains of liv...
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Most approaches to the detection of presymptomatic or prodromal Alzheimer's disease require the costly collection and analysis of biological samples or neuroimaging measurements. The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA) was developed to facilitate this detection by collecting self-report and proxy-report of dementia risk variables and episodic memory per...
Article
Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The method of loci (MoL) is a complex visuospatial mnemonic strategy. Previous research suggests that older adults could potentially benefit from using the MoL, but that it is too attentionally demanding for them to use in practice. The authors evaluated the hypotheses that training can increase the use of MoL...
Article
Objective To examine the effects of caregiver and patient characteristics on caregivers' medical care use and cost. Methods One hundred forty-seven caregiver/patient dyads were followed annually for 6 years in three academic Alzheimer's disease centers in the United States. Logistic, negative binomial, and generalized linear mixed models were used...
Article
Objectives: A high body mass index (BMI) in middle-age or a decrease in BMI at late-age has been considered a predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the BMI change close to or after AD onset. Methods: BMI of participants from three cohorts, the Washington Heights and Inwood Columbia Aging Projec...
Article
Objectives: The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial Follow-up Study (ADAPT-FS) was designed to evaluate the efficacy of naproxen and celecoxib for the primary prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) several years after cessation of treatment in ADAPT. Methods: ADAPT was a randomized, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial of...
Article
Many residents of assisted living (AL) have chronic diseases that are difficult to manage, including congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We estimated the amount and intensity of care delivered by the staff for residents with these conditions. We performed a secondary data analysis...
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Background: The ability to predict the length of time to death and institutionalization has strong implications for Alzheimer's disease patients and caregivers, health policy, economics, and the design of intervention studies. Objective: To develop and validate a prediction algorithm that uses data from a single visit to estimate time to importa...
Article
Background: There is a lack of empirical evidence about the impact of regulations on dementia care quality in assisted living (AL). We examined cohort differences in dementia recognition and treatment indicators between two cohorts of AL residents with dementia, evaluated prior to and following a dementia-related policy modification to more adequa...
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We surveyed U.S. neurologists in order to evaluate their knowledge of, and sources for, recent FDA safety warnings regarding antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and whether they incorporate this information into their practices. Survey respondents (N=505) were predominantly board-certified American Academy of Neurology members. Approximately 20% of responde...
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Compared with in-person assessment methods, telephone screening for dementia and other cognitive syndromes may improve efficiency of large population studies or prevention trials. We used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial to compare performance of a four-test Telephone Assessment Battery (TAB) that included the Te...
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The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA) is an online tool consisting of questions about known risk factors for dementia, a novel verbal memory test, and an informant report of cognitive decline. Its primary goal is to educate the public about dementia risk factors and encourage clinical evaluation where appropriate. In Study 1, more than 3,000 anonymous...
Data
Sample feedback statements from Dementia Risk Assessment. (DOCX)
Article
Objectives: To examine in an observational study (1) relationships between cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) and memantine use, and functional and cognitive end points and mortality in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); (2) relationships between other patient characteristics and these clinical end points; and (3) whether effects of the predict...
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Background: To estimate the 12-month incidence, prevalence, and persistence of mental disorders among recently admitted assisted living (AL) residents and to describe the recognition and treatment of these disorders. Methods: Two hundred recently admitted AL residents in 21 randomly selected AL facilities in Maryland received comprehensive physi...
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Half of all patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience cognitive impairment, for which there is no pharmacological treatment. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we examined metabolic changes in the hippocampi of MS patients, compared the findings to performance on a neurocognitive test battery, and found that N-acetylaspartylglutama...
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Objective: The contribution of executive cognition (EC) to the prediction of incident dementia remains unclear. This prospective study examined the predictive value of EC for subsequent cognitive decline in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) over a 4-year period. Method: One hundred forty-one persons with MCI (amnestic and nonamnestic,...
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Objective and method: Data from the memory training arm (n = 629) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial were examined to characterize change in memory performance through 5 years of follow-up as a function of memory training, booster training, adherence to training, and other characteristics. Results:...
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Objective: To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. Method: The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)...
Article
RFS, a 61-year-old geologist with cortical atrophy that may reflect early-stage cortico-basal degeneration, is selectively impaired in perceiving and comprehending the Arabic digits 2-9. Presented with a digit in this range, he reports seeing an uninterpretable jumble of contours ("like spaghetti"), and is unable to identify, copy, or even trace th...
Article
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early cognitive decline that progresses at later stages to dementia and severe movement disorder. HD is caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet-repeat expansion mutation in the Huntingtin gene, allowing early diagnosis by genetic testing. This study aimed to identify th...
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Analyses of individual differences in change may be unintentionally biased when versions of a neuropsychological test used at different follow-ups are not of equivalent difficulty. This study's objective was to compare mean, linear, and equipercentile equating methods and demonstrate their utility in longitudinal research. The Advanced Cognitive Tr...
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Understanding stress and coping among individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) may have important treatment implications. 40 patients with PNES, 20 with epilepsy (EPIL), and 40 healthy control (HC) participants reported the frequency of various stressful life events (both positive and negative) and appraised the distress these even...
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To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differenti...
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Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) and less than 33 gestational weeks (GW) with term-born children at early school age using a recently develop...
Article
The aim of this study is to determine whether neurocognitive performance distinguishes individuals with compulsive hoarding (CH) from those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Compared to control subjects, OCD patients and CHs scored significantly worse on the Serial Reaction Time Task suggesting disturbed implicit memory in both patient grou...
Article
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a widely used self-report questionnaire designed to detect and quantify dimensions of adult psychopathology. Previous studies that examined the ability of the PAI to differentiate between patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy (EPIL) have yielded inconsistent resu...
Article
Despite much research on methods to improve new learning and memory in old age, there is virtually no literature on the improvement of autobiographical memory (AM). The present study assessed the effectiveness of a structured autobiographical writing workshop for improving AM, mood and self-concept in older adults. Fifty-one nondemented older adult...
Article
The identification of individuals who are at high risk of dementia may lead to earlier detection and diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary validation of a very brief, Internet-based risk assessment tool. The Dementia Risk Assessment collected information on demographic, neurologic, and medical risk factors; perceived...
Article
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delay onset of Alzheimer's dementia (AD), but randomized trials show no benefit from NSAIDs in patients with symptomatic AD. The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) randomized 2,528 elderly persons to naproxen or celecoxib versus placebo fo...
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Persons who have the genetic mutation responsible for Huntington's disease (HD) have been shown to exhibit lower cognitive test scores years prior to manifest HD. Most studies have examined cognitive performance in presymptomatic persons by using estimated times to manifest HD based on published algorithms. We followed 19 gene-positive persons who...
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The present study sought to predict changes in everyday functioning using cognitive tests. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were used to examine the extent to which competence in different cognitive domains--memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, and global mental status--predicts prospective...
Article
Better tools for assessing cognitive impairment in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are required to enable diagnosis of the disease before substantial neurodegeneration has taken place and to allow detection of subtle changes in the early stages of progression of the disease. The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Associati...
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Impairments in executive cognition (EC) may be predictive of incident dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The present study examined whether specific EC tests could predict which MCI individuals progress from a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0.5 to a score ≥1 over a 2-year period. Eighteen clinical and experimental E...
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Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial (N = 2,802) were analyzed to examine whether word list learning predicts future everyday functioning. Using stepwise random effects modeling, measures from the modified administrations of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Auditory Verbal Learnin...
Article
Although the number of elderly residents living in assisted living (AL) facilities is rising, few studies have examined the AL physical environment and its impact on resident well-being. We sought to quantify the relationship of AL physical environment with resident outcomes including neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), quality of life (QOL), and fall...
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The spatial location memory of preschool-aged children born preterm has rarely been studied primarily due to an absence of developmentally sensitive measures. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 135 children at age 3 who were born extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (n = 20),...
Article
Some individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are seen as having adopted a "sick role" that relinquishes them of responsibility for meeting stressful life demands. Thus, patients with PNES may have positive, albeit unrecognized, attitudes toward seizures, or perhaps illness in general. Because such covert attitudes may not be amend...
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This study explores the longitudinal relationship between patient characteristics and use of 4 drug classes (antihypertensives, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and hormones) that showed significant changes in use rates over time in patients with Alzheimer disease. Patient/caregiver-reported prescription medication usage was categorized by drug cla...
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Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming...
Article
Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a critical need for a brief, standard cognitive screening measure for use in PD trials whose primary focus is not on cognition. The Parkinson Study Group (PSG) Cognitive/Psychiatric Working Group formed a Task Force to make recommendations for a cognitive scale that could screen f...
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Differences in the memory characteristics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Parkinson's disease (PD) were investigated with tests that assess learning and retention of words, line-drawn objects, and locations. Large groups of AD, HD, and PD patients were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (...
Article
This study examined in detail patterns of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine use and explored the relationship between patient characteristics and such use. Patients with probable Alzheimer disease AD (n=201) were recruited from the Predictors Study in 3 academic AD centers and followed from early disease stages for up to 6 years. Rand...
Article
Multiple regression voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to examine the relationship between regional gray matter volumes and neurocognitive performance in 10 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 20 healthy age-matched controls. Cognitive functioning was assessed with seven standardized neuropsychological tests. Patients with...
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Elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of dementia and functional impairments. The present study investigated the contribution of three domains of executive cognition to everyday functioning among persons with MCI. 124 MCI patients and 68 cognitively normal elderly participants were administered a cognitive scree...