Janne Valkonen

Janne Valkonen
University of Jyväskylä | JYU ·  Department of Biological and Environmental Science

Doctor of Philosophy

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58
Publications
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644
Citations

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
In juveniles extreme intraspecies aggression can seem counter-intuitive, as it might endanger their developmental goal of surviving until reproductive stage. Ultimately, aggression can be vital for survival, although the factors (e.g., genetic or environmental) leading to the expression and intensity of this behavior vary across taxa. Attacking (an...
Article
A well‐known example of visual camouflage in birds is the plumage coloration of the Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris, yet this species’ camouflage has never been objectively quantified. Here, we quantify treecreeper camouflage in its boreal forest habitat, test whether treecreepers better match tree backgrounds at nest site, territory or hab...
Article
Full-text available
A big question in behavioral ecology is what drives diversity of color signals. One possible explanation is that environmental conditions, such as light environment, may alter visual signaling of prey, which could affect predator decision-making. Here, we tested the context-dependent predator selection on prey coloration. In the first experiment, w...
Article
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Many species of Neotropical frogs have evolved to deposit their tadpoles in small water bodies inside plant structures called phytotelmata. These pools are small enough to exclude large predators but have limited nutrients and high desiccation risk. Here, we explore phytotelm use by three common Neotropical species: Osteocephalus oophagus, an arbor...
Article
Vision is a vital attribute to foraging, navigation, mate selection and social signalling in animals, which often have a very different colour perception in comparison to humans. For understanding how animal colour perception works, vision models provide the smallest colour difference that animals of a given species are assumed to detect. To determ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many species of Neotropical frogs have evolved to deposit their tadpoles in small water bodies inside plant structures called phytotelmata. These pools are small enough to exclude large predators but have limited nutrients and high desiccation risk. Here, we explore phytotelm use by three common Neotropical species: Osteocephalus oophagus, an arbor...
Article
Most research on aposematism has focused on chemically defended prey, but the signalling difficulty of capture remains poorly explored. Similar to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry related to distastefulness, such ‘evasive aposematism' may also lead to convergence in warning colours, known as evasive mimicry. A prime candidate group for evas...
Article
Full-text available
Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency‐dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large‐scale predation experiment in four countries, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of the aposematic moth,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aggression between juveniles can be unexpected, as their primary motivation is to survive until their reproductive stage. However, instances of aggression, which may escalate to cannibalism, can be vital for survival, although the factors (e.g. genetic or environmental) leading to cannibalism vary across taxa. While cannibalism can greatly accelera...
Article
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Deserts and semi-deserts, such as the Sahara-Sahel region in North Africa, are exposed environments with restricted vegetation coverage. Due to limited physical surface structures, these open areas provide a promising ecosystem to understand selection for crypsis. Here, we review knowledge on camouflage adaptation in the Sahara-Sahel rodent communi...
Article
Full-text available
Antipredator adaptations in the form of animal coloration are common and often multifunctional. European vipers (genus Vipera) have a characteristic dorsal zigzag pattern, which has been shown to serve as a warning signal to potential predators. At the same time, it has been suggested to decrease detection risk, and to cause a motion dazzle or flic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most research on aposematism has focused on chemically defended prey, but signalling difficulty of capture remains poorly explored. Similarly to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry related to distastefulness, such "evasive aposematism" may also lead to convergence in warning colours, known as evasive mimicry. A prime candidate group for evasiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency-dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large-scale predation experiment in four locations, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of aposematic Arctia pla...
Article
Full-text available
Camouflage helps animals to hide from predators and is therefore key to survival. Although widespread convergence of animal phenotypes to their natural environment is well established, there is a lack of knowledge about how species compromise camouflage accuracy across different background types in their habitat. Here we tested how background match...
Article
Full-text available
Müllerian mimicry is a classic example of adaptation, yet Müller’s original theory does not account for the diversity often observed in mimicry rings. Here, we aimed to assess how well classical Müllerian mimicry can account for the color polymorphism found in chemically defended Oreina leaf beetles by using field data and laboratory assays of pred...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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Many prey species contain defensive chemicals that are described as tasting bitter. Bitter taste perception is, therefore, assumed to be important when predators are learning about prey defenses. However, it is not known how individuals differ in their response to bitter taste, and how this influences their foraging decisions. We conducted taste pe...
Article
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Insect metamorphosis is one of the most recognized processes delimiting transitions between phenotypes. It has been traditionally postulated as an adaptive process decoupling traits between life stages, allowing evolutionary independence of pre- and post-metamorphic phenotypes. However, the degree of autonomy between these life stages varies depend...
Article
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Many animals have evolved remarkable strategies to avoid predation. In diurnal, toxic harlequin toads (Atelopus) from the Amazon basin, we find a unique colour signal. Some Atelopus populations have striking red soles of the hands and feet, visible only when walking. When stationary, the toads are hard to detect despite their yellow-black dorsal co...
Article
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Many harmless organisms gain a survival advantage by mimicking venomous species. This is the case of the endangered smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), which mimics venomous vipers. Although this may protect the smooth snake against most of its natural predators, it may render them at greater risk of mortality from humans, who are more inclined to...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the effects of global increase in temperatures on disease virulence is challenging, especially for environmental opportunistic bacteria, because pathogen fitness may be differentially affected by temperature within and outside host environment. So far, there is very little empirical evidence on the connections between optimal temperature...
Article
Understanding ecological and epidemiological factors driving pathogen evolution in contemporary time scales is a major challenge in modern health management. Pathogens that replicate outside the hosts are subject to selection imposed by ambient environmental conditions. Increased nutrient levels could increase pathogen virulence by pre-adapting for...
Article
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Specular reflection appears as a bright spot or highlight on any smooth glossy convex surface and is caused by a near mirror-like reflectance off the surface. Convex shapes always provide the ideal geometry for highlights, areas of very strong reflectance, regardless of the orientation of the surface or position of the receiver. Despite highlights...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although increase in temperatures may boost the number of pathogens, a complex process involving the interaction of a susceptible host, a virulent strain, and environmental factors would influence disease virulence in unpredictable ways. Here we explored if the virulence of an environmentally growing opportunistic fish pathogen, Flavobacterium colu...
Article
Full-text available
Diseases have become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture, but remarkably little attention has been paid to a broad class of pathogens: the opportunists. Opportunists often persist in the environment outside the host and their pathogenic features are influenced by changes in the environment. To test how environmental nutrient levels infl...
Article
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When should multiple traits on Batesian mimics be selected to resemble corresponding traits on model species? Here, we explore two possibilities. First, features of equal salience to predators may be used to categorize prey, selecting for multicomponent mimicry. Second, if different predators use single yet different traits to categorize prey, mult...
Data
Figure S1. Spectral reflectance curves of the gray color tones of the prey and the experimental background. Gray dashed line represents lighter gray tone of the prey, and black dashed line represents darker one of the prey. Solid black lines stand for gray tones of the experimental background.
Article
Full-text available
Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This del...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogen density and genetic diversity fluctuate in the outside-host environment during and between epidemics, affecting disease emergence and the severity and probability of infections. Although the importance of these factors for pathogen virulence and infection probability has been acknowledged, their interactive effects are not well understood....
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral data are notable for presenting challenges to their statistical analysis, often due to the difficulties in measuring behavior on a quantitative scale. Instead, a range of qualitative alternative responses is recorded. These can often be understood as the outcome of a sequence of binary decisions. For example, faced by a predator, an indi...
Article
Full-text available
Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or s...
Article
Full-text available
Several antipredator strategies are related to prey colouration. Some colour patterns can create visual illusions during movement (such as motion dazzle), making it difficult for a predator to capture moving prey successfully. Experimental evidence about motion dazzle, however, is still very scarce and comes only from studies using human predators...
Article
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Rojas et al provide a quickguide to animal warning signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
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Understanding historical range expansions and population demography can be crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. In doing so, valuable information can be obtained regarding, for example, the identification of isolated populations, associations to particular habitats and distribution range shifts. As poikilotherms, snake...
Article
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The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolut...
Article
Full-text available
Animals can avoid predation by masquerading as objects that are not food to their predators. Alder moth Acronicta alni larvae go through an impressive ontogenetic change from masquerade to highly conspicuous appearance: early larval stages resemble bird droppings but in the last instar the larval coloration changes into striking yellow-and-black st...
Article
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1.Polymorphism in warning coloration is puzzling because positive frequency-dependent selection by predators is expected to promote monomorphic warning signals in defended prey. 2.We studied predation on the warning-coloured wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) by using artificial prey resembling white and yellow male colour morphs in five separ...
Article
Full-text available
Predation pressure is expected to drive visual warning signals to evolve toward conspicuousness. However, coloration of defended species varies tremendously and can at certain instances be considered as more camouflaged rather than conspicuous. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the variation in signal conspicuousness can be caused by variatio...
Article
Full-text available
Several species of non-venomous snake are known to flatten their heads when disturbed, and this behaviour has been suggested to be a mimicry of vipers (Arnold & Ovenden 2002, Hailey & Davies 1986, Young et al. 1999). Using plasticine models, Guimarães & Sawaya (2011) tested the antipredatory function of a triangular head shape in snakes. Their arti...
Article
Full-text available
European vipers (genus Vipera) are venomous and often have a distinctive dorsal zigzag pattern. The zigzag pattern of vipers has been suggested to be an example of disruptive colouration which reduces the detectability of a snake. However, recent studies suggest that the patterns have an aposematic function, although those experiments did not exclu...
Article
Full-text available
Most research into the adaptive significance of warning signals has focused on the colouration and patterns of prey animals. However, behaviour, odour and body shape can also have signal functions and thereby reduce predators' willingness to attack defended prey. European vipers all have a distinctive triangular head shape; and they are all venomou...

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Projects (2)
Project
We aim to understand what are the costs, benefits and correlates of cannibalistic behaviour among poison frog tadpoles, as well as the role that parental decision-making has in the occurrence of such behaviour.
Archived project