Janet B W Williams

Janet B W Williams
Columbia University | CU · Psychiatry and Neurology

PhD, ACSW

About

282
Publications
180,425
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
139,200
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 1975 - present
Columbia University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
March 1975 - July 2007
New York State Psychiatric Institute
Position
  • Deputy Chief and Research Scientist

Publications

Publications (282)
Article
Full-text available
Background Symptom manifestations in mood disorders can be subtle. Cumulatively, small imprecisions in measurement can limit our ability to measure treatment response accurately. Logical and statistical consistency checks between item responses (i.e., cross-sectionally) and across administrations (i.e., longitudinally) can contribute to improving m...
Article
The Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A) is one of the oldest and most commonly used anxiety rating scales in clinical research. Despite its ubiquity, no studies have examined the scale's underlying factor structure and criterion validity among Black and African American adults with psychopathology (Mage = 42.25, SD = 11.44). Therefore, we estimated...
Article
Objective: The goal of the Depression Inventory Development (DID) project is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound rating scale for major depressive disorder (MDD) that reflects current diagnostic criteria and conceptualizations of depression. We report here the evaluation of the current DID item bank using Classical Test Theory (CT...
Article
International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology convened an expert Working Group that assembled consistency/inconsistency flags for the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Twenty-two flags were identified. Seven flags are believed to be strong flags that suggest that a thorough review of rating is warranted. The flags w...
Article
Full-text available
The Depression Inventory Development project is an initiative of the International Society for CNS Drug Development whose goal is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound measurement tool to be utilized as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Using an iterative process between field testing and psychomet...
Method
Full-text available
A four-part, self-rated screening tool for provisional identification of patients with seasonal and nonseasonal depression, including DSM criteria for major depression in the past year, magnitude of key symptoms of SAD (from NIMH SPAQ), identification of months worst and best (from NIMH SPAQ), and magnitude of atypical symptoms with winter exacerba...
Article
Lack of standardization across sites and raters, poor interrater reliability, and possible scoring bias affecting the primary outcome measure contribute to a high failure rate in anxiety trials. Remote centralized raters who are blinded to protocol inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as visit number may standardize assessments across raters an...
Chapter
Robert L. Spitzer (b. 1932) is often described as the most influential psychiatrist of the twentieth century. He led the task force that developed DSM-III, which revolutionized diagnosis and assessment in psychiatry. In addition, Spitzer made major contributions to psychiatric research, and his legacy includes several of the most widely used assess...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: GRID-HAMD is a semi-structured interview guide developed to overcome flaws in HAM-D, and has been incorporated into an increasing number of studies. Objectives: Carry out the transcultural adaptation of GRID-HAMD into the Brazilian Portuguese language, evaluate the inter-rater reliability of this instrument and the training impact up...
Article
Unlabelled: Vabicaserin, a potent 5-HT2C receptor agonist, decreases nucleus accumbens extracellular dopamine levels in rats, without affecting striatal dopamine, indicating mesolimbic selectivity. This is the first study of efficacy, safety and tolerability of vabicaserin in adults with acute schizophrenia. Three hundred fourteen hospitalized sub...
Article
Point/Counterpoint is a regular feature of the Journal of Social Work Education. Its purpose is to provide a vehicle for the expression of contrasting views on controversial topics in social work education. Our goal is to illuminate important debates and explore the diverse perspectives that are shaping social work education.
Article
Expectation bias (EB) occurs when an individual's expectations about an outcome influence perceptions of one's own or others’ behavior. In clinical trials, both raters and subjects may enter trials with expectations. Rater EB occurs when raters expect that subjects will improve over the course of the trial. Subject EB occurs when subjects themselve...
Article
Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency and subscales of Wechsler-Memory-Scale. Quality of life of caregivers was assessed using EQ-5d. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Tolerability of memantine was judged using a 4-point-scale and adverse drug reactions were evaluated, respectively. Results: Data of 1,221 patients (59% female, 7867 years) are curr...
Article
CONCLUSIONS The Schizophrenia study demonstrates that post-baseline ratings performed by blinded independent central raters did detect separation of drug and placebo in study arms where site ratings did not. Since both central ratings and site post-baseline ratings were conducted with the same subjects, the outcome improvements may be attributed to...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common but least recognized anxiety disorders in primary care. This study aimed to describe the association of PTSD and trauma exposure with somatic symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, and the actual treatment of PTSD in primary care. This cross-sectional criterion standa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We sought to determine attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) among mental health clinicians at nine academic centers in the United States. Methods: A self-report questionnaire was distributed to 706 mental health clinicians, including psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, social workers, nurses, and psych...
Article
Depression, anxiety and somatization are the most common mental disorders in primary care as well as medical specialty populations; each is present in at least 5-10% of patients and frequently comorbid with one another. An efficient means for measuring and monitoring all three conditions would be desirable. Evidence regarding the psychometric and p...
Article
The use of centralized raters who are remotely linked to sites and interview patients via videoconferencing or teleconferencing has been suggested as a way to improve interrater reliability and interview quality. This study compared the effect of site-based and centralized ratings on patient selection and placebo response in subjects with major dep...
Article
Full-text available
The most common mental disorders in both outpatient settings and the general population are depression and anxiety, which frequently coexist. Both of these disorders are associated with considerable disability. When the disorders co-occur, the disability is even greater. Authors sought to test an ultra-brief screening tool for both. Validated two-i...
Article
Good interrater reliability is essential to minimize error variance and improve study power. Reasons why raters differ in scoring the same patient include information variance (different information obtained because of asking different questions), observation variance (the same information is obtained, but raters differ in what they notice and reme...
Article
The Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) was founded in 1994 to provide a meeting ground and support organization for individual social workers who engage in research. Over its first 14 years, SSWR has grown from a modest-sized organization that hosted an initial conference to a large and influential force that sponsors a wildly successful y...
Article
Full-text available
Although the use of telemedicine in psychiatry has a long history in providing clinical care to patients, its use in clinical trials research has not yet been commonly employed. Telemedicine allows for the remote assessment of study patients, which could be done by a centralized, highly calibrated, and impartial cohort of raters independent of the...
Article
Both clinical and population-based studies show that anxiety disorders and substance misuse frequently co-occur in adults, whereas among adolescents, less examination of this association has been done. Adolescence is frequently the time of substance use initiation and its subsequent interaction with anxiety disorders has not been fully explored. It...
Article
The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) is established as a valid diagnostic and severity measure for depressive disorders in large clinical studies. Our objectives were to assess the PHQ-8 as a depression measure in a large, epidemiological population-based study, and to determine the comparability of depression as def...
Article
Results from general population studies suggest a relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, depression, and anxiety. However, no primary care study has investigated this issue. This study investigates the prevalence of GI symptoms in primary care and their association with depression and anxiety. Within a cross-sectional survey, 2091 con...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD), an improved version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale that was developed through a broad-based international consensus process. The GRID-HAMD separates the frequency of the symptom from its intensity for most items, refines several problematic anchors, and integrates...
Article
To determine diagnostic overlap of depression, anxiety and somatization as well as their unique and overlapping contribution to functional impairment. Two thousand ninety-one consecutive primary care clinic patients participated in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in 15 primary care clinics in the United States (participation rate, 92%). Depres...
Article
Poor inter-rater reliability (IRR) is an important methodological factor that may contribute to failed trials. The sheer number of raters at diverse sites in multicenter trials presents a formidable challenge in calibration. Videoconferencing allows for the evaluation of IRR of raters at diverse sites by enabling raters at different sites to each i...
Article
Full-text available
The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to...
Article
Clinical trials are becoming increasingly international in scope. Global studies pose unique challenges in training and calibrating raters owing to language and cultural differences. Recent findings that poorly conducted interviews reduce study power, makes attention to raters' clinical skills critical. In this study, 109 raters from 14 countries w...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety, although as common as depression, has received less attention and is often undetected and undertreated. To determine the current prevalence, impairment, and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in primary care and to evaluate a brief measure for detecting these disorders. Criterion-standard study performed between November 2004 and June 2005....
Article
Full-text available
While primary care physicians play a pivotal role in the treatment of depression, collaboration between primary care and psychiatry in clinical research has been limited. Primary care settings provide unique opportunities to improve the methodology of psychiatric clinical trials, by providing more generalizable and less treatment-resistant patients...
Article
Full-text available
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care cl...
Article
Recent evidence demonstrates that the quality of raters' applied clinical skills is directly related to study outcome. As such, the training and evaluation of raters' clinical skill in administering symptom-rating scales is essential before being certified to rate patients in clinical trials. This study examined a novel approach to rater training a...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in DSM-IV were guided by empirical data that mostly focused on improving diagnostic validity and reliability. Although many changes were made explicitly to improve clinical utility, no formal effort was made to empirically determine actual improvements in clinical utility. The authors propose that future revisions of DSM empirically demonst...
Article
Full-text available
T he growing rate of failed clinical trials in neuroscience has led to increased attention being paid to methodologic factors that may contribute to this failure. 1,2 An issue that has been largely overlooked is that of rater training and rater competency. Given that scores on clinician-administered symptom rating scales form the foundation on whic...
Article
A number of self-administered questionnaires are available for assessing depression severity, including the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9). Because even briefer measures might be desirable for use in busy clinical settings or as part of comprehensive health questionnaires, we evaluated a 2-item version of the PHQ depr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. The Diagnostic Interview for Atypical Depression (DIAD; Terman et al., 1998) is a structured interview for identifying the symptoms of atypical depression with more specificity than the cursory questioning of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID; First et al., 1995). Additionally, it refines an earlier sem...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies of depression after stroke have reported widely variable findings, possibly due to differences between studies in patient characteristics and methods for the assessment of depression, small sample sizes, and the failure to examine stroke-free reference groups to determine the base rate of depression in the general population. In an...
Article
The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence rates of reported abuse in obstetric/gynecology settings and to characterize physical symptoms, function, and psychologic distress of women who report abuse. This was a descriptive study of 118 patients who reported physical or sexual abuse in the past year and 2800 patients who reported no a...
Method
Full-text available
This rating instrument is the successor to the longstanding SIGH-SAD (1988-1994), which was originally developed for quantifying depression severity in Seasonal Affective Disorder, with inclusion of atypical neurovegetative symptoms absent on the Hamilton Scale. The revision, re-chistened SIGH-ADS, was designed for use regardless of depression subt...