# Jarrod R. MccleanLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | LBL

Jarrod R. Mcclean

## About

111

Publications

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## Publications

Publications (111)

Practical quantum computing will require error rates that are well below what is achievable with physical qubits. Quantum error correction offers a path to algorithmically-relevant error rates by encoding logical qubits within many physical qubits, where increasing the number of physical qubits enhances protection against physical errors. However,...

Quantum technology promises to revolutionize how we learn about the physical world. An experiment that processes quantum data with a quantum computer could have substantial advantages over conventional experiments in which quantum states are measured and outcomes are processed with a classical computer. We proved that quantum machines could learn f...

Systems of correlated particles appear in many fields of science and represent some of the most intractable puzzles in nature. The computational challenge in these systems arises when interactions become comparable to other energy scales, which makes the state of each particle depend on all other particles. The lack of general solutions for the 3-b...

Inherent symmetry of a quantum system may protect its otherwise fragile states. Leveraging such protection requires testing its robustness against uncontrolled environmental interactions. Using 47 superconducting qubits, we implement the kicked Ising model which exhibits Majorana edge modes (MEMs) protected by $\mathbb{Z}_2$ parity symmetry. Remark...

Quantum many-body systems display rich phase structure in their low-temperature equilibrium states1. However, much of nature is not in thermal equilibrium. Remarkably, it was recently predicted that out-of-equilibrium systems can exhibit novel dynamical phases2–8 that may otherwise be forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics, a paradigmatic example...

The discovery of topological order has revised the understanding of quantum matter and provided the theoretical foundation for many quantum error–correcting codes. Realizing topologically ordered states has proven to be challenging in both condensed matter and synthetic quantum systems. We prepared the ground state of the toric code Hamiltonian usi...

It has been shown that the apparent advantage of some quantum machine learning algorithms may be efficiently replicated using classical algorithms with suitable data access -- a process known as dequantization. Existing works on dequantization compare quantum algorithms which take copies of an n-qubit quantum state $|x\rangle = \sum_{i} x_i |i\rang...

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize how we acquire and process experimental data to learn about the physical world. An experimental setup that transduces data from a physical system to a stable quantum memory, and processes that data using a quantum computer, could have significant advantages over conventional experiments in which...

Contemporary quantum computers have relatively high levels of noise, making it difficult to use them to perform useful calculations, even with a large number of qubits. Quantum error correction is expected to eventually enable fault-tolerant quantum computation at large scales, but until then, it will be necessary to use alternative strategies to m...

Many quantum algorithms involve the evaluation of expectation values. Optimal strategies for estimating a single expectation value are known, requiring a number of iterations that scales with the target error $\epsilon$ as $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-1})$. In this paper we address the task of estimating the expectation values of $M$ different observabl...

Variational Quantum Algorithms (VQAs) are promising candidates for finding practical applications of near to mid-term quantum computers. There has been an increasing effort to study the intricacies of VQAs, such as the presence or absence of barren plateaus and the design of good quantum circuit ans\"atze. Many of these studies can be linked to the...

Interactions in quantum systems can spread initially localized quantum information into the exponentially many degrees of freedom of the entire system. Understanding this process, known as quantum scrambling, is key to resolving several open questions in physics. Here, by measuring the time-dependent evolution and fluctuation of out-of-time-order c...

With the rapid development of quantum technology, one of the leading applications that has been identified is the simulation of chemistry. Interestingly, even before full scale quantum computers are available, quantum computer science has exhibited a remarkable string of results that directly impact what is possible in a chemical simulation with an...

Quantum many-body systems involving bosonic modes or gauge fields have infinite-dimensional local Hilbert spaces which must be truncated to perform simulations of real-time dynamics on classical or quantum computers. To analyze the truncation error, we develop methods for bounding the rate of growth of local quantum numbers such as the occupation n...

Quantum many-body systems involving bosonic modes or gauge fields have infinite-dimensional local Hilbert spaces which must be truncated to perform simulations of real-time dynamics on classical or quantum computers. To analyze the truncation error, we develop methods for bounding the rate of growth of local quantum numbers such as the occupation n...

Applications such as simulating complicated quantum systems or solving large-scale linear algebra problems are very challenging for classical computers, owing to the extremely high computational cost. Quantum computers promise a solution, although fault-tolerant quantum computers will probably not be available in the near future. Current quantum de...

Quantum many-body systems display rich phase structure in their low-temperature equilibrium states. However, much of nature is not in thermal equilibrium. Remarkably, it was recently predicted that out-of-equilibrium systems can exhibit novel dynamical phases that may otherwise be forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics, a paradigmatic example bein...

Realizing the potential of quantum computing requires sufficiently low logical error rates ¹ . Many applications call for error rates as low as 10 ⁻¹⁵ (refs. 2–9 ), but state-of-the-art quantum platforms typically have physical error rates near 10 ⁻³ (refs. 10–14 ). Quantum error correction 15–17 promises to bridge this divide by distributing quant...

We describe quantum circuits with only O~(N) Toffoli complexity that block encode the spectra of quantum chemistry Hamiltonians in a basis of N arbitrary (e.g., molecular) orbitals. With O(λ/ϵ) repetitions of these circuits one can use phase estimation to sample in the molecular eigenbasis, where λ is the 1-norm of Hamiltonian coefficients and ϵ is...

A promising approach to study condensed-matter systems is to simulate them on an engineered quantum platform1–4. However, the accuracy needed to outperform classical methods has not been achieved so far. Here, using 18 superconducting qubits, we provide an experimental blueprint for an accurate condensed-matter simulator and demonstrate how to inve...

With the rapid development of quantum technology, one of the leading applications is the simulation of chemistry. Interestingly, even before full scale quantum computers are available, quantum computer science has exhibited a remarkable string of results that directly impact what is possible in chemical simulation with any computer. Some of these r...

With the increased focus on quantum circuit learning for near-term applications on quantum devices, in conjunction with unique challenges presented by cost function landscapes of parametrized quantum circuits, strategies for effective training are becoming increasingly important. In order to ameliorate some of these challenges, we investigate a lay...

The use of quantum computing for machine learning is among the most exciting prospective applications of quantum technologies. However, machine learning tasks where data is provided can be considerably different than commonly studied computational tasks. In this work, we show that some problems that are classically hard to compute can be easily pre...

The accumulation of noise in quantum computers is the dominant issue stymieing the push of quantum algorithms beyond their classical counterparts. We do not expect to be able to afford the overhead required for quantum error correction in the next decade, so in the meantime we must rely on low-cost, unscalable error mitigation techniques to bring q...

The discovery of topological order has revolutionized the understanding of quantum matter in modern physics and provided the theoretical foundation for many quantum error correcting codes. Realizing topologically ordered states has proven to be extremely challenging in both condensed matter and synthetic quantum systems. Here, we prepare the ground...

In this perspective we discuss conditions under which it would be possible for a modest fault-tolerant quantum computer to realize a runtime advantage by executing a quantum algorithm with only a small polynomial speedup over the best classical alternative. The challenge is that the computation must finish within a reasonable amount of time while b...

Faster algorithms for combinatorial optimization could prove transformative for diverse areas such as logistics, finance and machine learning. Accordingly, the possibility of quantum enhanced optimization has driven much interest in quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate the application of the Google Sycamore superconducting qubit quantum proces...

Realizing the potential of quantum computing will require achieving sufficiently low logical error rates. Many applications call for error rates in the $10^{-15}$ regime, but state-of-the-art quantum platforms typically have physical error rates near $10^{-3}$. Quantum error correction (QEC) promises to bridge this divide by distributing quantum lo...

Variational algorithms are a promising paradigm for utilizing near-term quantum devices for modeling electronic states of molecular systems. However, previous bounds on the measurement time required have suggested that the application of these techniques to larger molecules might be infeasible. We present a measurement strategy based on a low-rank...

Interaction in quantum systems can spread initially localized quantum information into the many degrees of freedom of the entire system. Understanding this process, known as quantum scrambling, is the key to resolving various conundrums in physics. Here, by measuring the time-dependent evolution and fluctuation of out-of-time-order correlators, we...

The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the development of quantum technologies. Although fault-tolerant devices likely remain years away, the noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices of today may be leveraged for other purposes. Leading candidates are variational quantum algorithms (VQAs), which have been developed for applications in...

Applications such as simulating large quantum systems or solving large-scale linear algebra problems are immensely challenging for classical computers due their extremely high computational cost. Quantum computers promise to unlock these applications, although fault-tolerant quantum computers will likely not be available for several years. Currentl...

A promising approach to study quantum materials is to simulate them on an engineered quantum platform. However, achieving the accuracy needed to outperform classical methods has been an outstanding challenge. Here, using eighteen superconducting qubits, we provide an experimental blueprint for a programmable and accurate quantum matter simulator an...

Contemporary quantum computers have relatively high levels of noise, making it difficult to use them to perform useful calculations, even with a large number of qubits. Quantum error correction is expected to eventually enable fault-tolerant quantum computation at large scales, but until then it will be necessary to use alternative strategies to mi...

We discuss conditions under which it would be possible for a modest fault-tolerant quantum computer to realize a runtime advantage by executing a quantum algorithm with only a small polynomial speedup over the best classical alternative. The challenge is that the computation must finish within a reasonable amount of time while being difficult enoug...

We describe quantum circuits with only $\widetilde{\cal O}(N)$ Toffoli complexity that block encode the spectra of quantum chemistry Hamiltonians in a basis of $N$ molecular orbitals. With ${\cal O}(\lambda / \epsilon)$ repetitions of these circuits one can use phase estimation to sample in the molecular eigenbasis, where $\lambda$ is the 1-norm of...

The use of quantum computing for machine learning is among the most exciting prospective applications of quantum technologies. At the crux of excitement is the potential for quantum computers to perform some computations exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. However, a machine learning task where some data is provided can be consi...

Strongly correlated quantum systems give rise to many exotic physical phenomena, including high-temperature superconductivity. Simulating these systems on quantum computers may avoid the prohibitively high computational cost incurred in classical approaches. However, systematic errors and decoherence effects presented in current quantum devices mak...

The accumulation of noise in quantum computers is the dominant issue stymieing the push of quantum algorithms beyond their classical counterparts. We do not expect to be able to afford the overhead required for quantum error correction in the next decade, so in the meantime we must rely on low-cost, unscalable error mitigation techniques to bring q...

Quantum algorithms offer a dramatic speedup for computational problems in material science and chemistry. However, any near-term realizations of these algorithms will need to be optimized to fit within the finite resources offered by existing noisy hardware. Here, taking advantage of the adjustable coupling of gmon qubits, we demonstrate a continuo...

The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the development of quantum technologies. Although fault-tolerant devices likely remain years away, the noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices of today may be leveraged for other purposes. Leading candidates are variational quantum algorithms (VQAs), which have been developed for applications in...

All-electron electronic structure methods based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with Gaussian basis set discretization offer a well established, compact representation that forms much of the foundation of modern correlated quantum chemistry calculations—on both classical and quantum computers. Despite their ability to describe e...

The simulation of fermionic systems is among the most anticipated applications of quantum computing. We performed several quantum simulations of chemistry with up to one dozen qubits, including modeling the isomerization mechanism of diazene. We also demonstrated error-mitigation strategies based on N -representability that dramatically improve the...

One of the major application areas of interest for both near-term and fault-tolerant quantum computers is the optimization of classical objective functions. In this work, we develop intuitive constructions for a large class of these algorithms based on connections to simple dynamics of quantum systems, quantum walks, and classical continuous relaxa...

Recent work has deployed linear combinations of unitaries techniques to reduce the cost of fault-tolerant quantum simulations of correlated electron models. Here, we show that one can sometimes improve upon those results with optimized implementations of Trotter-Suzuki-based product formulas. We show that low-order Trotter methods perform surprisin...

With the increased focus on quantum circuit learning for near-term applications on quantum devices, in conjunction with unique challenges presented by cost function landscapes of parametrized quantum circuits, strategies for effective training are becoming increasingly important. In order to ameliorate some of these challenges, we investigate a lay...

Variational quantum algorithms are a leading candidate for early applications on noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers. These algorithms depend on a classical optimization outer-loop that minimizes some function of a parameterized quantum circuit. In practice, finite sampling error and gate errors make this a stochastic optimization with uniqu...

Quantum simulation of chemistry and materials is predicted to be an important application for both near-term and fault-tolerant quantum devices. However, at present, developing and studying algorithms for these problems can be difficult due to the prohibitive amount of domain knowledge required in both the area of chemistry and quantum algorithms....

As the search continues for useful applications of noisy intermediate scale quantum devices, variational simulations of fermionic systems remain one of the most promising directions. Here, we perform a series of quantum simulations of chemistry which involve twice the number of qubits and more than ten times the number of gates as the largest prior...

We demonstrate the application of the Google Sycamore superconducting qubit quantum processor to discrete optimization problems with the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA). We execute the QAOA across a variety of problem sizes and circuit depths for random instances of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and 3-regular MaxCut, both high...

We introduce TensorFlow Quantum (TFQ), an open source library for the rapid prototyping of hybrid quantum-classical models for classical or quantum data. This framework offers high-level abstractions for the design and training of both discriminative and generative quantum models under TensorFlow and supports high-performance quantum circuit simula...

With rapid developments in quantum hardware comes a push towards the first practical applications. While fully fault-tolerant quantum computers are not yet realized, there may exist intermediate forms of error correction that enable practical applications. In this work, we consider the idea of post-processing error decoders using existing quantum c...

Quantum algorithms offer a dramatic speedup for computational problems in machine learning, material science, and chemistry. However, any near-term realizations of these algorithms will need to be heavily optimized to fit within the finite resources offered by existing noisy quantum hardware. Here, taking advantage of the strong adjustable coupling...

Proposals for experiments in quantum chemistry on quantum computers leverage the ability to target a subset of degrees of freedom containing the essential quantum behavior, sometimes called the active space. This approximation allows one to treat more difficult problems using fewer qubits and lower gate depths than would otherwise be possible. Howe...

Fermion-to-qubit mappings that preserve geometric locality are especially useful for simulating lattice fermion models (e.g., the Hubbard model) on a quantum computer. They avoid the overhead associated with geometric nonlocal parity terms in mappings such as the Jordan-Wigner transformation and the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation. As a result, they o...

Recent work has dramatically reduced the gate complexity required to quantum simulate chemistry by using linear combinations of unitaries based methods to exploit structure in the plane wave basis Coulomb operator. Here, we show that one can achieve similar scaling even for arbitrary basis sets (which can be hundreds of times more compact than plan...

We present a quantum algorithm for simulating quantum chemistry with gate complexity \(\tilde {\cal{O}}(N^{1/3}\eta ^{8/3})\) where η is the number of electrons and N is the number of plane wave orbitals. In comparison, the most efficient prior algorithms for simulating electronic structure using plane waves (which are at least as efficient as algo...

This is the updated supplementary information to accompany "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor", an article published in the October 24, 2019 issue of Nature. The main article is freely available at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1666-5 Summary of changes relative to the supplementary information dated Octo...

In non-interacting systems disorder leads to Anderson localization, where particle diffusion and entanglement propagation are absent. Interactions between the constituent particles modify this picture, leading to a many-body localized (MBL) phase. A key challenge is to measure interaction induced dynamics of entanglement between the localized sites...

The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor¹. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor wi...

Methods for electronic structure based on Gaussian and molecular orbital discretizations offer a well established, compact representation that forms much of the foundation of correlated quantum chemistry calculations on both classical and quantum computers. Despite their ability to describe essential physics with relatively few basis functions, the...

Variational algorithms, where the role of the quantum computer is the execution of a short depth state preparation circuit followed by measurement, are a promising paradigm for utilizing near-term quantum devices for modeling molecular systems. However, previous bounds on the measurement time required have suggested that the application of these te...

Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs) are a promising variational learning paradigm with applications to near-term quantum processors, however they still face some significant challenges. One such challenge is finding good parameter initialization heuristics that ensure rapid and consistent convergence to local minima of the parameterized quantum circuit...