Janet Franklin

Janet Franklin
San Diego State University | SDSU · Department of Geography

Doctor of Philosophy

About

271
Publications
103,818
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Introduction
Janet Franklin is a the Campanile Endowed Chair and Professor of Geography in the Center for Open Geospatial Sciences, San Diego State University. She received her Ph.D. in Geography from the University of California – Santa Barbara in 1988. She specializes in Landscape Ecology, Biogeography, and Geographic Information Science. She is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Ecological Society of America

Publications

Publications (271)
Article
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We report the results of systematic vascular plant and bird surveys in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) across leeward and windward elevation gradients (31–884 masl) in the Sierra Martín García (SMG), Dominican Republic. We expected to see gradual, systematic changes in plant distributions with elevation owing to the strong effect of topoclima...
Article
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Abstract A key assumption in species distribution modeling (SDM) with presence‐background (PB) methods is that sampling of occurrence localities is unbiased and that any sampling bias is proportional to the background distribution of environmental covariates. This assumption is rarely met when SDM practitioners rely on federated museum records from...
Article
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What factors are related to establishment dynamics following disturbance in late-successional versus second-growth tropical forests of the Pacific islands? Are those relationships robust to interannual fluctuations in establishment? In three sites juveniles were enumerated in 30 (5 × 5-m) subplots within 45 × 50-m tree plots in 2004 and 2005, 2.5 a...
Article
Wildland–urban interfaces (WUIs), the juxtaposition of highly and minimally developed lands, are an increasingly prominent feature on Earth. WUIs are hotspots of environmental and ecological change that are often priority areas for planning and management. A better understanding of WUI dynamics and their role in the coupling between cities and surr...
Article
The impacts of urbanization on bird biodiversity depend on human–environment interactions that drive land management. Although a commonly studied group, less attention has been given to public perceptions of birds close to home, which can capture people's direct, everyday experiences with urban biodiversity. Here, we used ecological and social surv...
Article
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1. Species distribution models (SDM) are widely used in diverse research areas because of their simple data requirements and application versatility. However, SDM outcomes are sensitive to data input and methodological choices. Such sensitivity and diverse applications mean that flexibility is necessary to create SDMs with tailored protocols for a...
Article
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The field of distributional ecology has seen considerable recent attention, particularly surrounding the theory, protocols, and tools for Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) or Species Distribution Modeling (SDM). Such analyses have grown steadily over the past two decades—including a maturation of relevant theory and key concepts—but methodological co...
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In this commentary we reflect on the potential and power of geographical analysis, as a set of methods, theoretical approaches, and perspectives, to increase our understanding of how space and place matter for all. We emphasize key aspects of the field, including accessibility, urban change, and spatial interaction and behavior, providing a high‐le...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this commentary we reflect on the potential and power of geographical analysis, as a set of methods, theoretical approaches, and perspectives, to increase our understanding of how space and place matter for all. We emphasize key aspects of the field, including accessibility, urban change, and spatial interaction and behavior, providing a high-le...
Article
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There is a debate concerning the definition and extent of tropical dry forest biome and vegetation type at a global spatial scale. We identify the potential extent of the tropical dry forest biome based on bioclimatic definitions and climatic data sets to improve global estimates of distribution, cover, and change. We compared four bioclimatic defi...
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As the effects of anthropogenic climate change become more severe, several approaches for deliberate climate intervention to reduce or stabilize Earth’s surface temperature have been proposed. Solar radiation modification (SRM) is one potential approach to partially counteract anthropogenic warming by reflecting a small proportion of the incoming s...
Article
While calls for interdisciplinary research in environmental contexts are common, it often remains a struggle to integrate humanities/qualitative social sciences insights with those of bio-physical approaches. We propose that cross-disciplinary historical perspectives can open new avenues for collaboration among social and natural scientists while e...
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We report microplastic densities on windward beaches of Oahu, Hawai`i, USA, an island that received about 6 million tourist visits a year. Microplastic densities, surveyed on six Oahu beaches, were highest on the beaches with the coarsest sands, associated with high wave energy. On those beaches, densities were very high (700–1700 particles m ⁻² ),...
Article
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Context Ecological communities in urban ecosystems are assembled through ecological processes, such as species interactions, dispersal, and environmental filtering, but also through human factors that create and modify the landscape. These complex interactions make it difficult to untangle the relationships between social–ecological dynamics and ur...
Article
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Species distribution models (SDMs) constitute the most common class of models across ecology, evolution and conservation. The advent of ready‐to‐use software packages and increasing availability of digital geoinformation have considerably assisted the application of SDMs in the past decade, greatly enabling their broader use for informing conservat...
Article
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Significance Among the 90 resident species of landbirds known from Bahamian fossils, 62 species (69%) have different distributions today from in the recent past, ranging from single-island extirpations to global extinction. Placing the modern bird communities in a deeper time perspective shows how dynamic geographic ranges are through time, includi...
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Aim Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and...
Article
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Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) an...
Article
Premise: Delimiting biodiversity units is difficult in organisms in which differentiation is obscured by hybridization, plasticity, and other factors that blur phenotypic boundaries. Such work is more complicated when the focal units are subspecies, the definition of which has not been broadly explored in the era of modern genetic methods. Eastwoo...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) constitute the most common class of models across ecology, evolution and conservation. The advent of ready-to-use software packages and increasing availability of digital geoinformation have considerably assisted the application of SDMs in the past decade, greatly enabling their broader use for informing conservat...
Article
At the height of its extent, during strong glacials, the Palaeo-Agulhas Plain (PAP, south coast of South Africa) was the size of Ireland, sometimes doubling the size of the extant Cape Floristic Region (CFR). During strong interglacial climates, the PAP was mostly submerged and its ecosystems destroyed or restricted to small slivers. Scientists hav...
Article
The rapid anthropogenic climate change that is being experienced in the early twenty-first century is intimately entwined with the health and functioning of the biosphere. Climate change is impacting ecosystems through changes in mean conditions and in climate variability, coupled with other associated changes such as increased ocean acidification...
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Studies of the factors governing global patterns of biodiversity are key to predicting community responses to ongoing and future abiotic and biotic changes. Although most research has focused on present-day climate, a growing body of evidence indicates that modern ecological communities may be significantly shaped by paleoclimatic change and past a...
Article
Landscape-level fire governs vegetation structure and composition in the contemporary Cape Floristic Region (CFR) and was key to the existence of Middle Stone-Age hunter gatherers on the Palaeo-Agulhas Plain (PAP). However, virtually nothing is known about Pleistocene fire regimes of the CFR. We characterized the fire danger climate of the PAP duri...
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In this study, we automate tree species classification and mapping using field-based training data, high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral imagery, and a convolutional neural network classifier (CNN). We tested our methods by identifying seven dominant trees species as well as dead standing trees in a mixed-conifer forest in the Southern Si...
Article
Pleistocene ecosystems provided the stage for modern human emergence. Terrestrial vegetation communities structure resources for human foragers, providing plant food, wood for fuel and tools, and fibre, as well as habitat for animal prey. The Pleistocene distribution of vegetation communities is seldom considered as a key constraint on hunter-gathe...
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Aims To investigate spatial congruence between ecological niches and genotype in two allopatric species of desert tortoise that are species of conservation concern. Location Mojave and Sonoran Desert ecoregions; California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, USA. Methods We compare ecological niches of Gopherus agassizii and Gopherus morafkai using species d...
Article
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The Palaeo-Agulhas Plain formed an important habitat exploited by Pleistocene hunter-gatherer populations during periods of lower sea level. This productive, grassy habitat would have supported numerous large-bodied ungulates accessible to a population of skilled hunters with the right hunting technology. It also provided a potentially rich locatio...
Article
Land change due to urbanization often results in the loss of desert ecosystems. The loss of desert land affects ecological and social processes in arid cities, such as habitat provisioning, the extent and intensity of the urban heat island, and outdoor recreation opportunities. Understanding the human–environment dynamics associated with environmen...
Article
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A large array of species distribution model (SDM) approaches have been developed for explaining and predicting the occurrences of individual species or species assemblages. Given the wealth of existing models, it is unclear which models perform best for interpolation or extrapolation of existing data sets, particularly when one is concerned with sp...
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Scientific publishing has seen many changes in its ~350 years of existence. Nonetheless, the changes currently underway may be among the most radical. The five major biogeography journals (Diversity and Distributions, Ecography, Frontiers of Biogeography, Global Ecology and Biogeography, and Journal of Biogeography) are indicative of the major unde...
Article
Tall trees and vertical forest structure are associated with increased productivity, biomass and wildlife habitat quality. While climate has been widely hypothesized to control forest structure at broad scales, other variables could be key at fine scales, and are associated with forest management. In this study we identify the environmental conditi...
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Understanding the dynamics of socio‐ecological systems is crucial to the development of environmentally sustainable practices. Models of social or ecological sub‐systems have greatly enhanced such understanding, but at the risk of obscuring important feedbacks and emergent effects. Integrated modelling approaches have the potential to address this...
Article
The ability to infer paleo-distributions with limited knowledge of absence makes species distribution modeling (SDM) a useful tool for exploring paleobiogeographic questions. Spatial sampling bias is a known issue when modeling extant species. Here we quantify the spatial sampling bias in a North American packrat midden archive and explore its impa...
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In many parts of the world, the combined effects of habitat fragmentation and altered disturbance regimes pose a significant threat to biodiversity. This is particularly true in Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs), which tend to be fire-prone, species rich, and heavily impacted by human land use. Given the spatial complexity of overlapping threats...
Data
R and C++ Code for pareto ranking. (ZIP)
Data
Summary statistics and correlation coefficients for criteria. (DOCX)
Data
Illustrative example of pareto ranking. (DOCX)
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Additional information on threat and biodiversity criteria development. (DOCX)
Article
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Aim: Seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) of the Caribbean Islands (primarily West Indies) is floristically distinct from Neotropical SDTF in Central and South America. We evaluate whether tree species composition was associated with climatic gradients or geographical distance. Turnover (dissimilarity) in species composition of different islands o...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) of the Caribbean Islands (primarily West Indies) is floristically distinct from Neotropical SDTF in Central and South America. We evaluate whether tree species composition was associated with climatic gradients or geographical distance. Turnover (dissimilarity) in species composition of different islands or amo...
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Aim: To determine the role of regional forcing on plot-level species diversity and composition, and to quantify the relative importance of biogeographical and climatic factors in explaining woody plant diversity and composition at the local-, island- and archipelago-scale. Location: Forty-one tropical islands of the Indo-Pacific region from Madagas...
Article
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Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world’s tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of spe...
Article
We report a mid- to late-Holocene, non-cultural vertebrate assemblage from Garden Cave (site EL-229), Eleuthera Island, The Bahamas, with 2450 fossils representing 26 species. The chronology is based on accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon (¹⁴C) dates determined directly on individual bones of the hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami), an extirp...
Chapter
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Remote sensing (RS)—taking images or other measurements of Earth from above—provides a unique perspective on what is happening on the Earth and thus plays a special role in biodiversity and conservation applications. The periodic repeat coverage of satellite-based RS is particularly useful for monitoring change and so is essential for understanding...
Article
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Urban riparian corridors have the capacity to maintain high levels of bird abundance and biodiversity. How riparian corridors in cities are used by waterbirds has received relatively little focus in urban bird studies. The principal objective of our study was to determine how habitat and landscape elements affect waterbird biodiversity in an arid c...
Article
On low islands or island groups such as the Bahamas, surrounded by shallow oceans, Quaternary glacial–interglacial changes in climate and sea level had major effects on terrestrial plant and animal communities. We examine the paleoecology of two species of songbirds (Passeriformes) recorded as Late Pleistocene fossils on the Bahamian island of Abac...
Article
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In cities, human activities such as supplemental watering and plantings of ornamental species are thought to decouple vegetation diversity from biophysical processes. Consequently, socioeconomics may arguably be one of the most important factors influencing the pattern and dynamics of vegetation in urban ecosystems. Socioeconomic disturbances, like...
Article
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We report eight new accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon (¹⁴C) dates performed directly on individual bones of extirpated species from Crooked Island, The Bahamas. Three dates from the hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami), recovered from a culturally derived bone assemblage in McKay's Bluff Cave (site CR-5), all broadly overlap from AD 1450 to...
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2016. Shrinking windows of opportunity for oak seedling establishment in southern California mountains. Ecosphere 7(11): Abstract. Seedling establishment is a critical step that may ultimately govern tree species' distribution shifts under environmental change. Annual variation in the location of seed rain and microclimates results in transient " w...
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A fundamental goal of ecology is to understand the determinants of species' distributions (i.e., the set of locations where a species is present). Competition among species (i.e., interactions among species that harms each of the species involved) is common in nature and it would be tremendously useful to quantify its effects on species' distributi...
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Seasonally dry tropical forests are distributed across Latin America and the Caribbean and are highly threatened, with less than 10% of their original extent remaining in many countries. Using 835 inventories covering 4660 species of woody plants, we show marked floristic turnover among inventories and regions, which may be higher than in other neo...