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Janet Ward Schofield

Janet Ward Schofield
Royal Thimphu College

Doctor of Philosophy

About

95
Publications
47,659
Reads
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4,924
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
1439 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
September 1974 - August 2013
University of Pittsburgh
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (95)
Chapter
Full-text available
Higher education in Bhutan is one of the most recent and important additions to the country’s educational system, with the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) having been set up only in 2003 to incorporate and direct a set of nine colleges and tertiary education institutes previously functioning under institutions ranging from ministries of the Royal...
Chapter
Die Vielfältigkeit von Einwanderungsgesellschaften bringt neben vielen Chancen auch Herausforderungen mit sich. Eine der dringlichsten ist die effektive Bildung von Kindern mit einem so genannten ‚Migrationshintergrund‘. Weil Disparitäten in den Bildungserfolgen sozialer Gruppen verbreitet sind und gravierende Folgen haben, ist es unerlässlich zu v...
Article
Intergroup friendships have been linked to important outcomes such as reduced prejudice, increased empathy for outgroups, and lower intergroup anxiety. However, little is known about the factors facilitating such friendships. This longitudinal study therefore examined factors associated with the development of friendships between White and African...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Context The achievement gap between students from different backgrounds is an issue of grave concern in the United States and in many other developed countries. U.S. research suggests that tracking and other forms of ability grouping with curriculum differentiation may be implicated in increasing this gap. Unfortunately, U.S. researchers...
Article
The authors argue for the inclusion of students’ subjective sense of belonging in an integrated model of student persistence (Cabrera et al., J Higher Educ 64:123–139, 1993). The effects of sense of belonging and a simple intervention designed to increase sense of belonging are tested in the context of this model. The intervention increased sense o...
Chapter
Assessing the Success of Desegregation as a Social Policy for Improving Intergroup RelationsConditions that Promote Positive Intergroup Contact within Desegregated SchoolsConclusions References
Article
In many countries throughout the world, immigrant children perform less well academically than do native children. A large body of work on stereotype threat, a factor that may contribute importantly to this achievement gap, is reviewed here, including research on a) the development of stereotype awareness and threat effects in children, b) the proc...
Article
This study investigates the role of students’ sense of belonging to their university in college student retention. Using individual growth curve modeling, we examined (a) whether sense of belonging predicts intentions to persist, and (b) the effects of an intervention designed to enhance students’ sense of belonging. African American and white firs...
Article
Given that minority group members are underrepresented in the teaching, medical, and legal professions, minority group members often have White teachers, doctors, and lawyers. This is frequently the case even when students, patients, and clients would prefer service providers similar to them in racial or ethnic background. This paper identifies pos...
Article
A household survey utilizing a quasi-experimental design was undertaken to assess the impact of the TV movie. The Day After, on a number of psychologically and politically important variables such as the salience of the issue of nuclear war and individuals' beliefs about the efficacy of their own political actions in helping to prevent such a war....
Chapter
Internet access is increasingly widespread in primary and secondary schools around the world, just as it is in society at large. Ninety-nine percent of public schools in the United States had internet access by 2001, as did 87% of their classrooms (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001).Many other countries, including Australia, Canada, En...
Article
Full-text available
This review of the literature on peer and cross-age tutoring emphasizes programs in mathematics and suggests that such programs have positive academic outcomes for African American and otherminority students as well as for White students who participate as tutors, as tutees, or both. Such programs also appear to have a positive impact on a variety...
Article
Research on the effects of school desegregation, once quite common in psychology and related fields, has declined considerably since the mid-1980s. Factors contributing to changes in the quantity and focus of such research since the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision are discussed, with an emphasis on those related to the decline of this r...
Article
Full-text available
The Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision was a landmark in many respects. Most importantly, it overturned the separate but equal doctrine embodied in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), laying the groundwork for massive change in our society. In particular, it laid the basis for dismantling state supported racial segregation in education, housing, an...
Article
This article discusses which factors should be considered in deciding how the Internet should be brought into primary and secondary schools. Based on a fiveyear study of the adoption of Internet use in a large urban school district in the United States, the paper outlines four factors which are likely to have a strong impact on the amount of use th...
Article
A 5-year primarily qualitative study of a major effort to bring the Internet to a large urban school district in the United States suggests that Internet use brought about unplanned as well as planned change in classroom roles and relationships. Specifically, it increased student autonomy, due to factors including increased student access to extern...
Chapter
Building Virtual Communities examines how learning and cognitive change are fostered by online communities. Contributors to this volume explore this question by drawing on their different theoretical backgrounds, methodologies, and personal experience with virtual communities. Each chapter discusses the different meanings of the terms community, le...
Article
From the Publisher:The Internet is moving into schools at an extraordinary rate, but what happens when high-technology meets the low-tech world of education? As Bringing the Internet to School shows, there is enormous variance in the way the Internet is used in educational settings and the effect it has on students, teachers, and administrators.
Article
Full-text available
Incl. abstracts and bibl. references What do we know about education and diversity and how do we know it? This two-part question guided the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel that was sponsored by the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington and the Common Destiny Alliance at the University of Maryland. This article i...
Article
The need for those working in a variety of settings to interact effectively with technical experts has grown dramatically in recent years as computers have become essential to the performance of an increasing broad range of professional work. This article presents a case of this sort of interprofessional interaction, exploring the process and outco...
Article
This paper explores the impact of Internet access in schools on teachers' professional lives, experiences, and capabilities. The research was conducted within the context of Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh a project designed as a collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh Public Schools, and the Pittsburgh Superc...
Article
One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing inequalities rather than mitigate them. This paper discusses the i...
Article
The impact of computer use on classroom structure and functioning is examined. The most consistently found effect is an increase in motivation and closely related constructs. Computer use also appears to foster peer interaction, typically of a cooperative and mutually supportive nature. In addition, teachers often shift from whole group instruction...
Conference Paper
The paper reports the results of a four year study of a project designed to bring the Internet to a large urban school district with the explicit purpose of breaking down barriers between the schools and the outside world. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods including extensive observation in classrooms and other sites, the c...
Article
From the Publisher: Computers and Classroom Culture explores the meaning of computer technology for our schools. In clear and direct prose, Janet Schofield examines ways that computer use is shaped by the social context in which it occurs and how attitudinal and organizational barriers obstruct it. She brings to light issues of gender differences a...
Article
The paper explores issues likely to emerge as K-12 educators incorporate wide-area networking (WAN) into the curriculum and become both consumers and providers of materials on the Internet. Issues arising with regard to schools as information consumers include decisions that must be made regarding student access to resources (both data and people)...
Article
The demand for wide-area networking (WAN) for education at the K-12 level is rapidly increasing. However, there is little systematic understanding of those factors which play important roles in shaping usage of WAN at the K-12 level. By reviewing previous research pertaining to the use of computer networks in K-12 environments, as well as in busine...
Article
Previous research has shown that independent cross-cutting social categories reduce discrimination between groups. How-ever, the effect of correlated cross-cutting categories on intergroup relations has not been studied. Female college students who were categorized into two groups on the basis of an art preference task and a dot estimation task wer...
Article
Factors that theory and research in social psychology suggest are important in structuring racially and ethnically mixed environments in ways that foster positive relations and minimize negative relations are reviewed. It is important to avoid resegregation, but avoiding resegregation is not enough in itself. Policies and practices must be monitore...
Article
This article documents, explores, and explains a paradox—that students who assert that a teacher provides better help than an artificially intelligent computer-based tutor nonetheless prefer using the tutor to learning in a more traditional manner and appear to learn more while doing so. An intensive qualitative study of eight classrooms using the...
Article
This article suggests that desegregation should be seen as an ongoing process rather than a specific event. It argues that more attention needs to be given to shaping students' experiences in desegregated schools so that they foster positive intergroup relations. The first minimal step in this process is finding ways to avoid resegregation. Then ad...
Article
Full-text available
This document is submitted as the final report of project NR 702- 013. It consists of two parts. First, I present a summary of the research activities conducted and the findings emerging from the project. Then, I list the publications and presentations stemming from this work, Since a complete description of the research activities, as well as disc...
Article
Full-text available
Computer science students were observed in the classrooms of five different teachers in an intensive two year qualitative study. Observations and interviews led to the conclusion that students reacted very differently to the time they spent in the computer lab working on written programs and the time they spent in the classroom where they learned a...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the impact of utilization of an artificially intelligent geometry proof tutor on classroom social processes. Both teachers' and students' behaviors changed. Teachers devoted more time to their slower students, treated students in a more collegial fashion, and increased their emphasis on effort in grading students. Students showe...
Article
One hundred eleven college students participated in this two-session experiment designed to explore the origins of anti-nuclear war activism. In Session 1 participants completed questionnaires assessing a number of background characteristics and attitudes, the most important of which for this study's purpose was a measure of perceived political eff...
Article
The 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" decision laid the basis for dismantling "de jure" racial segregation of schools. "Brown" represented a significant shift in the national attitude toward blacks and was an important advance in intergroup relations. However, in the last decade the proportion of black students enrolled in many large educationally...
Article
Full-text available
An intensive qualitative two-year study of computer usage in an urban high school suggested many barriers to the utilization of microcomputers for instructional purposes. These barriers included (a) teachers' lack of clarity about why and how computers can be used in various fields, (b) teachers' lack of familiarity with computer hardware and softw...
Article
Four hundred sixty-four homosexual and bisexual men, recruited from a cohort of 1,700 men enrolled in a study of the natural history of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), participated in a peer-led, small-group educational session promoting AIDS risk reduction. Although levels of knowledge about AIDS and human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) t...
Article
the purpose of this chapter is to utilize an in-depth study of intergroup relations in a desegregated school to discuss the ways in which context can and does influence the course of intergroup relations examines the development of one specific aspect of context [the existence of a belief system characterized as the colorblind perspective] in an...
Article
this chapter will argue that school desegregation in the United States has had a less positive effect than one might have hoped, because three problems that have plagued race relations in the US have affected both the extent and the nature of the contact that has occurred in desegregated schools / implicit in this argument is the idea that there ar...
Article
Meta-analysis was used to summarize the results of 134 studies of adolescent contraceptive use in relation to two major explanatory models, the career model and the decision model. There was evidence in support of both models, although there has been less research conducted on variables related to the decision model. The major variables found to af...
Article
Discusses the extent and nature of public reaction to the TV film, The Day After, which presented a fictional account of the aftermath of nuclear attack. Events preceding the broadcast, factors contributing to the conclusion that the film had no impact, the film's impact on certain types of attitudes and behaviors, and implications for the activis...
Article
Analyzed children's sociometric ratings of their classmates in a desegregated school by both conventional and round robin ANOVAs. 49 Black male, 51 Black female, 36 White male, and 27 White female 6th graders indicated how much they would like to play and work with each of their classmates. Unlike conventional ANOVA, which aggregates each S's ratin...
Article
Both the career model and the decision model have been proposed to explain patterns of contraceptive use in teenagers. The career model views contraceptive use as a symbol of a woman's sexuality and implies a clear decision to be sexually active. The decision model is based on the subjective expected utility (SEU) theory which holds that people wei...
Article
"Black and White in School: Trust, Tension, or Tolerance" takes a probing, much needed look at interracial relations in one particular school, a paradigm of the urban educational environment. "Wexler Middle School [a pseudonym] opened amid great fanfare and high hopes," the book begins. Desegregation, promoted not only as a necessary corrective,...
Article
Most studies of peer preferences in desegregated schools have used the peer nomination technique and have generally found strong in-group preferences. More recent studies using the roster-and-rating technique have found weaker in-group preferences. Following a review of sociometric studies of peer preferences in desegragated schools, two studies-a...
Article
The classroom behavior of 48 black and 44 white sixth graders was observed in an urban desegregated school. Observations were made once a week in each classroom during a full semester using a time sampling method. In addition to noting the race and sex of the student being observed, as well as that of his or her interactants, observers also coded t...
Article
An intensive study of one desegregated school, located in a large northeastern industrial city, specifically sought to investigate peer interactions among sixth- and seventh-grade students in a racially mixed school. The basic data-gathering strategy involved observations conducted in classrooms, hallways, playgrounds, and the cafeteria. Observers...
Article
Observed the peer interactions of 69 White and 32 Black 8th graders each week of a semester. The race and sex of the person with whom S was interacting were coded, as were the behavior's mutuality (one-sided, mutual), affective tone (positive, neutral, negative), and orientation (task oriented, ambiguous, social). Considerably more cross-race inter...
Article
• Observed the peer interactions of 69 White and 32 Black 8th graders each week of a semester. The race and sex of the person with whom S was interacting were coded, as were the behavior's mutuality (one-sided, mutual), affective tone (positive, neutral, negative), and orientation (task oriented, ambiguous, social). Considerably more cross-race int...
Article
On the basis of analysis of the desegregation of one particular school, this paper has suggested some ways in which desegregation may be beneficial to white students. This analysis suggests that under certain circumstances desegregation can lead to beneficial changes in the school programs available, as well as to an increase in the utilization of...
Article
Full-text available
To explore the way in which the interpretation of ambiguous social behavior can be influenced by racial stereotypes and cultural differences, 40 black and 40 white 6th-grade males were shown a variety of ambiguously aggressive behaviors performed by black and white stimulus figures. As predicted, both black and white preadolescents rated these beha...
Article
The amount and type of peer interaction occurring in four racially mixed eighth grade classrooms were studied. Observational data were collected on the peer-directed behaviors of 69 white children and 32 black children weekly during one semester. The race and sex of the person to whom each behavior was directed were recorded as were the affective t...
Article
Interracial interaction patterns were observed in a new school selected for study because its sixth and seventh grades came close to meeting the conditions Allport (1954) specified as conducive to improved intergroup relations. The school's eighth grade, however, did not meet these conditions since its students were divided into a predominantly whi...
Article
The race of the figure drawn on the Draw-A-Person Test is proposed as a measure of acceptance of racial identity. Reliability and validity of this measure were explored in a two-part study. Part 1 confirmed the hypothesis that the race of the figure drawn is related to the race of the child producing the drawing. Comparison of the figures drawn by...
Article
This paper traces the history of a magnet school which opened in 1975 amid claims that it would serve as a model of high quality integrated education but which, three years later, was widely perceived as an overcrowded, predominantly black institution. The local Board of Education decided to open a magnet school in which new teaching techniques wer...
Article
The interaction of black and white students in new open enrollment desegregated middle school which meets most of the criteria Allport (1954) specified as important in fostering positive intergroup relations was studied. Seating patterns in the cafeteria were observed during the school's first year of operation. Analysis of these patterns using ind...
Article
This report focuses on the relations which have developed between black and white students in a new interracial middle school. In addition to describing these relations, it analyzes why and how they have developed. A review of the literature on desegregation and intergroup relations is used to set the context of the study. A description of the rese...
Article
This study replicates and extends an earlier study of interracial interaction patterns in an open enrollment "magnet" school. The earlier study conducted during the school's first year of operation found that: (1) race is an extremely important grouping criterion even for students who have chosen a segregated school, (2) sex is an even more importa...
Article
This study of seating patterns in a middle school shows that race is an extremely important grouping criterion even for children who have chosen to attend a desegregated school. Sex was found to be an even stronger grouping criterion. (Author/AM)
Article
Equal status within the contact situation, shared goals, cooperate dependence in reaching these goals, and the support of authorities, law or custom are the criteria which Allport (1954) argued were vital for promoting positive interracial attitudes and behavior. The study reported here investigates the development of interracial interaction patter...
Article
76 young women with positive attitudes toward sex education were asked to commit themselves to an action consistent with their attitudes (reviewing sex education pamphlets) under 4 experimental conditions. These conditions were created by crossing 2 levels of a norm favoring the action (present, absent) with 2 levels of disclosure of the act (publi...
Article
This study investigates two hypotheses: (1) that black children experience more conflict over their racial identity than white children, and (2) that black children are less likely to identify with occupational role models than are white children are investigated in this study. Drawings of a person by 167 black and 156 white primary school children...

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