Janet Hoek

Janet Hoek
University of Otago · Department of Public Health (Wellington)

PhD

About

357
Publications
89,868
Reads
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4,970
Citations
Introduction
After spending several years as a Professor of Marketing working primarily on health-related questions, I moved to a joint appointment in Public Health and Marketing. In late 2019, I moved wholly to Public Health. I am also co-Director of ASPIRE2025 (www.aspire2025.org.nz), one of the University of Otago's Research Centres. I co-direct Whakahā o Te Pā Harakeke, a research programme working to support the NZ government's goal of a smokefree nation by 2025.
Additional affiliations
December 2017 - present
University of Otago
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Tobacco control researcher examining standardised (plain) packaging, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), novel tobacco products, young adult nicotine use, policy measures to reduce marketing of tobacco products, commercial determinants of health.
January 2009 - December 2017
University of Otago
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1996 - December 2008
Massey University

Publications

Publications (357)
Article
Background Concerns about the effects of vaping have prompted calls to restrict e-cigarette flavours. Vaping proponents have criticised these proposals, which they argue may discourage smokers from taking up vaping or trigger relapse to smoking. We explored the role flavours play in vaping uptake and cessation among New Zealand cigarette smokers an...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background Although loss-framed pictorial warning labels (PWLs) have increased knowledge of the health harms caused by smoking, they may elicit maladaptive responses among some smokers who have tried repeatedly, yet unsuccessfully, to quit smoking. However, research suggests that maladaptive responses may diminish if warnings are complemen...
Article
Abstract Background While cigarette filter modifications have long been used to increase product appeal and assuage health concerns, tighter marketing restrictions, including plain packaging, have further spurred the growth of filter variants. We explored and assessed experiences and perceptions of smokers who had tried and/or currently use recesse...
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand's early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social con...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is currently known about how e-liquid flavour use evolves among electronic cigarette users. We describe patterns of e-liquid and flavour category use, and variety-seeking, among New Zealand adult smokers attempting to transition from smoking to e-cigarettes. Methods Data were collected in 2018–19, using a longitudinal design comp...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) likely pose fewer health risks than smoking. Yet ENDS uptake has increased among never-smoking young adults, who likely face greater health risks relative to non-users of ENDS. To date, few qualitative studies have explored ENDS uptake and use by never-smokers. Methods We conducted in-depth,...
Article
As debate persists over regulating electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), those favouring liberal ENDS policies have advanced rights-based arguments privileging harm reduction to people who smoke over harm prevention to children and never-smokers. Recent ethical arguments advocate regulating ENDS to prioritise their harm reduction potential f...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions are associated with adverse psychological impacts but an assessment of positive wellbeing is required to understand the overall impacts of the pandemic. Methods The NZ Lockdown Psychological Distress Survey is an on-line cross-sectional survey of 3487 New Zealanders undertaken during a st...
Article
Objective Tobacco endgame policies aim to rapidly and permanently reduce smoking to minimal levels. We reviewed evidence syntheses for: (1) endgame policies, (2) evidence gaps, and (3) future research priorities. Data sources Guided by JBI scoping review methodology, we searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science) fo...
Article
The aim of this paper is to overview progress made with respect to the adoption of plain (or standardised) packaging, key challenges faced, evaluative evidence and opportunities for extending this policy. It has been a decade since Australia became the first country to require tobacco products to be sold in plain packaging; after slow initial uptak...
Article
Some tobacco companies claim they are ‘transforming’ by adopting harm reduction goals or even seeking to achieve a ‘smokefree’ world. What characterises transformation and whether companies can or are transforming is unclear. Nevertheless, such claims are gaining traction. We critically investigated tobacco industry transformation by exploring the...
Article
Aim: To provide preliminary high-level modelling estimates of the impact of denicotinisation of tobacco on changes in smoking prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand relative to the New Zealand Government's Smokefree 2025 goal. Methods: An Excel spreadsheet was populated with smoking and vaping prevalence data from the New Zealand Health Survey and w...
Article
Full-text available
Background People who smoke with serious mental illness carry disproportionate costs from smoking, including poor health and premature death from tobacco-related illnesses. Hospitals in New Zealand are ostensibly smoke-free; however, some mental health wards have resisted implementing this policy. Aim This study explored smoking in acute metal hea...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although the harm to health from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) compared to smoked tobacco remains highly uncertain, society and governments still need to know the likely range of the relative harm to inform regulatory policies for ENDS and smoking. Methods We identified biomarkers with specificity of association with diffe...
Article
Full-text available
For several decades, the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing has stimulated and led debates with far-reaching implications for consumer well-being, global relationships and, ultimately, human survival. The challenges we face have not disappeared but intensified. Today, we must respond to climate change, manage a global pandemic, and address dispar...
Article
Introduction: New Zealand's equity-focused endgame goal (Smokefree 2025) aims to reduce smoking prevalence to minimal levels (ie, <5%) in all population groups by 2025. Inadequate progress has stimulated discussion of innovative measures to reduce prevalence; because few studies have explored how marginalized groups perceive these measures, we add...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: To provide preliminary high-level modelling estimates of the impact of denicotinisation of tobacco on changes in smoking prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Methods: An Excel spreadsheet was populated with smoking/vaping prevalence data from the NZ Health Survey and business-as-usual trends projected. Using various parameters from the lit...
Article
Social media promotions of vaping products post legislation restricting advertising and sponsorship by these products.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We aimed to examine patterns in smoking and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use over an extended period of time (up to 20 weeks) in people who smoked and who had never previously made a successful quit attempt using an ENDS. Design and setting: We conducted a longitudinal mixed-methods study in Dunedin, New Zealand, during...
Article
Full-text available
Many current smokers incorrectly believe that menthol cigarettes are less harmful, likely due to the biological and sensory effects of menthol, which can lead smokers to have favourable sensory experiences. In this study, we measured the extent to which Australian smokers associate certain sensory experiences with smoking menthol and non-menthol ci...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption, distress, and loss of life around the world. While negative health, economic, and social consequences are being extensively studied, there has been less research on the resilience and post-traumatic growth that people show in the face of adversity. We investigated New Zealanders’ experiences...
Article
Introduction Although roll‐your‐own (RYO) loose tobacco is increasingly popular among smokers, no jurisdictions have used RYO‐specific pictorial warning labels (PWL) on tobacco packaging. We explored how New Zealand RYO smokers, a population with over 10 years of exposure to PWLs, reacted to RYO‐specific warnings featuring novel themes. Methods We...
Preprint
Full-text available
The public will soon have the opportunity to make submissions on the long-awaited Smokefree Environments and Regulated Products (Vaping) Amendment Bill ('the Bill') which will regulate vaping products and alternative nicotine delivery systems. In a previous blog, ASPIRE 2025 researchers summarised the strengths and limitations of the Bill, and conc...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction New Zealand’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic was one of the most restrictive lockdowns of any country, inevitably causing stress for many people. Because situations that increase stress and anxiety are associated with higher smoking prevalence, we examined self-reported smoking before and during the lockdown, and analyzed factors as...
Article
Full-text available
Background Policymakers wishing to encourage smokers unable to quit to switch to using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) also need to consider how to deter ENDS use among non-smokers. We examined whether reduced-risk messages could increase ENDS’ appeal among smokers and if increased-risk messages could decrease appeal among susceptible n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Although the harm to health from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use relative to smoked tobacco remains highly uncertain, society and governments still need to know the likely range of the relative harm to inform regulatory policies for ENDS and smoking. Methods We identified biomarkers with specificity of association with...
Article
Drawing on a retrospective case study involving LGBTQ populations and the tobacco industry, we demonstrate how a duplicitous stance by Big Tobacco illuminates the ways that symbolic violence is perpetrated on consumers. We define marketplace violence as the actions and narratives of powerful market actors that perpetuate inequalities that less powe...
Article
Abstract Introduction New Zealand’s Smokefree 2025 goal aims to greatly decrease the availability of tobacco. One option is to cease the sale of tobacco from convenience stores. However, tobacco companies and retail trade associations oppose this move and have argued that customers who purchase tobacco drive footfall and spend more than non-tobacco...
Article
Background Smoking among young adults is often associated with social contexts and alcohol use. While many countries, including New Zealand, have prohibited smoking inside licensed premises, outdoor areas have enabled smoking and alcohol co-use to persist. We examined whether and how outdoor bar areas facilitate and normalise young adult smoking, a...
Article
Abstract Aims Across three eye‐tracking studies, we examined how cigarette pack features affected visual attention and self‐reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short‐term vs. long‐term health consequences) × warning location (top vs. bottom of pack). Study 2: smoking status × warning...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Across three eye‐tracking studies, we examined how cigarette pack features affected visual attention and self‐reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short‐term vs. long‐term health consequences) × warning location (top vs. bottom of pack). Study 2: smoking status × warning framing...
Article
As more countries set smoking endgame goals and introduce measures to denormalize smoking, smokers’ experience of stigma may intensify and require new management strategies. Probing the tension between environmental changes that support population-level behaviour change and individuals’ sense making, which occurs at a micro, everyday level, provide...
Article
Abstract Introduction If electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are to bring public health benefits, members of population groups most affected by smoking must find them an easily adopted and satisfying replacement for smoking. We explored experiences of ENDS uptake and use among Māori and Pacific peoples living in New Zealand, and probed fact...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Minister Jenny Salesa announced the Government's long-awaited Smokefree Environments and Regulated Products (Vaping) Amendment Bill on Sunday 23 February. The Bill contains some important provisions as it works to strike a balance between ensuring regulated products are available to smokers wishing to quit, while at the same time minimising uptake...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Many smokers who begin using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) report vaping in settings where they would not have smoked and believe secondhand aerosol (SHA) is simply steam. However, current understanding of how ENDS users differentiate between secondhand smoke and SHA, or how vaping norms develop, is limited. Methods We c...
Article
Background Many countries have seen roll-your-own (RYO) loose tobacco use increase, despite policies to reduce smoking prevalence. On-pack pictorial warning labels (PWLs) typically feature general warnings about smoking, and no jurisdictions link these to specific types of tobacco (ie, RYO tobacco or tailor made cigarettes). We explored the warning...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Debate over tobacco tax increases has intensified as research indicates potentially conflicting policy directions. On the one hand, excise tax increases continue to stimulate quit attempts among smokers yet, on the other hand, they may lead to financial hardship for some smokers and increase retail crime. In this blog, we explore how allocating a p...
Article
There is a growing literature on regulating the supply of tobacco products to achieve tobacco-free goals. This article suggests three goals and eight principles that could underpin regulatory approaches to the supply of tobacco and non-prescription nicotine products. The primary principles are that tobacco and nicotine products should not be seen a...
Article
Abstract Introduction In 2017, the New Zealand (NZ) Government announced its intention to liberalise the sale and promotion of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including permitting any outlet to sell ENDS. This research estimated the proportion of tobacco outlets selling ENDS prior to legislative change, documented ENDS point-of-sale ma...
Article
Summary New Zealand urgently needs effective regulation that prevents the seductive marketing of vape products to young people. Few of New Zealand vape marketing websites, or their easily accessible Face-book or Twitter accounts, had health or addiction warnings. Two of the most popular websites had over 170 fruit/candy flavoured vape refills. Ab...
Article
AIMS: To examine the characteristics of the online marketing environment and the presence of safeguards to protect children from e-cigarette (ENDS) experimentation and uptake in New Zealand. METHODS: The search engine ‘Google Chrome’ was used to identify New Zealand vendor websites, Facebook and Twitter accounts. ‘YouTube NZ’ was searched for video...
Article
Introduction In 2017, the New Zealand Government signalled its intent to legalise the widespread sale of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), which many New Zealand retailers have actually sold for several years. Although ENDS uptake may reduce the harm smokers face, it requires them to adopt an entirely new practice; we therefore explored...
Preprint
Aims: Across three eye-tracking studies, we examined how the location, framing, immediacy, and severity of health warnings on branded cigarette packs affected visual attention and self-reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. Design: Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short-term vs. long-term) × warning location (top of back vs. b...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives In March 2018, New Zealand (NZ) introduced standardised tobacco packaging that also featured new pictorial warnings, with implementation completed by early June 2018. We evaluated how the new packaging affected tobacco pack displays in outdoor areas of hospitality venues. Design Before-and-after descriptive field observation study. Setti...
Article
This article critically reviews the promotions and alliances used by BAT (NZ) to launch Vype, an e-cigarette brand, in New Zealand.
Article
Full-text available
Background Although Egypt places four generic pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on the front and back half of waterpipe tobacco packs (WTPs), waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) rates have continued to rise. It has been suggested that PHWs would be more salient if placed on the waterpipe device itself. This qualitative study explored how participants pe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Annual consumption of cigarettes now exceeds five trillion, with around four trillion butts littered every year. These cigarette butts cause major environmental damage and impose significant clean-up costs on local authorities. Although tobacco companies have framed smokers as responsible for butt litter, recent debate has focused on the tobacco in...
Article
Background Cigarette butts are ubiquitous litter items, causing major environmental damage and imposing significant clean-up costs. Tobacco companies frame smokers as both the cause of this problem and the source of its solution. However, an extended producer responsibility perspective challenges this view and holds tobacco companies to account for...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Currently introduced in four New Zealand cities, Lime electric scooters (e-scooters) have elicited varied responses. Proponents argue they will help reduce traffic density, thus bringing health and environmental benefits, while critics suggest they risk unacceptable overall harm to pedestrians, users themselves, and to taxpayers, who fund treatment...
Article
Abstract Introduction Social media platforms such as YouTube provide largely unregulated opportunities for covert tobacco product placement that immerse viewers in evolving narratives and surrounding fan-created material. A Winfield Blues product placement appeared in series 3 of The Big Lez Show, a ‘crude comedy’, DIY animation web series that has...
Article
Aims: This study explored children's awareness of and engagement with food marketing, and their views on action to address it. Methods: A purposeful sample of 33 children (11-13 years) from the Wellington region of New Zealand were interviewed. Results: Children were knowledgeable about food marketing, although most were not aware of the exten...
Poster
Full-text available
Tobacco companies have framed smokers as both the cause of tobacco product waste and the source of its solution. However, an extended producer responsibility perspective holds tobacco companies responsible for the full life-cycle costs of tobacco product waste. Using an online survey of 396 New Zealand smokers and 414 non-smokers, we estimated supp...
Poster
Full-text available
Although debate over ENDS’ risks and benefits continues, there is general agreement that smokers who begin vaping and stop smoking completely will face fewer risks than if they continued smoking. There is also agreement that people who stop both smoking and vaping will realise the greatest health benefits. While many smokers begin vaping with the...
Poster
Full-text available
In New Zealand, Māori and Pacific peoples are disproportionately burdened by the social, economic and health harms caused by smoking. Facilitating movement from smoking to exclusive ENDS use could reduce long-standing health inequities that disadvantage Māori and Pacific, and help realise the Smokefree 2025 goal. We examined the challenges Māori an...
Poster
Full-text available
Tobacco product waste, such as cigarette butts, presents a major environmental threat. Understanding how smokers and non-smokers perceive strategies for dealing with tobacco product waste (TPW) would provide important guidance to policy makers. Using in-depth interviews with smokers and non-smokers, we explored responses to varied policy measures....
Poster
Full-text available
We identified patterns of transition from smoking to ENDS use (and relapse, in some cases) using data from a longitudinal qualitative study of people wishing to quit smoking using an ENDS device.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Short Abstract Cigarette butt litter creates large quantities of non-biodegradable waste that poses risks to animals and humans. Tobacco companies hold smokers responsible for tobacco product waste (TPW), but health researchers call for tobacco companies to be responsible for the full life-cycle costs of TPW. We used an online survey of 396 smokers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Short Abstract: Tobacco companies have recently declared their goal of a smokefree world, yet continue to develop new smoked products. One of these, flavour capsule variant cigarettes (FCVs), has rapidly gained market share, raising important questions about the transformation tobacco companies claim to have undertaken. Using an online survey invol...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Arguments regarding the importance of tobacco to convenience stores could impede the adoption of tobacco retail reduction policies. Although trade associations argue tobacco constitutes two-thirds of convenience store sales and drives footfall, few studies have tested these claims. We therefore examined the prevalence and characteristi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Major tobacco companies have presented a vision of a smokefree world, where smoking prevalence has fallen to minimal levels. This goal has much in common with national tobacco endgame goals and appears to create opportunities for health researchers and smokefree advocates to work collaboratively with a well-resourced industry to achieve a common go...
Article
Background Flavour capsule cigarette variants (FCVs), which allow users to customise their smoking experience and reduce the harshness of smoking, have captured an increasing share of many markets. We examined tobacco companies’ argument that such product innovations aim simply to shift market share, by estimating smokers’ and susceptible non-smoke...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Despite the global increase in waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) including in Egypt, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of waterpipe tobacco (WT) health warnings. Egypt has used pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on waterpipe tobacco packs (WTPs) and has rotated these every two years since 2008. We explored in this qualitative study...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Given recent increases in awareness and uptake of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), we aimed to explore ENDS users’ information needs and search behaviours and whether information gaps exist. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews that probed participants’ smoking behaviours and ENDS use; data in this study...
Article
By July 2018, five countries (Australia, France, the UK, New Zealand and Norway) had fully implemented plain (standardised) packaging. Using government documents, we reviewed the key legislative differences between these five countries to identify best practice measures and potential lacuna. We then discuss how governments planning to introduce pla...