Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar

Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar
Institute of Mental Health, Singapore · Research

Master of Science
PhD in Public Health candidate

About

259
Publications
92,151
Reads
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4,318
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2004 - March 2020
Institute of Mental Health, Singapore
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (259)
Article
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This study aimed to (a) describe the differences in the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD), smoking, nicotine dependence (ND), and health conditions (physical and mental) across socioeconomic status (SES); (b) study the differences in alcohol-related characteristics (e.g., frequency, quantity); and (c) assess the association between SES with...
Article
Background: Epidemiological studies show that adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are associated with positive psychotic symptoms in Western populations; however, there is a lack of population-based data in multi-ethnic, Asian societies. Objective: We investigated the associations between ACE (type and dosage) and positive psychotic symptoms in...
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Background: In recent years, behaviourally driven policies such as nudges have been increasingly implemented to steer desired outcomes in public health. This study examines the different nudges and the socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours that are associated with public acceptance of lifestyle nudges. Methods: The study use...
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Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have detrimental consequences to the individual and the economy. Our study examined the prevalence of perceived barriers to physical activity in Singapore’s adult population and their associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Methods This cross-sectional analysis utilised da...
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Background There is growing evidence in the literature on the use of positive mental health (PMH) interventions among clinical samples. This qualitative study aims to explore the definitions of PMH from psychotherapists’ perspectives, and to examine views and attitudes related to the construct. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with p...
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Purpose The physical and mental wellbeing of an individual is impacted by the type occupation one does. This study aims to establish the prevalence of mental and physical disorders, the association of occupational groups and health-related quality of life, and the extent of work-loss and work-cut back in past 30 days among the employed in the Singa...
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Background: It is pertinent to focus on chronic medical condition (CMC) comorbidity with mental health conditions (MHC) as their co-occurrence has significant cost and health implications. However, current evidence on co-occurrence of MHC with CMC is mixed and mostly from Western settings. Therefore, our study aimed to (i) describe the association...
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Introduction: This paper aims to examine the (1) level of positive mental health (PMH), (2) identify the socio-demographic correlates of the PMH domains in the general population, and (3) establish if employment status moderates the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and PMH among those with a lifetime prevalence of MDD. Methods...
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Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) vary across culture and their heterogenous impact on health outcomes is understudied. The present population-based study determined latent classes of adverse childhood experiences, examined socio-demographic variations between identified classes, and elucidated the interactions between class membership...
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The purpose of this study was to understand perspectives towards hiring and working with people with mental health conditions (PMHC). Semi-structured interviews with 25 employers and 20 co-workers were carried out. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The barriers to hiring and working with PMHC identified through the interviews were con...
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Given the importance of sleep for physical and mental wellbeing, it is crucial to understand the extent of insomnia among community dwellers. However, there is a paucity of population wide epidemiological studies to estimate the prevalence of poor sleep quality. This present study aimed to 1) characterize the sleep quality of a nationally represent...
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Objective: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of disability and the association of disability with socio-demographic correlates and health outcomes among the Singapore population. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Singapore's population. Using the Washington Group's questionnaire, disability w...
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Objectives: Transdiagnostic risk factors-disrupted processes common to psychopathology-link adverse childhood experiences to severe mental disorders (i.e. major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders); however, transdiagnostic protective factors are understudied. The present study investigated the association b...
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Objective: This study examined self-help strategies engaged by psychotherapy clients and explored their views on such self-help approach. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a qualitative research study was conducted. A total of 15 psychotherapy clients were recruited, and data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis o...
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PurposeThis cross-sectional study investigated distribution, sociodemographic correlates, and health outcomes in early versus late age of onset (AOO) of mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders in Singapore.Methods The Composite International Diagnostic Interview established lifetime diagnoses of major depressive, bipolar, generalized anxiety, obse...
Article
Asthma is a substantial global health problem characterized by chronic airway inflammation, leading to intermittent symptoms. This study aims to establish the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in a multi-ethnic adult population. Data for the study were extracted from the Singapore Mental Health Study 2016, a population-based, cross-sectional, e...
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Health literacy is a key determinant of the public health and health climate of the nation. This study examined the functional health literacy of the nation, factors associated with health literacy, and its relationship with diabetes recognition. This cross-sectional survey recruited participants (N = 2895) who were 18 years and above from a popula...
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Background: Diabetes management is a growing health care challenge worldwide. eHealth can revolutionize diabetes care, the success of which depends on end user acceptance. Objective: This study aims to understand the readiness and acceptance of eHealth services for diabetes care among the general population, perceived advantages and disadvantages o...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Social media (SM) influence almost every aspect of our lives by facilitating instant many-to-many communication and self-expression. Recent research suggests strong negative and positive impacts of SM exposure on youth mental health, however, there has been more emphasis on harmful relationships. OBJECTIVE Given the limited research in...
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Background: Social media influence almost every aspect of our lives by facilitating instant many-to-many communication and self-expression. Recent research suggests strong negative and positive impacts of social media exposure on youth mental health; however, there has been more emphasis on harmful relationships. Objective: Given the limited res...
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Background Little is known about the economic burden of mental disorders in multiethnic Asian populations. Aims The study aimed to estimate the economic cost of mental disorders in Singapore using data from the second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS 2016). Method The SMHS 2016 is a nationally representative survey of the Singapore Resident popu...
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Background: The study of the experience of clients across multiple service encounters (or touchpoints) is important from the perspective of service research. Despite the availability of effective psychotherapies, there exists a significant gap in the optimal delivery of such interventions in the community. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ex...
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Aims: To examine the extent of social stigma toward diabetes among Singapore's multi-ethnic general population and determine whether this differs across socio-demographic sub-groups. Methods: Data for this study came from a nationwide cross-sectional study. A diabetes stigma questionnaire comprising Social Distance Scale and Negative Attitudes and...
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This study aimed to establish lifetime mental health service utilisation among the general population of Singapore. The sociodemographic correlates of those seeking help from different service provider groups and changes in lifetime mental health service utilisation between 2010 and 2016 among those with mental disorders were also explored. A popul...
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Introduction: Nutritional psychiatry is an emerging field of study that investigates the role of diet and nutrition in mental health. Studies conducted in the general population have linked depressive symptoms with poor dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to characterise the dietary intake and analyse the dietary pattern using the Dietary...
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Purpose The present study aimed to understand the roles, effective strategies and facilitators, and challenges of employment support specialists (ESS) in assisting young people with mental health conditions (MHCs) gain and sustain employment in Singapore. Methods An interpretative qualitative design using an inductive approach was adopted for this...
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Introduction: The study assessed whether self-reported height, weight and derived body mass index (BMI) can provide an accurate measure of anthropometric data in a multiethnic adult population in Singapore. Methods: Standardised anthropometric measurements were compared against the self-reported values from 5,132 adult residents in a cross-secti...
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Suicidality encompasses suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. This paper aims to establish associations between suicidality and sociodemographic variables, physical disorders, and psychiatric disorders. The Singapore Mental Health Study 2016 was a population-level epidemiological survey, which determined the prevalence of physical disorders, psyc...
Article
Asia, which has the highest increase in dementia prevalence, is unfortunately lacking recent up-to-date research, with regions of Southeast Asia being the most inadequate. Preventive approaches, such as the understanding of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), are currently the most effective approach in reducing the risk or delaying the onset of demen...
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Background: This study investigated association of religious affiliation with positive mental health (PMH) and mental disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2270 adults was conducted in Singapore. Participants reported their religious affiliation to Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Taoism, or other religions. A PMH inst...
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Background: The study examined the association between sedentary behavior and self-rated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of patients with multimorbidity in Singapore recruited from a primary care clinic. Methods: Sedentary behavior and physical activity were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short fo...
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Introduction: The current study aimed to establish the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, its sociodemographic correlates and association with physical disorders using data from the Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS 2016). Methods: A two-phase design comprising population-level screening of psychotic symptoms usin...
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Background The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2) is an increasingly popular measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Singapore. In order to examine whether the SF-12v2 was appropriate for use in the population, the factor structure and validity of the English, Mandarin, and Malay versions were assessed in a representative sample of the...
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Objectives Several studies have linked diabetes mellitus to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). While a number of studies have examined the association between ACEs and diabetes in Western populations, few have done it in Asian populations. The current study aimed to examine (1) the association between ACEs and diabetes, including the association...
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Background Understanding complex associations between psychopathology and chronic illness is instrumental in facilitating both research and treatment progress. The current study is the first and only network-based study to provide such an encompassing view of unique associations between a multitude of mental and physical health-related domains. Me...
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Background: Caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) face high caregiving burden, distress related to responsive behaviours, and psychiatric morbidity. The present paper examines how these are associated with healthcare utilization of the PWD in Singapore. Methods: The data of 399 caregiver-PWD dyads were extracted from a national cross-section...
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This study describes the development and validation of Chinese, Malay and Tamil translations of the Positive Mental Health Instrument (PMHI) in a general population sample in Singapore. Translations were performed using two independent forward translations followed by expert panel discussions and tested for content, construct and language appropria...
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Background Patients with multimorbidity must bear not just the burden of their illness, but also the burden of treatment which is, in part, induced by their interactions with the healthcare system. The need to shuttle between different healthcare institutions and multiple healthcare providers can make navigating the healthcare system challenging, a...
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Background: We assessed the associations of sleep, physical activity and sedentary behaviour with positive mental health (PMH) in the multi-ethnic population of Singapore. Methods: The Singapore Health 2 study is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey among residents aged 18-79 years. A PMH instrument was administered to 1925 partici...
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Purpose To establish the 12-month treatment gap and its associated factors among adults with mental disorders in the Singapore resident population using data from the second Singapore Mental Health Study and to examine the changes since the last mental health survey conducted in 2010. Methods 6126 respondents were administered selected modules of...
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Background This study investigated whether (i) mental disorders were associated with perceived social support and its subcomponents, (ii) current marital status was related to perceived social support, and (iii) ‘Married’ status influenced the relationship between mental state and perceived social support. Methods Data from a cross-sectional natio...
Article
Aim:This study aimed to examine the psychometric performance of the Recovering Quality of Life scale 10-item version (ReQoL-10) using a sample from a Singapore first-episode psychosis intervention program, to explore its clinical and sociodemographic correlates, and to discuss its utility as a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM). Methods: Socio...
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Objective: Informal caregivers are often placed in a better position to understand and advocate for the vocational needs of young persons with mental health conditions. However, their opinions are largely ignored in the planning of vocational outcomes. This qualitative study had two broad aims: to explore (1) the perceptions of caregivers of young...
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Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand and describe the meaning of work as well as the barriers and facilitators perceived by young people with mental health conditions for gaining and maintaining employment. Materials and methods: Employing a purposive and maximum variation sampling, 30 young people were recruited and interview...
Article
Introduction:Literature examining changes in the prevalence of comorbidity of mental and physical disorders in recent years is scarce. The present study sought to examine whether there were changes in the prevalence of comorbidity of mental and physical disorders in Singapore between 2010 and 2016.Methods:We extracted data from two repeated nationa...
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Introduction: Literature examining changes in the prevalence of comorbidity of mental and physical disorders in recent years is scarce. The present study sought to examine whether there were changes in the prevalence of comorbidity of mental and physical disorders in Singapore between 2010 and 2016. Methods: We extracted data from two repeated n...
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Sleep duration and sleep quality are often linked to increased risk of mortality and morbidity. However, national representative data on both sleep duration and sleep quality and their relationship with chronic health problems are rarely available from the same source. This current study aimed to examine the independent and combined associations of...
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This paper describes the development and validation of the Case Management Quality Scale (CMQS) to measure the quality of care provided by case managers in an early intervention service for clients with first episode psychosis. A total of 300 client participants from the Singapore Early Psychosis Programme completed a selfadministered survey compri...
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Introduction This study aims to establish the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of the general population (people with and without diabetes) towards diabetes. The study will examine (a) recognition and understanding of causes, prevention and treatment strategies of diabetes; (b) identify the knowledge gaps and behavioural patterns that may h...
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Background Prevalence estimates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BSD) remain scant in Southeast Asia. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of BSD, its correlates with sociodemographic factors, and the associations between the BSD subgroups and clinical severity, impairment, and disability Methods This study utilizes data gathered from the se...
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Background The multidimensional Positive Mental Health Instrument (PMHI) has 47 items and six subscales. This study aimed to develop and validate a short unidimensional version of the PMHI among Singapore’s adult resident population. Methods Using pooled data from three earlier studies (n = 1050), PMHI items were reduced by Partial Credit Rasch Mod...
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Although many persons with severe dementia (PWSDs) are cared for at home by their family caregivers, few studies have assessed end of life (EOL) care experiences of PWSDs. We present the protocol for the Pisces study (Panel study Investigating Status of Cognitively impaired Elderly in Singapore) which aims to describe the clinical course, health ca...
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Introduction: Recovery from psychosis relates to connectedness, hope for the future, identity, meaning in life and empowerment. The process of recovery is often described as a gradual and non-linear, with many stages and turning points, without a definitive end point. This qualitative study aimed to understand what recovery means to clients, to be...
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Introduction: Using data from Singapore Mental Health Study 2016 (SMHS 2016), we examined the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), its sociodemographic correlates and association with comorbid psychiatric disorders and physical conditions, perceived social support and quality of life. Materials and methods: Th...
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Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with deleterious consequences throughout the lifespan of the individual, including an increased risk of mental disorders. However, an in-depth understanding of ACEs in diverse populations is still lacking especially in Asian populations, with few studies done at a population level. Obj...
Article
Aim Dementia is a growing public health concern. It is necessary to focus on factors that may help preserve cognitive function in late life. Limited research has examined how living arrangements are associated with cognitive function in older adults. This study aims to further our understanding of this association in community‐dwelling older adults...
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Background: The link between mental illness and mental health is gaining focus in research and practice. This study aimed to investigate the association of mental disorders with positive mental health (PMH), overall health and quality of life. In addition, the role of PMH in mediating the relationships between mental disorders and health outcomes...
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Cognitive impairment in older adults is a major public concern for Singapore’s aging population. The study aimed to (1) examine the effects of age, gender, and education on neuropsychological test performance, and (2) establish regression-based norms in the Singapore older adult (≥ 60 years) population. Data on neuropsychological test performance w...
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The prevalence and patterns of comorbidities among mental illnesses including substance misuse have been rarely documented in urban communities. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence, diagnostic patterns, common risk factors and individual functioning associated with comorbid mental illness among community residents in an urban populati...