Janet C. Read

Janet C. Read
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences

About

285
Publications
68,693
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4,515
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
2298 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (285)
Article
Participatory Design (PD) with children allows children to contribute to, or have control over, the development of technologies for themselves and others like them. However, the children who are most likely to be involved in PD are often the most privileged. This special issue seeks to push the boundaries of PD with children. The papers published i...
Article
We present Tick Box Design, a rapid co-design method for research and industry that allows users to gather many design ideas from large numbers of participants in a limited time whilst adhering to ethical principles around users understanding their contributions. The method is based on a design workshop model and can be packaged for delivery by rem...
Chapter
Mobile technologies potentially expose children and adolescents to increasing online risk. These risks take many forms and are widely categorized using the 4Cs: Content, Conduct, Contact, and Commerce. Commerce is the least developed category and, while it has significant overlap with what is known as Dark Design within the field of UX, amalgamatio...
Chapter
As part of a larger project looking at the design of future classrooms, we delivered a survey on technology use to school pupils in the United Kingdom and in Indonesia. Whilst seeking to discover opinions from the pupils in both of these locations, we also had an interest in exploring what the results might also tell us in regard to future design s...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on children aged around 5-11 insofar as this is the population most able to extract value from digital content while also being intrinsically different from older children in terms of their design needs. The need for technology designers to understand their intended users is well established in the fields of human-computer inte...
Chapter
In this paper, we describe the calculation of accuracy and understandability of the Google translations of 15 Nepalese and 22 English letters written by children. The accuracy of the translation is calculated using a Minimum String Distance algorithm comparing with the correct translation. For the Understandability calculation, 92 English and 36 Ne...
Article
Participatory Design (PD) – whose inclusive benefits are broadly recognised in design – can be very challenging, especially when involving children. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to further barriers to PD with such groups. One key barrier is the advent of social distancing and government-imposed social restrictions due to the addition...
Article
Full-text available
In this inaugural editorial as the new and the past editors-in-chief of the International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction (IJCCI), we take stock of the journal's progress in its first 8 years of existence, and we describe our views and plans to support the journal maintain its positive trajectory as the premier journal in the multidisciplinar...
Chapter
Current video game titles are primarily designed for players rather than for the experience of those watching the play. Whilst there has been considerable work on understanding the needs of players and their experiences, much less has been done to understand video game ‘audiences’. This paper describes how a Game Audience Experience Survey (GAES) w...
Chapter
This paper explores the involvement of young people in the design of mobile technologies that provide locative media experiences. The specific focus of this work was to understand how multiple devices (phones, tablets and smart watches) could be used within this context. Young people are prolific early adopters and users of mobile technologies. The...
Chapter
This paper describes a participatory study with 35 children, aged 9–12, from a rural Nepalese village in the Himalayan Mountains where they were asked to draw a picture or pictures of a game that they would love to have in a digital pen pal app that is being developed. Altogether 58 game designs were collected. Seven of them were new game ideas wit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community’s rapid growth in the past two decades, there has traditionally been less focus on developing a curriculum to teach CCI to students. This entails a risk for a gap between the accumulation of knowledge and the transfer of this knowledge to new generations of researchers and designers. Building o...
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This paper employs hierarchical clustering, strategic diagrams, and network analysis to construct an intellectual map of the Child–Computer Interaction research field (CCI) and to visualize the thematic landscape of this field using co-word analysis. This approach assumes that an article’s keywords constitute an adequate description of its content...
Article
Full-text available
In this forum we celebrate research that helps to successfully bring the benefits of computing technologies to children, older adults, people with disabilities, and other populations that are often ignored in the design of mass-marketed products. --- Juan Pablo Hourcade, Editor
Chapter
We used a two-dimensional Fitts’ law task to compare finger and stylus input with children when performing drag-and-drop tasks on a tablet. Twenty-eight children completed the study. Drag-and-drop performance was significantly better using a low-cost stylus compared to finger input. Throughput was \(9\%\) higher for stylus input (2.55 bps) compared...
Conference Paper
The Interaction Design and Children (IDC) Community has a long history of innovating methods and techniques for the design and evaluation of technologies for children. Many innovations have been reported in the academic literature but the uptake of methods by industry has been slow and the community has hitherto failed to seriously consider how bes...
Conference Paper
Interaction Design and Children (IDC) as an academic field, and as a community, has a responsibility to engage with the many and diverse ethical challenges that arise from work that concerns the creation of digital technology for and with children -- both in terms of research and industry contexts. This panel builds on a short history of similar ev...
Conference Paper
The majority of mobile apps are free-to-play and so include a variety of forms of advertising and other mechanisms for monetization. These monetization mechanisms often have deceptive elements and closely resemble what designers know as Dark Patterns. In-app advertising and purchasing have been studied with adults but, to-date, younger users have r...
Conference Paper
We compared four audio-based radar metaphors for providing directional stimuli to users of AR headsets. The metaphors are clock face, compass, white noise, and scale. Each metaphor, or method, signals the movement of a virtual arm in a radar sweep. In a user study, statistically significant differences were observed for accuracy and response time....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The global refugee crisis is a significant current challenge affecting millions of children. The process of refugee migration comes with major immediate as well as long-term risks to children's physical and mental health, education, and prospects. Despite the multiple dangers and challenges during migration, most refugee families have access to and...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a design journey that began with a cultural probe exploration of the lived experiences of residents of a home for elderly women in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. The paper describes how requirements for a tangible experience installation were brought together and how an initial design concept was imagined. Having bought into a technolo...
Article
Full-text available
With screen technology becoming ubiquitously embedded into our homes, these screens are often in places where they can be viewed by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris); however, there is a lack of research showing to what extent, and for how long, dogs attend to media on screens. One pressing question is to understand if a dog, given the opportunity,...
Conference Paper
Tablet games are flooding the market and large numbers of these are designed for children. The expansion of quantity has not seen an associated expansion of quality. Studies of the usability of tablet games for children typically take place in laboratory settings and fail to understand the context of use. This paper describes a study of 'at home' u...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the design of voice user interfaces for smart homes with teenagers. The work was motivated by two research questions: How can we co-design voice interfaces with teenagers? and What ideas and expectations do teenagers have in relation to voice interfaces in a smart home? A design process was used which involved the participants i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing technology for and with children comes with unique ethical challenges and responsibilities, related both to the inclusion of children in the research and design processes and to the outcomes of that work. With this panel, our intention is to create a forum for critical reflection and debate about best practices, underlying drivers and per...
Conference Paper
Doing research with children requires special attention to recruitment, fair inclusion, and methods. Drawing on over fifteen years of experience of working with children in HCI contexts, this practical course will give attendees essential knowledge to do safe, effective and ethically sound research with children. The course covers the whole researc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) has often involved children. Nowadays, the term co-creation is gaining momentum and extending the already established role of children as co-designers. In this sense children become creators of new personalized experiences not only during the design process but also when using the final interactive prod...
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As technologies diversify and become embedded in everyday lives, the technologies we expose to animals, and the new technologies being developed for animals within the field of Animal Computer Interaction (ACI) are increasing. As we approach seven years since the ACI manifesto, which grounded the field within Human Computer Interaction and Computer...
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Nine HCI researchers from different cultures, backgrounds, and nationalities came together for two hours to discuss the role of technology in the day-to-day life of nine parents and their children, from Dharavi. The stories shared varied from experiences of parents wanting their children to study more and play videos games less, to a point blank qu...
Conference Paper
This keynote paper explores, in a critical way, the reflections of the author in regard to doing research with teenagers. The paper begins with a summary of a very successful project that explored cool and the design for cool. The paper then looks at a more recent study in which teenagers with special needs were interviewed, with their parents. Thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tablet and phone technology has become ubiquitous in the lives of children across the world. Where children once played outside and once played with physical toys, many children now play with tablet and phone technology to an extent that is perceived by some to be a detriment to their health and well-being. The tablet or phone can be considered as...
Conference Paper
Taking the book by Richard Carver as an inspiration, this paper narrates a keynote given at CHIuXiD2018. It reveals a set of important truths about child-computer interaction through a series of cameos. Drawing on the author's experience as a child, mother, teacher, and researcher, and building on research findings from the Child Computer Interacti...
Chapter
Full-text available
When the target audience is children, the human–computer interaction community has firmly established the benefits of involving children throughout the design process. Participatory design methods with children have been used successfully for the design of learning. Within the context of museums, there have been shown to be benefits in children des...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a study to investigate to what extent the use of sensitizing techniques can help children design a serious game for a surrogate population. In total 25 children aged 7. 8. and 9 from a UK primary participated in three design activities. The first session was intended to inform (sensitize) the children about life in rural China....
Conference Paper
This paper describes work commissioned by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to investigate how children with multiple disabilities use tablet games in their homes. An extended study of 20 children in their families, using surveys, diaries, interviews and observations, is described. The findings from the study are captured in themes which b...
Conference Paper
Government and NGO schools catering to children from low-income urban environments are increasingly introducing technology in the Indian classroom. However, one of the challenges is convincing low-literate parents the potential benefits of technology in education. In this study, we aim to uncover the concerns and expectations of low-income low-lite...
Conference Paper
The participation of end users in design, research and evaluation has long been a feature of HCI. Traditionally these end users consent to participate in the general belief that they are contributing some knowledge that will eventually improve things for themselves or others. The involvement of children in research in HCI creates new challenges for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the development and evaluation of animal personas for use in the design and development of interactive product. Building from 196 dog owner reports describing dog behaviours and explaining how they interact with digital media devices, six dog personas are created as examples of both how these can be presented but also of how th...
Conference Paper
This work describes how a simple Android game was used to study password and username creation with children aged 7 and 8. Children answered questions, made a username and password, and then later used these to log in. The novelty is in the use of the approach as well as in the findings. The findings confirm earlier work in regards to password leng...
Conference Paper
Often, when designing new and novel technologies with users, the initial envisioning and concept generation stage is carried out exclusively by the research team. Within this paper three barriers are identified which make it challenging to include users within this early design activity: knowledge gap, user journey, and complex requirements. These...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This one day workshop examines the interactions and the space between HCI (Human Computer Interaction) and ACI (Animal Computer Interaction) focusing on the transferability of methods and ideas between the two fields. The workshop will begin with short presentations followed by plenary discussions. The aim is to strengthen connected thinking whilst...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a process called RAId (Rapid Analysis of design Ideas), which assists, in the ethical and inclusive analysis of large sets of design data. It is described against an activity with 120 teenagers working in small groups contributing ideas for the design of an interactive water-drinking bottle. Four investigators systematically ex...
Conference Paper
This chapter is bridging the gap of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Requirement Engineering (RE) where the intended users or appropriators of the technology or service are children and young people. The research draws theory and practices from several disciplines: Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Interaction Design (IXD) but also from psyc...
Chapter
Engaging participants and choosing an appropriate technique in the research process are vitally important in developing successful products, devices and interventions. HCI researchers need to choose techniques that are suitable and appropriate for the user population being considered. In this chapter techniques used within HCI research activities w...
Chapter
TeenCI is a new area for study and, as has been shown in this book, there are many challenges that need to be overcome. These challenges include access to teenagers, understanding the ethics around research, methods to engage with teenagers in research, as well as adjusting research for specialist settings such as healthcare. This chapter contribut...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of non-human animals' interactions with technology is referred to as Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI). Data gathering with these non-human animal users typically relies on the owner as a proxy to gather requirements and feedback from the animal's behavioural reactions. These owners, however, may provide poor information, as they are habi...
Conference Paper
This workshop explores the many roles children can play in the design of technology for their own use. Much literature has reported on how children have been mainly playing co-designer roles. By looking closer it emerges that children have mostly been involved in the ideation phase of design. More rarely were they actively engaged in other design p...
Article
Interactive technology for dogs is on the rise with there now being a whole TV channel supplying videos for dogs as well as several examples of interactive technology designed for the purpose of ‘entertaining’ dogs and other pet mammals. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) research field has moved into the study of such technologies having earlie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When designing technology for dogs, ethics need to be considered. The technological approach with dogs has changed with a progressive viewpoint of where a dog is situated within a computer system and how the researcher reacts and treats the dog. This work presents a list of currently used ethical protocols within Dog Computer Interaction (DCI) comp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the findings from a longitudinal study of iPad use in a Primary school classroom. While tablet devices have found their way into classroom environments, we still lack in-depth and long-term studies of how they integrate into everyday classroom activities. Our findings illustrate in-classroom tablet use and the broad range of learning act...
Conference Paper
This SIG will provide child-computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss four topics that represent new challenges and opportunities for the community. The four areas are: interactive technologies for children under the age of five, technology for inclusion, privacy and information security in the age of the quantifi...
Conference Paper
In this course participants will learn about the theory and practice of conducting research in children's HCI. The course is divided into two sessions: basic principles and theory, and best practices. The instructors have multiple years of experience designing, conducting, and analyzing children-computer interaction (CCI) studies, in the UK, USA, a...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a low-tech exploration of a mobile phone and wall display installation intended for use by teenagers to share moods and feelings using colours sent over a social installation. The exploration was with 22 teenagers who 'played' the installation using low-tech propos and then answered questions. The study found that the hidden me...
Conference Paper
South East Asia has many cities seeking to transform themselves. Hanoi is one such city, bustling, lively, young and full of promise. Hanoi is a place that could rewrite the way cities are designed for mobility of youth. For older children and teenagers, cities and urban spaces represent places where they can separate from their parents and experie...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a study to investigate to what extent the use of sensitizing techniques can help children design a serious game for a surrogate population. In total 25 children from a UK primary school aged between 8–9 participated in two design sessions. The first session was designed to inform the children about life in rural China. The seco...
Conference Paper
This paper will explore how fun can be and might be designed into serious games for children. Three projects are described and then the tensions around designing for fun and education are unpicked with consideration of the roles of children in the design of these serious games.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes some of the tensions around serious games in education by considering how serious games might be designed for learners who may not be especially motivated to play them. Beginning with a narrative that sets out where serious games position within educational settings, with a focus on high school and college, the paper describes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a study to investigate to what extent the use of sensitizing techniques can help children design a serious game for a surrogate population. In total 25 children from a UK primary school aged between 8-9 participated in two design sessions. The first session was designed to inform the children about life in rural China. The seco...
Conference Paper
This tutorial will introduce attendees to the challenges and benefits of working with child participants in interaction design and evaluation within the context of HCI. It will outline the most used methods and provide resources to participants so they will be able to carry out effective work with children from 4 to 16 in schools, homes and the out...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a topology for defining the level of participation within Animal Computer Interaction (ACI) adapted from Hart's Ladder Model of Youth Participation [1]. Dogs have continually been included within ACI design with varying participatory roles. This paper aims to define dogs' participation according to their ability to participate....
Chapter
Digital ink as a rich file format has shown promise as a text creation and text input modality. When used with children, who are emerging writers, studies have shown that the text can be recognized with a reasonable degree of accuracy but the possibilities for other uses of the ink, especially for diagnostic purposes has been understudied. This cha...
Conference Paper
There is growing interest in maker technologies around how they can be included in school curriculums to engage children with science subjects and about their use to explore new creative possibilities. Given that maker technologies are currently unfamiliar to most children across the world this work sought to use these technologies to investigate w...
Article
The participation of end users in the design and evaluation of technologies has long been an important principle in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). This paper reports a study to ascertain to what extent children using participatory methods could effectively design for a surrogate population. Fifty children, from a UK primary school, participated...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter presents an overview of the lessons to be drawn from an inter-disciplinary EC-funded project 'Usability of Music for the Social Inclusion of Children' (UMSIC) in designing mobile applications for children. The aim of the project, funded under the European Union-funded (Seventh Research Framework Programme [FP7]) (2008-2011) was to devel...
Conference Paper
Child Computer Interaction is a community within CHI that has been steadily growing. It hosts its own annual IDC conference and is a highly recognizable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. In 2015, the CCI SIG aims to take advantage of the positioning of CHI in Seoul to consider how it might, as an academic community, best direct its...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Engaging children in play for wellbeing is coming to prominence in HCI as the community increasingly engages with issues to do with health, care and therapy. To date, research in this area has primarily focused on engaging children with special needs or who suffer from mental health problems in organized play to improve their self-efficacy or suppo...
Conference Paper
In this course participants will learn about theory and practice of conducting research in children's HCI. The course is divided into two sessions: basic principles and theory, and best practices. The instructors have multiple years of experience designing, conducting, and analyzing children-computer interaction (CCI) studies, in the UK, USA, and I...
Article
Teaching practices within educational institutions have evolved through the increased adoption of technology to deliver the curriculum and the use of computers for assessment purposes. For educational technologists, there is a vast array of commercial computer applications available for the delivery of objective tests, and in some instances, organi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With new Animal Computer Interaction (ACI) methods and technology being created for dogs’ consideration has to be given to who is in the center of the design process: the human or the dog. This paper aims to explore the problems surrounding this inquiry from the two perspectives a) the aptitude that dogs have to design technology and b) the flaws i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a high-quality method of face tracking dogs from a Human Computer Interaction (HCI) standpoint. Dogs have continually been reported to view television screens but there is diminutive knowledge behind this phenomenon. Research here brings forward the possibility of animals having meaningful interaction with the TV screen and sugg...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we address the challenge of teaching interaction design for children’s products especially pertaining to bridging the gap between child development theories and interaction design issues. We describe our experiences from developing a one-week course on interaction design and children, that is part of a competency based Masters program...
Article
Participatory Design (PD) in various guises is a popular approach with the Interaction Design and Children (IDC) community. In studying it as a method very little work has considered the fundamentals of participation, namely how children choose to participate and how their ideas are included and represented. This paper highlights ethical concerns a...
Article
The last session at this year's conference is an interactive panel discussion facilitated by Prof. Mitch Resnick from MIT Media Lab. The closing panel consists of leading university and industry researchers with strong opinions about digital technology and its relation to children and childhood. The topic for this session is the general question fo...
Article
Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in designing for children within the context of HCI. This activity has lead to a community of researchers and practitioners seeking information on best practice on how to work with children. This course will introduce attendees to some of the pitfalls and difficulties when carrying out evalu...