Janet Hyde

Janet Hyde
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Psychology

About

241
Publications
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Publications

Publications (241)
Article
Although hopelessness has been linked to depression for centuries, the diagnostic criteria for depression are inconsistent with regard to the status of hopelessness. Most research on hopelessness and depression has focused on adults. The current study examined this relation in children and adolescents. Integrative data analyses with a pooled sample...
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Researchers often invoke the metaphor of a pipeline when studying participation in careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), focusing on the important issue of students who "leak" from the pipeline, but largely ignoring students who persist in STEM. Using interview, survey, and institutional data over 6 years, we examined...
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This study examined whether students who left biomedical fields of study during college did so primarily because they became disenchanted with those fields or because they felt attracted to alternative fields of study. We identified 1193 students intending to pursue biomedical fields of study early in college, collected data about their beliefs and...
Article
The odds ratio (OR) for gender differences in major depression is 1.95, averaged meta-analytically over all ages and nations. The gender difference appears by age 12, OR = 2.37, and peaks at OR = 3.02 for ages 13-15. Using the ABC (affective, biological, cognitive) model as a framework within a vulnerability-stress approach, we consider the evidenc...
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A wide range of occupations require science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills, yet almost half of students who intend to pursue a postsecondary STEM education abandon these plans before graduating from college. This attrition is especially pronounced among underrepresented groups (i.e., racial/ ethnic minorities and first-gene...
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This study examined associations between sexual fluidity in attractions and related beliefs and attitudes among sexual minority and heterosexual young adults. Two college and community-based samples who completed an online survey were combined to yield 421 young adults (224 women, 188 men, 7 transgender, and 2 another gender), ages 18–26 years. Two...
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Utility-value (UV) interventions, in which students complete writing assignments about the personal usefulness of course material, show great promise for promoting interest and performance in introductory college science courses, as well as persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. As researchers move toward scaling u...
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Utility-value interventions, in which students are asked to make connections between course material and their lives, are useful for improving students’ academic outcomes in science courses. These interventions are thought to be successful in part because the intervention activities afford students autonomy while they complete them, but no research...
Article
The view that humans comprise only two types of beings, women and men, a framework that is sometimes referred to as the “gender binary,” played a profound role in shaping the history of psychological science. In recent years, serious challenges to the gender binary have arisen from both academic research and social activism. This review describes 5...
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One way to encourage performance and persistence in STEM fields is to have students write about the utility value (UV) or personal relevance of course topics to their life. This intervention has been shown to increase engagement and performance in introductory courses. However, questions remain about the longevity of the effects and how best to imp...
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Although women have made progress in entering scientific careers in biology, they remain underrepresented in mathematically intensive fields such as physics. We investigated whether gender differences in mathematics motivation and socialisers’ perceptions impacted choices for diverse STEM careers of varying mathematical intensity. Drawing on expect...
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Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit th...
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In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b) use a developmental perspective to elucidate patterns of gen...
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In recent years, several empirical studies have claimed to provide evidence in support of the popular folk notion that people possess “gaydar” that enables them to accurately identify who is gay or lesbian (Rule, Johnson, & Freeman, 2016). This conclusion is limited to artificial lab settings, however, and when translated to real-world settings thi...
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During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as driver...
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Previous theories of sexual orientation development and sexual fluidity are limited because they describe these processes separately and represent the experiences of only some sexual orientation subgroups. This study qualitatively examined sexual orientation development and sexual fluidity among 18 young adults, ages 18 to 26 years. Participants re...
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Kids are often told that you can’t judge a book by its cover. Even so, people often believe they can rely on their gut to intuit things about other people. Stereotypes often influence these impressions, whether it’s that a black man is dangerous, a woman won’t be a good leader or a fashionable man is gay.
Chapter
In 2001, Barnett and Hyde proposed an expansionist theory, which argues that multiple roles (e.g., worker, spouse, and parent) are beneficial for both women and men. This chapter updates that work, roughly 14 years later. Women’s and men’s roles continue to change compared with earlier decades. For example, today women outnumber men in college, and...
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High school students from lower–socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science course-taking...
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Supporters of single-sex schooling believe that separating boys and girls, by classrooms or schools, increases students' academic achievement. Critics of single-sex schooling believe that gender segregation increases students' gender stereotypes and has no effect on students' achievement. In this article, we present these rationales, focusing on de...
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Gender stereotypes hold that males outperform females in mathematics and spatial tests, and females outperform males on verbal tests. According to meta-analyses, however, among both children and adults, females perform equally to males on mathematics assessments. The gender difference in verbal skills is small and varies depending on the type of sk...
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Intersectionality has become something of a buzzword in psychology and is well-known in feminist writings throughout the social sciences. Across diverse definitions of intersectionality, we find three common assumptions: (1) There is a recognition that all people are characterized simultaneously by multiple social categories and that these categori...
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Background: We probe the adolescent gender difference in depression, asking two critical questions. First, most longitudinal studies of gender differences in adolescent depression date from the 1980s and 1990s, raising the need for a body of evidence on whether the developmental pattern is similar or different today. Second, despite the importance...
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Intersectional approaches, which consider how simultaneous membership in multiple social categories characterize our experiences and are linked to power and privilege, have deep roots in feminist psychology. While an intersectional approach is well suited to a variety of research questions and topics, its application to date has chiefly been found...
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First-generation college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year college degree) earn lower grades and worry more about whether they belong in college, compared with continuing-generation students (who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year college degree). We conducted a longitudinal follow-up of participants from a study in which a...
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First-generation college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year college degree) earn lower grades and worry more about whether they belong in college, compared with continuing-generation students (who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year college degree). We conducted a longitudinal follow-up of participants from a study in which a...
Chapter
The topic of gender and mathematical ability has been hotly debated. Why are females underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields? Many potential factors have been discussed, ranging from an innate spatial disadvantage to higher levels of math anxiety in females. Traditional stereotypes hold that gender differ...
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In the context of concerns about American youths' failure to take advanced math and science (MS) courses in high school, we examined mothers' communication with their adolescent about taking MS courses. At ninth grade, U.S. mothers (n = 130) were interviewed about their responses to hypothetical questions from their adolescent about the usefulness...
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Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-cl...
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In the present work, we investigate the pop cultural idea that people have a sixth sense called “gaydar,” to detect who is gay. We propose that “gaydar” is an alternate label for using social stereotypes to infer orientation (e.g., inferring that fashionable men are gay). According to some recent work, however, people may possess a facial perceptio...
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Although many studies have documented developmental change in mathematics motivation, little is known about how these trends predict math performance. A sample of 288 participants from the United States reported their perceived math ability, math utility value and math interest in 5th, 7th and 9th grades. Latent growth curve models estimated develo...
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It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This an...
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PurposeWe review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement? Design/methodology/approachWe have approached these two motivational qu...
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Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity-changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity-is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity...
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This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapte...
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We applaud Wood, Kressel, Joshi, and Louie's (2014) careful, nuanced meta-analysis. The evolutionary hypotheses designed to explain menstrual cycle fluctuations in mate preferences are convoluted and, based on this new meta-analysis, unnecessary because the existence of the fluctuations is not supported by the data. Evolutionary explanations are st...
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Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students, a...
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Proponents of single-sex (SS) education believe that separating boys and girls, by classrooms or schools, increases students' achievement and academic interest. In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze studies that have tested the effects on students of SS compared with coeducational (CE) schooling. We meta-analyzed data from 184 studies, r...
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A foundation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is critical for students' college and career advancement, but many U.S. students fail to take advanced mathematics and science classes in high school. Research has neglected the potential role of parents in enhancing students' motivation for pursuing STEM courses. Pr...
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Heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of depressive symptoms was examined using latent growth mixture modeling among a community sample of 382 U.S. youth from ages 11 to 18 (52.1 % female). Three latent trajectory classes were identified: Stable Low (51 %; displayed low depressive symptoms at all assessments), Increasing (37 %; reported low depr...
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Do adolescents model their mothers’ self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index, body esteem, and quality of the mother–adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement i...
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Rumination is an established cognitive vulnerability for depression. Despite substantial work on the environmental origins of rumination, the heritability of rumination has not been examined and it is not known whether rumination accounts for some of the genetic vulnerability associated with depression. 756 adolescent twins ages 12-14 years complet...
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Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of...
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Some U.S. school districts are experimenting with single-sex schooling, hoping that it will yield better academic outcomes for students. Empirical research on the effects of single-sex schooling, however, has been equivocal, with various studies finding benefits, disadvantages, or no effect. Most of this research is marred because families generall...
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Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary e...
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The book was designed as a introduction into human sexuality. There were 3 major objectives: (1) to provide practical information needed for everyday living (information about sexual anatomy, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases) and to deal with problems in sexual functioning (such as erection problems or inability to have an orgasm);...
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Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated...
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The pipeline toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) begins to leak in high school, when some students choose not to take advanced mathematics and science courses. We conducted a field experiment testing whether a theory-based intervention that was designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and...
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During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major de...
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Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we...
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This meta-analysis quantitatively compiled the results of studies from 1992 to 2009 to determine the prevalence and types of victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Based on the results of three searches, 386 studies were retrieved and coded. Comparisons were made across all LGB individuals (138 studies), between...
Chapter
Gender development takes on new meaning in adolescence as girls and boys experience physical, cognitive, and social changes to prepare them for their adult roles as women and men. This article reviews prominent explanations of adolescent gender-role development, including the effects of sex hormones and the brain, and evolutionary, cognitive, gende...
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Single-sex schooling lacks scientific support and may exaggerate sexism and gender stereotyping.
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Our goals in this article were to use item response theory (IRT) to assess the relation of depressive symptoms to the underlying dimension of depression and to demonstrate how IRT-based measurement strategies can yield more reliable data about depression severity than conventional symptom counts. Participants were 3,403 children and adolescents fro...
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Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than those...
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The development of negative cognitive style was examined in a longitudinal study of 366 community youth. Cognitive style and depressive symptoms were evaluated at ages 11, 13, and 15. Latent growth mixture modeling identified three unique trajectory patterns of negative cognitive style. The normative group (71% of the sample) displayed the least ne...
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Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In part...
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An important factor in a girl’s feelings about menstruation as well as psychological outcomes is the timing of menarche. Reaching menarche early compared to one’s peers has been implicated as a risk factor for multiple negative outcomes including depression, delinquency, body dissatisfaction, and substance abuse. Early menarche also involves a conv...
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This study examined prospective associations between negative emotionality, rumination, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 301 youths (158 females) followed longitudinally from birth to adolescence. Mothers reported on youths' negative emotionality (NE) at age 1, and youths self-reported rumination at age 13 and depressive symptoms at...
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This study examined whether the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression may contribute to our understanding of the gender difference in depression in adolescence. Specifically, we examined emergent gender differences in depressive symptoms, cognitive style, and stress in the context of exposure, cognitive scar, and stress generation mode...
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In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze gender differences in recent studies of mathematics performance. First, we meta-analyzed data from 242 studies published between 1990 and 2007, representing the testing of 1,286,350 people. Overall, d = 0.05, indicating no gender difference, and variance ratio = 1.08, indicating nearly equal male and...
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Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a...
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The hypothesis that sex differences in field independence and mental arithmetic can be accounted for by sex differences in spatial ability was supported for a group of 46 female and 35 male undergraduates. Sex-typing does not appear to be strongly related to spatial ability for either sex. There is a possibility of the existence of a field-independ...
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Parental leave, a key aspect of family policy, is a relatively new concept in the United States; it is crucial that policy development be guided by social science research. In this article we first review policy issues associated with parental leave. Following that, we consider relevant social science research pertaining to parental leave and mothe...
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On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work. Ge...
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In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We an...
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A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being d