Jarret T Crawford

Jarret T Crawford
The College of New Jersey | TCNJ · Department of Psychology

PhD Social Psychology

About

64
Publications
76,124
Reads
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2,748
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
June 2013 - present
The College of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2008 - present
The College of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2003 - May 2008
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2003 - May 2008

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
The traditional perspective on the political ideology and prejudice relationship holds that political conservatism is associated with prejudice, and that the types of dispositional characteristics associated with conservatism (e.g. low cognitive ability, low Openness) explain this relationship. This conclusion is limited by the limited number and t...
Article
Full-text available
The relationships between subjective status and perceived legitimacy are important for understanding the extent to which people with low status are complicit in their oppression. We use novel data from 66 samples and 30 countries (N = 12,788) and find that people with higher status see the social system as more legitimate than those with lower stat...
Article
Worldview conflict is a regular part of life. We typically encounter information that disagrees with or disconfirms the way we understand and make sense of the world. People usually respond negatively to such experiences; however, do responses depend, in part, on people’s individual religious beliefs or orientations? We tested whether religious ori...
Article
Previous theory and research has suggested that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) is a unitary construct related to attitudes regarding obedience to authority. Recently, scholars have suggested that RWA is multidimensional. To adjudicate these competing notions, we test whether the associations between RWA components and moral attitudes regarding o...
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Prejudice can be expressed toward a wide array of target groups, but it is often operationalized as being expressed toward a narrower array of groups. By studying a heterogeneous array of target groups, we can draw broader conclusions about prejudice writ large. Here, we describe our research, in which we seek to understand constructs that consiste...
Article
Meta-analyses show that low levels of Openness and Agreeableness correlate with generalized prejudice. However, previous studies narrowly assessed prejudice toward low-status, disadvantaged groups. Using a broad operationalization of generalized prejudice toward a heterogeneous array of targets, we sought to answer two questions: (a) Are some types...
Article
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Past research shows that people like others who are similar to themselves, and that political partisans tend to dislike those with opposing viewpoints. Two studies examined how initial person impressions changed after discovering that the target held similar or dissimilar political beliefs. Using potential mates as targets, we found that participan...
Preprint
Meta-analyses show that low levels of Openness and Agreeableness correlate with generalized prejudice. However, previous studies used restricted operationalizations of generalized prejudice that only assessed prejudice toward disadvantaged groups. In this paper, we explored a) whether Big Five trait-personality relationships observed under restrict...
Preprint
Past research shows that people like others who are similar to themselves, and that political partisans tend to dislike those with opposing viewpoints. Two studies examined how initial person impressions changed after discovering that the target held similar or dissimilar political beliefs. Using potential mates as targets, we found that participan...
Article
Full-text available
Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using experience sampling. In three combined samples (total...
Preprint
Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multi-dimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In five studies (total N = 4912),...
Article
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Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we...
Preprint
Building on laboratory and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview-conflict, we examined the association between worldview-conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity-esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using experience sampling. In three combined samples (Total N...
Article
Previous research finds that lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice. We test two unresolved questions about this association using a heterogeneous set of target groups and data from a representative sample of the United States (N = 5,914). First, we test “who are the targets of prejudice?” We replicate prior negative associations betwee...
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We consider how valid conclusions often lay hidden within research reports, masked by plausible but unjustified conclusions reached in those reports. We employ several well-known and cross-cutting examples from the psychological literature to illustrate how, independent (or in the absence) of replicability difficulties or questionable research prac...
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Are stereotypes accurate or inaccurate? We summarize evidence that stereotype accuracy is one of the largest and most replicable findings in social psychology. We address controversies in this literature, including the long-standing and continuing but unjustified emphasis on stereotype inaccuracy, how to define and assess stereotype accuracy, and w...
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We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that RWA and SDO predict intergroup antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target’s political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent...
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In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we re...
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Openness to experience is consistently associated with tolerance. We suggest that tests of the association between openness to experience and tolerance have heretofore been incomplete because they have primarily focused on prejudice toward unconventional target groups. We test (a) the individual difference perspective, which predicts that because p...
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Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect—that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled “gay men and lesbians” rather than “homosexuals” (Rios, 2013). Although this appea...
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The ideologically objectionable premise model posits that biased political judgments can emerge across the political spectrum. Previous tests of ideological differences in political judgment biases have utilized between-subjects designs (i.e., separate compari-sons). In this study (N ¼ 410), we examined whether these biases also emerge in within-su...
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Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...
Article
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Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-...
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People with extreme political opinions are alternatively characterized as being relatively unthinking or as confident consumers and practitioners of politics. In three studies, we tested these competing hypotheses using cognitive anchoring tasks (total N = 6,767). Using two different measures of political extremity, we found that extremists were le...
Article
Previous research has linked disgust sensitivity to negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians. We extend this existing research by examining the extent to which disgust sensitivity predicts attitudes more generally toward groups that threaten or uphold traditional sexual morality. In a sample of American adults (N = 236), disgust sensitivity (and...
Article
Three studies examined ideological symmetries and asymmetries in political intolerance and prejudice toward political activist groups. Using both student and non-student samples, and two alternative methodologies for studying political intolerance, the results of these studies converge on three important and novel conclusions. First, consistent wit...
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Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity—particularly diversity of viewpoints—for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds sup...
Article
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Numerous studies have documented subtle but consistent sex differences in self-reports and observer-ratings of five-factor personality traits, and such effects were found to show well-defined developmental trajectories and remarkable similarity across nations. In contrast, very little is known about perceived gender differences in five-factor trait...
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Abstract Numerous studies have documented subtle but consistent sex differences in self-reports and observer-ratings of five-factor personality traits, and such effects were found to show welldefined developmental trajectories and remarkable similarity across nations. In contrast, very little is known about perceived gender differences in five-fact...
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Decades of research in social and political psychology have demonstrated that political conservatives appear more intolerant and prejudiced toward a variety of groups than do political liberals. Recent theory and research from three independent labs (Chambers, Schlenker, & Collisson, 2013; Crawford & Pilanski, in press; Wetherell, Brandt, & Reyna,...
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Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; an...
Article
This research demonstrated that human nature (HN) and human uniqueness (HU) traits capture the content of Americans’ stereotypes about liberals and conservatives, respectively. Consistent with expectations derived from dehumanization theory, people more strongly associated HN traits with liberals than with conservatives, and more strongly associate...
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Full-text available
This research demonstrated that human nature (HN) and human uniqueness (HU) traits capture the content of Americans’ stereotypes about liberals and conservatives, respectively. Consistent with expectations derived from dehumanization theory, people more strongly associated HN traits with liberals than with conservatives, and more strongly associate...
Article
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Employing a dual process motivational (DPM) model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85) found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support f...
Article
Accusations of hypocrisy have flown against both supporters and opponents of the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) and Tea Party movements. Integrating the ideologically objectionable premise model (IOPM), a newly devised model of political judgment, with political tolerance research, we find that how the political activities of OWS and Tea Party demonstrat...
Article
In their commentary on our study of ideology and political intolerance (Crawford & Pilanski, 2013, hereafter CP), Nosek and Lindner (2013) claim that we replicated the findings of Lindner and Nosek (2009, hereafter LN). Specifically, they claim that a) we replicated their main effect of ideology on political intolerance, such that conservatives are...
Article
This study tested the dual-process motivational (DPM) model, which posits that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) dif-ferentially predict attitudes toward socially threatening or subordinate groups, respectively. Participants read articles on same-sex relationships and affirmative action and evaluated the artic...
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Research recently published in Political Psychology suggested that political intolerance is more strongly predicted by political conservatism than liberalism. Our findings challenge that conclusion. Participants provided intolerance judgments of several targets and the political objective of these targets (left-wing vs. right-wing) was varied betwe...
Article
Decades of scholarship have identified several determinants of political intolerance, including authoritarianism and normative threat. Previous attempts in the literature to associate other individual difference variables (i.e., social dominance orientation, SDO) and situational variables (i.e., outgroups’ gains in power and status) have been un...
Article
On the eve of the 2012 U.S. Presidential election, we conducted an initial investigation into the determinants of people’s attitudes towards the U.S. military’s use of drone strikes in Pakistan. Drawing on existing research and theory in social and political psychology, we examined the effects of political ideology, framing effects (national securi...
Article
In this study we attempted to replicate and extend Nam, Jost, and van Bavel's (2013) finding that political conservatives are more likely to avoid dissonance-arousing situations relative to political liberals. Across two studies, Nam et al. (2013) found that conservatives were less willing to write essays in support of Democratic presidents (Obama,...
Article
Despite an abundance of evidence to the contrary, a substantial number of Amer-icans believed that President Barack Obama was not born in the United States, even almost two years into his administration (CNN, 2010, July). Both anecdotal and polling evidence at the time suggested that Republicans and political conser-vatives were more likely to hold...
Article
Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recol...
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Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar bel...
Article
This paper introduces the ideologically objectionable premise model (IOPM), which predicts that biased political judgments will emerge on both the political left and right, but only when the premise of a judgment is not ideologically objectionable to the perceiver. The IOPM generates three hypothesized patterns of bias: biases among both those on t...
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This article introduces the political person perception model, which identifies conditions under which perceivers rely on stereotypes (party membership), individuating information (issue position), or both in political person perception. Three studies supported the model's predictions. Study 1 showed that perceivers gave primacy to target informati...
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College students (N=3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (a) perceived declines in societ...
Article
Memory for performed and motioned actions was measured on source recognition and source recall tests in order to investigate memory for actions or output monitoring (OM). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the source recognition test to provide insight into the basis of OM. Source identification and recall of performed actions was...
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Memory for performed and interrupted actions was measured on source recognition and source recall tests in order to investigate output monitoring (i.e., memory for actions). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the source recognition test to provide insight into the neural basis of output monitoring (OM). Source identification and r...
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This paper contests social psychology's emphasis on the biased, erroneous, and constructed nature of social cognition by: (1) showing how the extent of bias and error in classic research is overstated; (2) summarizing research regarding the accuracy of social beliefs; and (3) describing how social stereotypes sometimes improve person perception acc...
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This experiment investigated differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) observed in 2 types of source monitoring decisions. Participants discriminated between self-generated, heard, and new words (reality monitoring) in one condition; in another they discriminated between words heard in a male or female voice and new items (external source moni...
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A list of gender-related and gender-neutral words for use in testing gender stereotyping and memory was created and evaluated. Words were rated by samples of undergraduates at universities located in the northeast, southeast, and south-central United States. A substantial list of masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral words was identified. These l...

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