Janusz Tadeusz Paweska

Janusz Tadeusz Paweska
National Institute for Communicable Diseases · Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases

Prof. dr hab.

About

492
Publications
93,634
Reads
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11,800
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - June 2017
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Extraordinary Professor
Description
  • Collaborative research programme on bat-borne zoonotic viruses in Southern Africa and supervision of post graduate students

Publications

Publications (492)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To trace and understand the origin of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through various available literatures and accessible databases. Background: While the world enters the third year of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the health and socio-economic impacts continue to mount, the origin and mechan...
Article
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by hantavirus infection. Hantaviruses are not endemic to South Africa, and we report the first detection of an imported case of HFRS in the country. The case involved a traveller from Croatia who presented to a Johannesburg hospital with an acute febrile illness with renal dysfunction. The pat...
Article
A multi‐country outbreak of the monkeypox virus has gained global attention. As of 25 May, 250 confirmed human monkeypox cases have been reported globally. Monkeypox is caused by the Monkeypox virus, which belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus and Poxviridae family. Monkeypox is often a self‐limiting infection, with symptoms lasting 2 to 4 weeks with...
Article
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Background: Biosecurity measures have been introduced to limit economic losses and zoonotic exposures to humans by preventing and controlling animal diseases. However, they are implemented on individual farms with varying frequency. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate which biosecurity measures were used by farmers to prevent infectio...
Article
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Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) activity in Southern Africa tends to occur during periods of sustained elevated rainfall, cooler than normal conditions, and abundant vegetation cover creating ideal conditions for the increase and propagation of populations of RVFV mosquito vectors. These climatic and ecological conditions are modulated by large-scal...
Article
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Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic phlebovirus-causing disease in domestic ruminants and humans in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and some Indian Ocean islands. Outbreaks, characterized by abortion storms and a high morbidity rate in newborn animals, occur after heavy and prolonged rainfalls favouring the breeding of mosqui...
Article
The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron (PANGO lineage B.1.1.529) is being reported from all around the world. The WHO has categorized Omicron as a Variant of Concern (VOC) considering its higher transmissibility and infectivity, vaccine breakthrough cases. As of 6 Jan 2022, Omicron has been reported in at least 149 countries. Therefore, this study w...
Article
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Bat-borne viruses in the Henipavirus genus have been associated with zoonotic diseases of high morbidity and mortality in Asia and Australia. In Africa, the Egyptian rousette bat species ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) is an important viral host in which Henipavirus -related viral sequences have previously been identified. We expanded these findings by a...
Article
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Background: Vaccination is considered to be the best approach to control Rift Valley fever (RVF) in animals and consequently in humans. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of the RVF virus (RVFV) Clone 13 vaccine under field conditions. Methodology: A vaccine trial was conducted in sheep (230), goats (230), and cattle (140) in Ngorongoro di...
Article
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As the latest identified novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern (VOC), the influence of Omicron on our globe grows promptly. Compared with last VOC (Delta variant), more mutations were identified, which may address the characteristics of Omicron. Considering these crucial mutations and its implications...
Article
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In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, a...
Article
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Our serosurvey confirms recent exposure and indicates endemic circulation of RVFV in humans residing in the tropical coastal plain of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa.
Article
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This study aimed to determine the vector competence of bat-associated nycteribiid flies (Eucamsipoda africana) for Marburg virus (MARV) in the Egyptian Rousette Bat (ERB), Rousettus aegyptiacus. In flies fed on subcutaneously infected ERBs and tested from 3 to 43 days post infection (dpi), MARV was detected only in those that took blood during the...
Article
In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on validation of diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) for the detection of the IgG antibody in sheep (n = 3367), goat (n = 2632), and cattle (n = 3819) sera. Validation data sets were dichotomized...
Article
Full-text available
Huculs (Equus caballus) are an old breed of primitive mountain horses, originating from the Carpathian Mountains. To the best of our knowledge, data concerning the epidemiology of viral infections observed within this breed are sparse. The objective of this study was to estimate the serological status of a semi-isolated, unvaccinated Hucul herd, wi...
Article
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Kedougou virus (KEDV), first isolated in Senegal in 1972, is genetically related to dengue, Zika (ZIKV) and Spondweni viruses (SPOV). Serological surveillance studies in Senegal and isolation of KEDV in the Central African Republic indicate occurrence of KEDV infections in humans, but to date, no disease has been reported. The AR1071 Ndumu KEDV iso...
Article
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Introduction Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-endemic regions. This viral infection triggers a wide spectrum of symptoms that span from fibril illnesses to more severe symptoms s...
Article
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Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne viral zoonosis endemic to parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Human cases are reported annually in South Africa, with a 25% case fatality rate since the first case was recognized in 1981. We investigated CCHF virus (CCHFV) seroprevalence and risk factors associate...
Article
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The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating health and socio-economic impacts. Human activities, especially at the wildlife interphase, are at the core of forces driving the emergence of new viral agents. Global surveillance activities have identified bats as the natural hosts of diverse coronaviruses, with other do...
Article
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Dengue is an important mosquito-borne viral disease in humans in tropical and subtropical countries. In 2019, a total of 6917 dengue cases were reported in Tanzania based on serological analysis. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of dengue virus (DENV) and conduct its genetic characterization. A total of 191 serum samples were colle...
Article
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: Dengue contributes a significant burden on global public health and economies. In Africa, the burden of dengue virus (DENV) infection is not well described. This review was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue and associated risk factors. A literature search was done on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases to i...
Article
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We detected 3 lyssaviruses in insectivorous bats sampled in South Africa during 2003-2018. We used phylogenetic analysis to identify Duvenhage lyssavirus and a potentially new lyssavirus, provisionally named Matlo bat lyssavirus, that is related to West Caucasian bat virus. These new detections highlight that much about lyssaviruses remains unknown...
Article
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p>In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted...
Article
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We detected Marburg virus RNA in rectal swab samples from Egyptian rousette bats in South Africa in 2017. This finding signifies that fecal contamination of natural bat habitats is a potential source of infection for humans. Identified genetic sequences are closely related to Ravn virus, implying wider distribution of Marburg virus in Africa
Article
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(1) Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in domestic ruminants have severe socio-economic impacts. Climate-based continental predictions providing early warnings to regions at risk for RVF outbreaks are not of a high enough resolution for ruminant owners to assess their individual risk. (2) Methods: We analyzed risk factors for RVF occurre...
Preprint
Full-text available
IntroductionRift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-transmitted zoonotic viral infection that results in Rift Valley fever disease. RVFV and other viruses have developed mechanism to circumvent the immune recognition in an attempt to advance their viral progeny. The RVFV S segment encodes a non-structural protein (NSs) known to be the main virulence...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-endemic regions. This viral infection triggers a wide spectrum of symptoms that span from fibril illnesses to more severe symptoms...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of Rift Valley fever virus IgG and IgM virus was evaluated in 1,276 human serum samples collected from local hospitals in 2013–2014 in northern Botswana. Our findings provide evidence of active circulation of this virus in humans in the absence of clinical disease in this region. These findings underscore the urgent need for more int...
Article
Background : Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to a subgroup of coronaviruses rampant in bats for centuries. It caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Most patients recover, but a minority of severe cases experience acute respiratory distress or an inflammatory storm devastating many organs that...
Article
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Background: Human rabies cases continue to be reported annually in South Africa (SA). Previous investigations have shown the association between the occurrence of human rabies cases and dog rabies cases in the country. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed human rabies cases in SA for the period 2008 - 2018. Methods:...
Article
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Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever have devastating impacts on ruminants, humans, as well as on regional and national economies. Although numerous studies on the impact and outbreak of Rift Valley fever exist, relatively little is known about the role of environmental factors, especially soil, on the aestivation of the virus. This study thus selected 2...
Article
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Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis showing complex epidemiological patterns that are poorly understood in South Africa. Large outbreaks occur in the central interior at long, irregular intervals, most recently in 2010–2011; however, the level of herd immunity of ruminant livestock, a key determinant of outbreaks, is unknown....
Article
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Introduction Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest haemorrhagic fevers affecting humans and non-human primates. Thirty-four outbreaks have been reported in Africa since it was first recognised in 1976. This review analysed 42 years of EVD outbreaks and identified various challenges and opportunities for its control and prevention in Sub...
Book
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The book “Vital Signs: Health Security in South Africa” was published by The Brenthurst Foundation (Pty) Limited, St. Andrew’s House, 6 St Andrew’s Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. It is written by experts with first-hand knowledge and experience offers narrative descriptions and analyses of the assessment metrics provided by the World...
Article
In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the main vector borne zoonotic diseases that affects a wide range of ruminants and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A rapid and specific test for RVF diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. Methodology/principal findings: A...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Dengue is an important mosquito-borne viral disease in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In this study molecular characterization was carried out to determine dengue viruses circulating among patients at health facilities during 2019 epidemic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods The study involved outpatients seeking care for febrile i...
Article
Full-text available
Filovirus serological diagnosis and epidemiological investigations are hampered due to the unavailability of validated immunoassays. Diagnostic performance of three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (I-ELISA) was evaluated for the detection of IgG antibody to Ebola virus (EBOV) in human sera. One I-ELISA was based on a whole EBOV antigen...
Article
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A high diversity of corona-and paramyxoviruses have been detected in different bat species at study sites worldwide, including Africa, however no biosurveillance studies from Rwanda have been reported. In this study, samples from bats collected from caves in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, were tested for the presence of corona-and paramyxoviral RNA using rever...
Article
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In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Bunyavirales was amended by creation of two new families, four new subfamilies, 11 new genera and 77 new species, merging of two species, and deletion of one species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales now accepted by the International Commit...
Article
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In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the addition of four new subfamilies and 12 new genera and the creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ©...
Conference Paper
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Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to RVFV in domestic cattle, sheep, and goats in a study area in the central interior of South Africa, and to identify factors associated with seropositivity.IntroductionRift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis. This study aimed to estimate the preva...
Article
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Members of the family Filoviridae produce variously shaped, often filamentous, enveloped virions containing linear non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 15–19 kb. Several filoviruses (e.g., Ebola virus) are pathogenic for humans and are highly virulent. Several filoviruses infect bats (e.g., Marburg virus), whereas the hosts of most other fi...
Article
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The SNT is regarded as a gold standard in RVF serology, but it is very laborious and can only be performed in biosafety level-3 facilities, making this assay not very suitable for large-scale serosurveys. For these reasons, bovine sera collected in 2018 were all tested by commercially available RVF competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELI...
Article
The recent large outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Western Africa resulted in greatly increased accumulation of human genotypic, phenotypic and clinical data, and improved our understanding of the spectrum of clinical manifestations. As a result, the WHO disease classification of EVD underwent major revision.
Article
The recent large outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Western Africa resulted in greatly increased accumulation of human genotypic, phenotypic and clinical data, and improved our understanding of the spectrum of clinical manifestations. As a result, the WHO disease classification of EVD underwent major revision.
Article
Full-text available
In October 2018, the order Bunyavirales was amended by inclusion of the family Arenaviridae, abolishment of three families, creation of three new families, 19 new genera, and 14 new species, and renaming of three genera and 22 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committe...
Article
Full-text available
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging arboviral disease of public health and veterinary importance in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Major RVF epidemics were documented in South Africa in 1950-1951, 1974-1975, and 2010-2011. The number of individuals infected during these outbreaks has, however, not been accurately estimated. A total of 823 p...