Jarrett Byrnes

Jarrett Byrnes
University of Massachusetts Boston | UMB · Department of Biology

PhD Population Biology from UC Davis

About

89
Publications
39,556
Reads
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8,432
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
University of Massachusetts Boston
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2008 - September 2010
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (89)
Preprint
Mussel beds in the rocky intertidal of New England have long been a paradigmatic example of how physical forces – wave action – reduces predator abundance and enables a distinct ecological community. These beds, however, have witnessed a precipitous >60% decline since the 1970s for currently unknown reasons. Here we report on the surprising persist...
Article
Full-text available
Giant kelp populations that support productive and diverse coastal ecosystems at temperate and subpolar latitudes of both hemispheres are vulnerable to changing climate conditions as well as direct human impacts. Observations of giant kelp forests are spatially and temporally uneven, with disproportionate coverage in the northern hemisphere, despit...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive consumers can cause extensive ecological damage to native communities but effects on ecosystem resilience are less understood. Here, we use drone surveys, manipulative experiments, and mathematical models to show how feral hogs reduce resilience in southeastern US salt marshes by dismantling an essential marsh cordgrass-ribbed mussel mutua...
Article
Feral hogs modify ecosystems by consuming native species and altering habitat structure. These invasions can generate fundamentally different post‐invasion habitats when disturbance changes community structure, ecosystem function, or recovery dynamics. Here, we use multiple three‐year exclusion experiments to describe how feral hogs affect hyper‐pr...
Article
Full-text available
Feedbacks are an essential feature of resilient socio-economic systems, yet the feedbacks between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are not fully accounted for in global policy efforts that consider future scenarios for human activities and their consequences for nature. Failure to integrate feedbacks in our knowledge frameworks...
Preprint
Full-text available
Giant kelp populations support productive and diverse coastal ecosystems in both hemispheres at temperate and subpolar latitudes but are vulnerable to changing climate conditions as well as direct human impacts. Observations of giant kelp forests are spatially and temporally patchy, with disproportionate coverage in the northern hemisphere, despite...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20997-9.
Preprint
Species ranges are shifting in response to climate change. In New England saltmarshes, the mud fiddler crab, Minuca pugnax , is expanding north of Cape Cod, MA into the Gulf of Maine (GoM) due to warming waters. The burrowing lifestyle of M. pugnax means sediment compaction in saltmarshes may influence the ability for crabs to dig, with more compac...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication is a widespread environmental change that usually reduces the stabilizing effect of plant diversity on productivity in local communities. Whether this effect is scale dependent remains to be elucidated. Here, we determine the relationship between plant diversity and temporal stability of productivity for 243 plant communities from 42...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale barriers are a management option for present and increasing coastal storm flooding. The barriers have gates that are open most times except during storms. As an example of the assessment process for a barrier, an integrated assessment of two barrier options for the coastal city of Boston, located in the northeastern USA, is presented. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Compelling new evidence shows that kelp production contributes an important and underappreciated flux of carbon in the ocean. Major questions remain, however, about the controls on the cycling of this organic carbon in the coastal zone, and their implications for future carbon sequestration. Here we used field experiments distributed across 28° lat...
Article
Full-text available
Wave‐generated flows, associated hydrodynamic forces, and disturbances created by them play critical roles in determining the structure and health of near‐shore coastal ecosystems. Oscillatory motions produced by waves increase delivery of nutrients and food to benthic organisms, and can enhance vertical mixing to facilitate delivery of larvae and...
Article
Human activities are fundamentally altering biodiversity. Projections of declines at the global scale are contrasted by highly variable trends at local scales, suggesting that biodiversity change may be spatially structured. Here, we examined spatial variation in species richness and composition change using more than 50,000 biodiversity time serie...
Article
Full-text available
In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery...
Article
Arrestins control signaling via the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), serving as both signal terminators and transducers. Previous studies identified several structural elements in arrestins that contribute to their functions as GPCR regulators. However, the importance of these elements in vivo is unclear, and the developmental roles of arrestin...
Article
Although evidence suggests that humans have elevated global extinction rates and lowered global species richness, species richness at scales smaller than the globe can increase, decrease or remain the same. However, the role of spatial scale is rarely considered as a modifier in driving how richness change unfolds. We first observed richness change...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human activities have fundamentally altered biodiversity. Extinction rates are elevated and model projections suggest drastic biodiversity declines. Yet, observed temporal trends in recent decades are highly variable, despite consistent change in species composition. Here, we uncover clear spatial patterns within this variation. We estimated trends...
Article
Full-text available
2018. Quantifying relative importance: computing standardized effects in models with binary outcomes. Ecosphere 9(6): Abstract. Scientists commonly ask questions about the relative importance of processes and then turn to statistical models for answers. Standardized coefficients are typically used in such situations, with the goal being to compare...
Technical Report
This report, sponsored by the Boston Green Ribbon Commission with the generous support of the Barr Foundation, looks at the feasibility of a Harbor-wide Barrier to protect the Boston Harbor from storm-surge and sea level rise. Sustainable Solutions Lab, UMass Boston https://www.greenribboncommission.org/document/feasibility-of-harbor-wide-barrier...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Large-scale research endeavors can be hindered by logistical constraints limiting the amount of available data. For example, global ecological questions require a global dataset, and traditional sampling protocols are often too inefficient for a small research team to collect an adequate amount of data. Citizen science offers an alternative by crow...
Article
Full-text available
Plant–microbe interactions play crucial roles in species invasions but are rarely investigated at the intraspecific level. Here, we study these interactions in three lineages of a globally distributed plant, Phragmites australis. We use field surveys and a common garden experiment to analyze bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of P. australis...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent decades, environmental drivers of community change have been associated with changes in biodiversity from local to global scales. Here we evaluate the role of anthropogenic drivers in marine ecosystems as drivers of change in local species richness with a meta-analysis of a novel dataset of temporal change in species richness. We paired b...
Article
Kelp forests (Order Laminariales) form key biogenic habitats in coastal regions of temperate and Arctic seas worldwide, providing ecosystem services valued in the range of billions of dollars annually. Although local evidence suggests that kelp forests are increasingly threatened by a variety of stressors, no comprehensive global analysis of change...
Article
Full-text available
Species diversity affects the functioning of ecosystems, including the efficiency by which communities capture limited resources, produce biomass, recycle and retain biologically essential nutrients. These ecological functions ultimately support the ecosystem services upon which humanity depends. Despite hundreds of experimental tests of the effect...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption by native predators is an important means by which assemblages repel invasion by non-native species. This resistance may be compromised as the diversity and abundance of species at upper trophic levels continues to decline globally. We investigated whether consumptive biotic resistance by mobile benthic fauna could explain compositional...
Article
Global species extinction rates are orders of magnitude above the background rate documented in the fossil record. However, recent data syntheses have found mixed evidence for patterns of net species loss at local spatial scales. For example, two recent data meta-analyses have found that species richness is decreasing in some locations and is incre...
Article
Full-text available
Manipulative field experiments provide a window into the complexity of nature. Yet there is concern that we lack resolution by conducting experiments on a scale that is too small and short to include the relevant complexity of the study system. We addressed this issue by asking how and why the scale (local and global spatial extent, spatial grain,...
Article
Perhaps the most pressing issue in predicting biotic responses to present and future global change is understanding how environmental factors shape the relationship between ecological traits and extinction risk. The fossil record provides millions of years of insight into how extinction selectivity (i.e., differential extinction risk) is shaped by...
Article
The modern biodiversity crisis reflects global extinctions and local introductions. Human activities have dramatically altered rates and scales of processes that regulate biodiversity at local scales [1-7]. Reconciling the threat of global biodiversity loss [2, 4, 6-9] with recent evidence of stability at fine spatial scales [10,11] is a major chal...
Article
Marine taxa are threatened by anthropogenic impacts, but knowledge of their extinction vulnerabilities is limited. The fossil record provides rich information on past extinctions that can help predict biotic responses. We show that over 23 million years, taxonomic membership and geographic range size consistently explain a large proportion of extin...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of biodiversity for the integrated functioning of ecosystems remains unclear because most evidence comes from analyses of biodiversity's effect on individual functions. Here we show that the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem function become more important as more functions are considered. We present the first systematic investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the ext...
Article
Full-text available
As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding....
Article
Full-text available
The recent publication by Bradford et al. (1) argues that indices of ecosystem multifunctionality—the simultaneous performance of multiple ecosystem functions (2)—are only useful if all component functions “respond to community change in a positive correlated fashion.” We contend that this argument fundamentally misinterprets the concept of ecosyst...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time and the ex...
Preprint
Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time and the ex...
Article
Marine ecosystems are experiencing rapid and pervasive changes in biodiversity and species composition. Understanding the ecosystem consequences of these changes is critical to effectively managing these systems. Over the last several years, numerous experimental manipulations of species richness have been performed, yet existing quantitative synth...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Two decades of experimental research have shown that biodiversity can significantly alter ecosystem functioning, and that this trend is robust across organisms, habitats, and scenarios of global change. Many of these experiments have measured multiple ecosystem processes, but analyses have considered these processes in...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Tests of the effects of plant diversity on ecosystem processes have typically used synthetic communities, and only rarely have manipulated other state factors that also control ecosystem processes. Although ecosystem ecology has a long history of testing effects of plant traits on ecosystem processes, there is much rec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Although a plethora of studies have reported forest biomass or carbon accumulation during succession in tropical forests using a chronosequence approach, few of them have tested which are the attributes of the tree community associated to recovery. Previous work suggest that fallow age, structural attributes such as ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one’s work is key for successful crowdfunding....
Preprint
As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one’s work is key for successful crowdfunding....
Preprint
Full-text available
As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one’s work is key for successful crowdfunding....
Article
Scholarly publishing has embraced electronic distribution in many respects, but the tools available through the Internet and other advancing technologies have profound implications for scholarly communication beyond dissemination. We argue that to best serve science, the process of scholarly communication must embrace these advances and evolve. Her...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are experiencing rapid and pervasive loss of species. Understanding the consequences of species loss is critical to effectively managing these systems. Over the last several years, numerous experimental manipulations of species richness have been performed, yet existing quantitative syntheses have focused on a just a subset of pro...
Preprint
Marine ecosystems are experiencing rapid and pervasive loss of species. Understanding the consequences of species loss is critical to effectively managing these systems. Over the last several years, numerous experimental manipulations of species richness have been performed, yet existing quantitative syntheses have focused on a just a subset of pro...
Article
Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and ecosystems must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding when biodiversity conservation and ecosystem-service maintenance are compatible is needed within the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Here, we evaluate current understanding and uncertainties of the effects of biodiversity change on selected ecosystem services and suggest ways to further under...
Preprint
Full-text available
Barren rocky seafloor landscapes, denuded of almost all life by ravenous sea urchins, liberated from their predators, stands as one of the iconic images of trophic cascades in Ecology. While this paradigm has been cited in nearly every temperate rocky reef ecosystem across the globe, there is widespread disagreement as to its generality. Given thei...
Preprint
Barren rocky seafloor landscapes, denuded of almost all life by ravenous sea urchins, liberated from their predators, stands as one of the iconic images of trophic cascades in Ecology. While this paradigm has been cited in nearly every temperate rocky reef ecosystem across the globe, there is widespread disagreement as to its generality. Given thei...
Article
Full-text available
Functional gene pyrosequencing is emerging as a useful tool to examine the diversity and abundance of microbes that facilitate key biogeochemical processes. One such process, denitrification, is of particular importance because it converts fixed nitrate (NO(-) 3) to N2 gas, which returns to the atmosphere. In nitrogen limited salt marshes, removal...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that species richness of primary producers and primary consumers can enhance efficiency of resource uptake and biomass production of respective trophic levels. At the level of secondary consumers (predators), however, conclusions about the functional role of biodiversity have been mixed. We take advantage of a recent surge of...
Article
While we frequently observe that increasing species richness within a trophic level can increase the rates of predation or herbivory on lower trophic levels, the general impacts of prey diversity on consumption rates by their predators or herbivores remains unclear. Here we report the results of two field experiments that examined how subcanopy ses...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive research shows that more species-rich assemblages are generally more productive and efficient in resource use than comparable assemblages with fewer species. But the question of how diversity simultaneously affects the wide variety of ecological functions that ecosystems perform remains relatively understudied, and it presents several ana...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the rise of electronic publishing and the inherent paradigm shifts for so many other scientific endeavours, it is time to consider a change in the practices of scholarly publication in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. To facilitate the speed and quality of science, the future of scholarly communication will rest on four pillars - an ecosystem...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the rise of electronic publishing and the inherent paradigm shifts for so many other scientific endeavours, it is time to consider a change in the practices of scholarly publication in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. To facilitate the speed and quality of science, the future of scholarly communication will rest on four pillars - an ecosystem...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we discuss the utility of crowdfunding from the perspective of individual scientists or laboratory groups looking to fund research. We address some of the main factors determining the success of crowdfunding campaigns, and compare this approach with the use of traditional funding sources.
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The Ecological problems of the 21st Century require us to work with tremendous intellectual speed and agility. But science is slow. Plodding. Methodical. We are all striving for the next great idea or solution. Most often, we find those ideas in a conversation. But whom do you talk to everyday about your science? Your...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence is mounting that extinctions are altering key processes important to the productivity and sustainability of Earth's ecosystems. Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental change that are both driving diversity loss and...
Article
Scientists across the globe recognize the importance of reducing carbon emissions to combat climate change. At the same time, we have increased our carbon footprint through air travel to the growing number of scientific society “mega-meetings” that host thousands of attendees. Although alternative solutions have been proposed to reduce the environm...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists across the globe recognize the importance of reducing carbon emissions to combat climate change. At the same time, we have increased our carbon footprint through air travel to the growing number of scientific society “mega-meetings” that host thousands of attendees. Although alternative solutions have been proposed to reduce the environm...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Many experiments have shown that species richness of primary producers have significant effects on resource uptake and biomass production. While the effects of biodiversity are unequivocally significant, a key question remains: how do these effects compare in magnitude to other forms of environmental change. We used me...