János Mika

János Mika
Eszterházy Károly Egyetem · Institute of Geography and Environmental Sciences

DSc.

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85
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Publications

Publications (85)
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter looks at three aspects of environmental safety: energy preference, air pollution, and climate change. It is divided into two parts: (1) global outlook and (2) case research. First, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, established in 2015 with a fifteen-year objective of implementing them, are broken down and analyzed. Dire...
Article
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Daily Peczely circulation types are investigated over 140 years (1881–2020). After presenting monthly mean frequencies and durations of the 13 circulation types, two further questions are investigated: (i) How do the circulation types influence local weather extremes?; (ii) Are there significant trends in the frequency of the original and the group...
Chapter
In the twenty-first century, amidst dramatic changes within both society and science, the litany of environmental problems has grown to crisis proportions and urgent actions are needed. Many of these involve the whole of society, hence a new role for environmental education has emerged (UN SDG Report 2016; CBD 2014; IPBES 2016). Today, Environmenta...
Article
Our study answers the question: Which targets of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (2016-2030) are related to the light pollution. Although, the word light pollution is not mentioned by any of the 169 targets contained by 17 Goals, we found 12 targets to be related to the problem. Nine targets operate with general terms in which light pollution...
Article
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Light pollution is a new environmental challenge. We emit more light than necessary, and this is often done at wavelengths that are disturbing and even harmful to human health. In this situation, Dark Sky Parks, where there are no artificial light sources that burden the environment, have been established. Two of these parks are located in BAZ Coun...
Article
Iparosodott világunk egyik legújabb környezeti kihívása a fényszennyezés. Ez, egyszerűen fogalmazva, azt jelenti, hogy a szükségesnél több fényt bocsátunk ki, és ezt gyakran az emberek és az állatvilág számára zavaró, sőt az egészségre káros hullámhosszakon tesszük. E problémakör tudatosítását szolgálják az ún. Csillagos Égbolt Parkok, ahol nagy te...
Chapter
This chapter presents how satellite observations are used to detect and to explain the changes. After a brief introduction into possibilities and limitations of satellite remote sensing, the three ways of using them in climate science are listed. They are (i) observation of climate forcing factors, (ii) observation of the changes, and (iii) validat...
Book
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It is the Yearbook of Hungarian Educational Research Association, 2017. Ed by Orsolya Endrődy-Nagy and Anikó Fehérvári.
Article
Projected regional climate change modifies the circulation and the radiation effects, which influence urban air pollution (UAP) and urban heat island (UHI) properties. Besides the primary effects of climate change on these urban stressors, the human health effects are also reviewed. The change is derived from the average 4.5 W m⁻² radiation increme...
Article
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In September 2015 the United Nations (UN) accepted the Sustainable Development Goals (2016-2030) for mankind, including 17 Goals and 169 detailed Targets. Sustainability is understood in the wider sense by the document, considering society and economy not just as conditions for environmental sustainability, but as equally important pillar of the "b...
Conference Paper
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Regional climate model (RCM) results could not be duly represented by the IPCC 2013 Report, focusing mostly on global climate models (GCM). The aim of our study is to provide a literature insight into these types of results, based on the recent Report by the EEA (2017). After a brief comparison of the GCMs and RCMs, averages of short- and long-term...
Article
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In September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) accepted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development including 17 Sustainable Development Goals including 169 more detailed targets. These goals spread over all natural, societal and economical aspects of sustainability all over the world. The aim of our study is to specify those g...
Article
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There are 30 valley-based towns with >10,000 inhabitants in Hungary, filled by 1.023 million people i.e. 10 % of the population. Two criteria are used to define the valley-based town. They are: (i) Vertical difference between the lowest point in the town and the highest one around it should be >100 m. At the same time, (ii) the same difference on t...
Article
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In our research, wind-climate of the Eger Energy Region (Hungary) is characterized by using the WAsP model. The map used for the research is a 30x30 km topographic map with 20 meters vertical resolution. For this model, the hourly wind-direction and wind-speed input data have been measured at the Eger Station, operated by the Hungarian Meteorologic...
Article
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Observed climate processes play important role in understanding the ongoing changes in the climate system. Our paper intends to present this cross-section of climate science illustrated by selected satellite images and diagrams in four parts. (i.) Technical possibilities of the observations are briefly surveyed first. Many satellite platforms and d...
Article
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sszefoglalás. Fél évszázada a Kérdő István orvos és munkatársai, köztük Örményi Imre meteorológus által kidolgozott teszttel vizsgáljuk az emberek frontérzékenységet. Ez a teszt a szimpatikus és paraszimpatikus idegrendszer egyensúlyát vizsgálja a hétköznapi szokásainkról szóló, 50 kérdésre adott válaszok alapján. Az OMSZ-ban 2006 és 2009 között tö...
Article
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The spatial interpolation and mapping of renewable energy resources is an important task of potential estimation of atmospheric renewable energy sources. First the global radiation on horizontal surfaces and near-surface wind speed at 10 m height above the surface (not at 60-120 m, which is the height of contemporary wind turbines) is measured. Bas...
Conference Paper
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Local weather classifications for environmental applications. Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined acco...
Article
The terms “weather extremes” and “climate extremes” are widely used in meteorology, often in relation to climate change. This paper reviews the empirical investigations into parallel changes in extreme events and climate change published in recent years and looks at their relevance for the global energy system. Empirical investigation into the corr...
Article
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Weather generators (WG) became significant modules of crop models and decision support systems in the past decade. Using a large meteorological database from North America; two basic problems, related to the applicability of WGs in case of short or lacking data series, were investigated in the framework of the Multivariable weather generator (MVWG)...
Article
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Flooding and waterlogging events showed a frequency rising sharply during the last decades so their prevention has become a very actual task. Prevention should start where surface runoff is generated, i.e. over the areas used for agriculture and forestry of hilly and mountainous watersheds. Conservation agriculture is a very successful method for k...
Article
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This paper surveys the key statements of the IPCC (2007) Report based mainly on the satellite-borne observations to support teaching climate change and geography by using the potential of this technology. In the Introduction we briefly specify the potential and the constraints of remote sensing. Next the key climate variables for indicating the cha...
Article
Using analogies from soil science a new global radiation estimation method was developed and tested on a large North-American meteorological database. The newly developed procedure was compared to the well-known, Donatelli–Campbell method. Both the overall indicators and the more detailed analysis of the model performance confirmed that the new met...
Article
Economic activities and everyday life may create weekly variations in concentrations of air pollutants in urban settings. The present study contributes to this experience on the example of two typical medium-sized towns in Central Europe, Szeged and Freiburg considering the following air pollutants: NO, NO2, O3, Ox and PM10. Five-year data sets of...
Article
Lake Balaton has the largest freshwater surface in Central Europe. The water budget of this shallow water body is characterised in most of the years with significant water excess, expressed in regular releases from the Lake through a partly artificial stream, Sio. Unexpectedly, negative annual values of natural water budget occurred in the period 2...
Article
The aim of the study is to compare two popular parameterisations of potential evapotranspiration, applied in computation of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Among other differences, Thornthwaite method considers bare soil, whereas Blaney–Criddle method estimates evapotranspiration after specification of a given plant. Monthly PDSI series in the A...
Article
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This paper presents a new stochastic multi-variable weather generator (MV-WG) and compares its performance with LARS-WG version 4.0. Daily data of 109 meteorological stations from a North American database were used in a twofold comparison of the two generators: (1) the capability of reproducing the mean and variance of annual, seasonal and monthly...
Article
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Some of the climate and biophysical variables essential for understanding and monitoring the climate system and the impact of climate change on agriculture can be efficiently observed from orbital platforms, providing global data sets continuously and consistently. In order to describe the status of satellite - derived data useful for monitoring cl...
Article
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Synoptic climatology i.e. classification of the endless variability of the everyday weather states according to the pressure configuration and frontal systems relative to the point, or region of interest has long history in meteorology. Its logical alternative, i.e. classification of weather according to the observed local weather elements was less...
Article
Effects of projected climate changes are investigated by the use of global climate models of the IPCC AR4 (2007). Computed changes in 20 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCM) are first analysed for periods 2030-2049 and 2080-2099 compared to the 1980-1999 reference period. The MAGICC/SCENGEN 5.3v2 diagnostic model (Wigley et a...
Article
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based kinetic temperature data are compared with the surface air temperature data at the four weather stations in Budapest, Hun-gary. Dependence of these temperature characteristics on weather conditions, characterised by macrosynoptic types and by objective weather types, is in the focus of the...
Article
The information and communication technology (ICT) is a tool of development for acting or prospective teachers. In geography, however, this competence often needs directed improvement, especially for the students less information and motivation for using the full potential of this tool. In the MA program for prospective teachers of geography there...
Article
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The effects of climatic elements on wine quantity and quality for the winegrowing region of Tokaj-Hegyalja, Hungary, were analyzed. By applying the Makra test, significant breaks were detected in both the wine quantity and wine quality data sets. Analysis of the relationship between climatic variables and wine quantity and quality, using different...
Article
Possible effects of weather anomalies on mortality in cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses are investigated in Hungary. Long-term (1971-2005) archives of ca. 2.8 million fatalities are analysed. The mortality data are compared with seven diurnal meteorological parameters. They are the mean, maxima and minima of temperature, cloudiness, wind spe...
Article
Seasons may really shifted parallel to the global changes. On the other hand, however, climatologists do not always use objective and flexible, climate-reflecting definitions. So, the aim of the talk is to present two candidates for definition, and to elaborate the results in the 20th and early 21th Century for the different concepts. These definit...
Article
Weather disturbances like fronts, influence human biorhythm, our biological balance becomes manipulated, and adaptation mechanisms are impaired. Our working hypothesis is that even the best chess players of the world are not exceptions from this rule. As their movements on the chess board, as well as the best possible ones, if they missed to make,...
Article
The objective of the poster is to present our activity in the COST-734 Action, CLIVAGRI of collection of satellite based information on the actual state and longer-term evolution of vegetation cover. The main purpose of CLIVAGRI is the evaluation of possible impacts from climate change and variability on agriculture and the assessment of critical t...
Article
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Nowadays, the dimate change-related effects cause significant alterations in phenological phases of grape. The beginning of developmental stages and growing seasons is getting earlier; somé developmental stages are shortened in function of meso- and microclimatic conditions. Growing areas of cool dimate regions will come to more favourable position...
Article
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This paper compares the efficiency of a system of objective air-mass types and the Péczely's weather types in classifying pollution levels over the Carpathian Basin for the winter and summer months. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC were related to the levels of air pollutants for both the objective air...
Article
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Climate can strongly influence the living of town-dwellers, and cities have feedback on climate. The structure of a city including density and height of buildings, number and size of places covered by natural plants has a considerable effect on the development of heat island as well as smog situations. Nevertheless climate information is insufficie...
Article
Regional climate changes are still one of the most difficult problems of the climate change issue. Weather extremes are even more problematic components of the projected regional climate changes, since, as our analysis demonstrates, no unequivocal similarity exists for them. Results from three scientific approaches, the raw General Circulation Mode...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses a subjectively defined system of air mass types, the thirteen Peczely's large-scale weather situations over the Carpathian Basin in relation to the detected airborne pollen grain concentrations. Based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) sea-level pressure data set, daily sea-level pressure fields a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper determines the 13 Peczely's large-scale weather situations over the Carpathian Basin with the levels of the main air pollutants for the winter and summer months. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC were prepared for each Peczely-type in order to relate their sea-level pressure patterns to the l...
Article
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This paper discusses the characteristic air mass types over the Carpathian Basin in relation to plant pollen levels over annual pollination periods. Based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts dataset, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC were prepared for each air mass type (cluster) in order to relate sea-level p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the relationship between the 6 groups of the 13 Peczely's large-scale weather situations over the Carpathian Basin and the levels of the main air pollutants for the winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) months, in Szeged, Hungary. Based on the ECMWF data set, mean daily sea-level pressure fields (00 UTC) are prepared from all the da...
Article
Full-text available
This paper determines the characteristic air mass types over the Carpathian Basin for the winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July and August) months dependant on levels of the main air pollutants. Based on the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC were prepared for each air mass type (cluster) in...
Article
Full-text available
The cluster analysis of diurnal precipitation patterns is performed by using daily precipitation of 59 stations in South Korea from 1973 to 1996 in four seasons of each year. Four seasons are shifted forward by 15 days compared to the general ones. Number of clusters are 15 in winter, 16 in spring and autumn, and 26 in summer, respectively. One of...
Article
Agricultural or ecological impact studies, related to future climate changes, require highly resolved meteorological input data both in space and time. Since present climate models can not fulfill this requirement, gaps between the necessary and available resolution, are filled by downscaling. A possible way to downscale GCM-output fields into regi...
Article
Recently, climate change is one of the most current scientific problems. As a result of the change of climatic factors, such regional problems are emphasized by falling of underground water level, decrease of water supply and drying of the upper soil layer. The aim of the study is to detect 20th century variations of the soil moisture content in Ea...
Article
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Detailed observation of soil moisture time series has of practical importance either in strategic preparing of researches or in professional planning. Meteorological-related spatial and temporal connections of soil moisture were investigated on monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) time series of five meteorological stations in Eastern Hunga...
Article
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) series, based on monthly homogenised temperature and precipitation data, are analysed for the 1901–1999 period at three stations in West-Hungary, i.e. in an objectively separating region of the country, concerning spatial variations of the monthly PDSI fluctuations. All displayed results represent computations b...
Article
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. The aim of the Theses is to give a modern climatographical analysis on the varied hydrometeorological relations of the region, based on reliable observations of meteorological stations. The analysis includes statistical characteristics of the inter-annual variability, spatial and temporal correlation of the available soil moisture content and lon...
Article
The study presents typical diurnal and annual course of major air pollutants observed at a monitoring station in Szeged downtown at a crossroad. Workday and holiday parameters are also compared. The data extend from 1997 to 2001. Mass concentration of CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, O3 and TSP, averaged for 30-minute periods, are considered. Szeged is locat...
Article
A new statistical test (Makra-test), applicable for long time series, is introduced to identify extended sub-periods, namely, “breaks”, average of which is significantly higher or lower than the mean of the entire time series. In order to apply this test, normal distribution of the time series being examined is a sufficient condition. In another ca...
Article
The aim of the study is to quantify statistical relations between the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from NOAA/AVHRR multi-channel irradiance, and yield of wheat and maize commonly covering 23.5% of Hungary. The 14 years period, 1985–1998 is used, reserving the later vegetation seasons for independent validation, in the fu...
Article
Agricultural land use series are investigated in a plain catchment area of the Tisza River, almost identically represented by six administrative counties. Each county, commonly covering 34,000 km*, is characterised by high percentage (70-80 %) of managed vegetation. Effects of area coverage variations between the different plants are computed for t...
Article
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The primary objectives of this study were (1) to document the changes in the composition and structure of a semiarid grassland (Festucetum vaginatae) along a climatic gradient in Hungary, and (2), by applying the concept of "Space for Time Substitution", to form hypotheses on the possible effects of a predicted climate change on these grasslands. T...
Article
The object of the study is to develop a discrete precipitation model which is able to simulate local, daily series of precipitation occurrences. The model is fitted to the observed data of two stations, Szeged and Szombathely, in Hungary (1951–1995), with pronounced attention to the reproduction of long dry periods, as characteristic features of th...
Article
Climatic change in SE Europe can be characterized by the term aridification, which means increasing semi-aridity, manifested in an increase of mean annual temperature and at the same time in a decrease in the yearly precipitation.The paper deals with research results obtained within the framework of the MEDALUS II project (funded by the Commission...
Article
The aim of the study is to present actual daily and climatically representative monthly maps of the surface radiation balance components derived from METEOSAT data. The encrypted digital images are now available in every three hours in Hungary. Hence, the first problem to solve is the estimation of diurnal mean radiation components from the archive...
Article
The objective of the study is to improve the derived climatology from ScaRaB and ERBE information on short- and long-wave radiation balance terms at the top of the atmosphere by employing stratified samples with respect to circulation anomalies. The macrosynoptic types used for this purpose is the Hess-Brezowsky (HB) classification, based on indepe...
Article
An important aspect of regional climate change is alteration in soil moisture availability. The EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator — Sharpley and Williams, 1990) model is applied to estimate soil hydrology consequences in a representative subcatchment (24 km2) of Lake Balaton, Hungary. The study is based on the soil hydrology parameters o...
Article
A set of methods to estimate the surface radiation balance has been developed by using METEOSAT digital image data and a radiative transfer model. Cloud characteristics are determined from a recent method based on brightness temperature and its variance, whereas other necessary parameters are derived from the radiosonde network or its simulation (n...
Article
Factor Analysis (FA) in S-mode is applied to classify the global radiation and the cloud distribution patterns derived from METEOSAT digital images. The aim of the areal classification is to construct a meta-archive of days with different cloud coverage for the derivation of surface climate parameters and also for the special needs of weather analy...
Article
Recent and expected future changes of temperature (corrected for inhomogeneities and precipitation in Hungary are investigated, also in connection with the global climate tendencies. These factors are generally assessed in long-term averages, an approach with conceptual difficulties if global climate really changes. Two periods (1900-1949 and 1950-...
Article
Conditional probability of icing in correlation with local weather elements, as well as with different macrocirculation types are investigated on the basis of 23 years of daily observations for two stations situated in the Pannonian Plain (Debrecen) and in mountainous region (Kékestetö, 1000 m above sea-level). Empirical histograms are calculated a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spatial and diachronic characteristics of drought periods are examined. Assessment of droughts is performed by employing the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The Palmer's model is applied to monthly data in the period 1951-1990 (1957-83 for Greece) at 27, 19, 16, and 26 stations in Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and Greece, respectively. Fact...
Article
Climatic representativity presumes at least a few decades of observation and data processing under constant conditions, which is generally not the case in satellite remote sensing. A method based on local macrosynoptic typization is therefore introduced for any short sample, in which the actual frequency distribution of the macrotypes might be quit...
Article
A regional energy-balance climate model has been developed to interprete the physical processes, leading to regional temperature changes /1/, in connection with global climate forcings. Parameterizations of the radiation balance in terms of regional temperatures and sunshine duration are based on analogue METEOSAT-2 images and NIMBUS-7 ERB measurem...
Article
Empirical formula was determined to estimate the radiation balance of the surface as a multilinear function of the outgoing longwave radiation and the radiation balance of the surface-atmosphere system measured by NIMBUS-7 satellite over the Carpathian Basin. The correlation index between the calculated and measured radiation balance was 0.97. Afte...
Article
A classical assumption for the dependence of planetary albedo on horizontal cloud coverage (α = α0 (1 - n) + αnn) is empirically verified for two areas in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary). The albedo values are derived from METEOSAT-2 analogue images by a special technique developed by Rimóczi-Paál and cloudiness is determined visually from the same...
Article
Spatial and temporal characteristics of monthly dry and wet anomalies are examined within a 44,000 sq. km area with diverse topography. Homogenised monthly temperature and precipitation series of 5 climatic stations are used for the vegetation period, April-October, in 1901-1999. Assessment of humidity conditions is performed by employing the Palme...