Janet Elizabeth Cade

Janet Elizabeth Cade
University of Leeds · School of Food Science and Nutrition

About

572
Publications
105,485
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
18,885
Citations
Introduction
I am a nutritional epidemiologist with particular interest in how we measure food and nutrient intakes. We have developed and validated an online dietary assessment tool - myfood24 which is available in several languages and with a range of food composition databases. I also work with WHO through our Collaborating Centre in Nutritional Epidemiology, we want to support better measures of diet at national level. We are extending our UK Women's Cohort Study database to include many new outcomes from Hospital Episode Statistics. Get in touch by emailing j.e.cade@leeds.ac.uk if you are interested in any of these projects.
Additional affiliations
June 1990 - present
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology & Public Health

Publications

Publications (572)
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood obesity rates more than double during primary school in England. Acquiring competent cooking skills is a key part of children’s education that can lead to improved knowledge of a healthy lifestyle and dietary behaviours. Evaluation of the impact of ‘PhunkyFoods’, a school-based food and nutrition education programme, will asses...
Article
myfood24 is an innovative dietary assessment tool originally developed in English for use in the United Kingdom. This online 24 h recall, a tool commonly used in nutritional epidemiology, has been developed into different international versions. This paper aims to describe the creation of its French version. We used a consistent approach to develop...
Article
Full-text available
The taste of foods is a key factor for adolescents' food choices and intakes, yet, exploring taste characteristics of adolescents' diet is limited. Using food records for 284 adolescents (10-19 years old) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), year 9 (2016-2017), we classified diets according to taste. Tastes for each food consumed wer...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring nutritional intake is of clinical value but few existing tools offer electronic dietary recording, instant nutritional analysis and a platform connecting healthcare teams with patients, providing timely, personalised support. This feasibility randomised controlled trial tests usability of ‘myfood24 Healthcare’, a dietary assessment app a...
Article
Full-text available
Improving breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices is needed to support good health, enhance child growth, and reduce child mortality. Limited evidence is available on child feeding among Indigenous communities and in the context of environmental changes. We investigate past and present breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices wit...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the gaping void in relation to the understanding of the food environment. The importance of the food environment in relation to reducing inequalities in diet and consequently health, as well as sustainability issues, are also discussed here. Also denoted on the map is where there is evidence that progress has been made to red...
Article
Full-text available
Background Food production accounts for 30% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Less environmentally sustainable diets are also often more processed, energy-dense and nutrient-poor. To date, the environmental impact of diets have mostly been based on a limited number of broad food groups. Objectives We link GHG emissions to over 3000 foods,...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To summarise the totality of evidence regarding dietary risk factors for hip fracture in adults, evaluating the quality of evidence, to provide recommendations for practice and further research. Design Systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews with meta-analyses reporting summary...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive food lists and databases are a critical input for programs aiming to alleviate undernutrition. However, standard methods for developing them may produce databases that are irrelevant for marginalised groups where nutritional needs are highest. Our study provides a method for identifying critical contextual information required to buil...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We aimed to validate myfood24-Germany, a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24HDR), by comparing its performance with a weighed dietary record (WDR) and biomarkers. Methods 97 adults (77% female) completed a 3-day WDR with a 24-h urine collection on day 3, followed by at least one 24HDR with myfood24-Germany (corresponding to day 3 of the WDR)...
Conference Paper
Background Cognitive decline is of increasing concern in aging societies worldwide and could highlight a key time window for prevention of developing dementia. Evidence on food consumption in relation to cognitive decline remains unclear. Methods Consumption frequencies of common foods including vegetables, fruits, total fish (oily fish and non-oi...
Article
Full-text available
Survival analysis with cohort study data has been traditionally performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Random survival forests (RSFs), a machine learning method, now present an alternative method. Using the UK Women’s Cohort Study (n = 34,493) we evaluate two methods: a Cox model and an RSF, to investigate the association between Body Mas...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive food composition database (FCDB) is essential for assessing dietary intake of nutrients. However, currently available food composition data for Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC) is limited. The aim was to develop an Arabic FCDB of foods commonly available in the GCC (initial focus on Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), which will be in...
Conference Paper
Background Taste of food may be important in food choice and dietary intakes. While taste perception in the laboratory has been widely studied, it has rarely been taken into account when exploring dietary patterns in a population. The aim of this work is to identify consumers’ taste perceptions for a list of commonly consumed foods. Methods The Na...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Assessing dietary intake requires comprehensive food composition databases (FCDB), supporting linkage between foods and nutrients (Reference Foster, Hawkins and Delve1). While traditional methods of collecting dietary intake have been interviewer-led, web-based systems offer advantages allowing for self-administered recalls. In light of this, curre...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To develop an online food composition database of locally consumed foods among an Indigenous population in south-western Uganda. Design Using a community-based approach and collaboration with local nutritionists, we collected a list of foods for inclusion in the database through focus group discussions, an individual dietary survey and m...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To identify child and parent outcomes relevant to having a gastrostomy, and to specify outcomes believed to be particularly salient to type of diet (formula vs blended food). Method Twenty parents, two children (both 12y), and 41 professionals (dietitians [n=10]; nurses [n=12]; paediatricians [n=12]; speech and language therapists [n=7)]) were...
Article
Background People living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) face many challenges to taking adequate nutrition. Growing evidence links weight loss with negative prognostic outcomes. We aimed to explore the practice of dietitians in the UK with regards the nutritional management of ALS. Methods A national online survey was disseminated via pro...
Article
Full-text available
Simple Summary Pancreatic cancer has a poor survival rate and its modifiable risks are poorly understood. We investigated the association between both traditional (BMI, waist and hip circumference and waist–hip ratio) and novel (standard UK clothing sizes) adiposity indicators as predictors of pancreatic cancer risk among women enrolled in the UK w...
Article
Background: We studied the association of obesity indices both conventional (BMI, waist and hip circumference and waist-hip-ratio) and novel (UK clothing sizes) with pancreatic cancer risk in the UK women’s cohort study (UKWCS). Methods: The UKWCS recruited 35,792 women from England, Wales and Scotland from1995-1998. Cancer diagnosis and death info...
Article
Full-text available
Background Worldwide, the prevalence of dementia is increasing and diet as a modifiable factor could play a role. Meat consumption has been cross-sectionally associated with dementia risk, but specific amounts and types related to risk of incident dementia remain poorly understood. Objective We aimed to investigate associations between meat consum...
Article
Full-text available
Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function, supporting healthy fetal and child development. Io-dine requirements increase in pregnancy, but many women in regions without salt iodisation have insufficient intakes. We explored associations between iodide intake and urinary iodine concentra-tion (UIC), urinary iodine:creatinine ratio (I:Cr), thyr...
Conference Paper
Dementia represents an increasing burden of disease in aging societies worldwide; modifiable lifestyle factors, especially diet, have been implicated and represent potential targets for primary prevention(1). Although the role of processed and red meat consumption in relation to certain cancers has been established(2), its involvement in dementia d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones essential for fetal brain development. Maternal iodine deficiency can lead to hypothyroxinemia, a reduced fetal supply of thyroid hormones which, in the first trimester, has been linked to an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. No...
Article
Earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments mean that the estimated number of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom is expected to reach 4 million by 2030. However, there is an increasing realisation that excess body fatness (EBF) is likely to influence the quality of cancer survivorship and disease-free survival. For decades, the discussion o...
Article
Growing data from epidemiological studies highlight the association between excess body fat and cancer incidence, but good indicative evidence demonstrates that intentional weight loss, as well as increasing physical activity, offers much promise as a cost-effective approach for reducing the cancer burden. However, clear gaps remain in our understa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) in Mexican children remains high with soft drinks accounting for 10% of energy intake. Greater intakes of SSB are associated with higher risks of weight gain, type 2 diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Objective: A 12-week educational programme was de- veloped to target environmental...
Article
Background: Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones essential for fetal brain development. Maternal iodine deficiency can lead to hypothyroxinemia, a reduced fetal supply of thyroid hormones which, in the first trimester, has been linked to an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. N...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is projected to negatively affect human health and nutrition. There is a growing literature on the effects of climatic changes on food availability, quantity, and agricultural production, but impacts on the nutritional content of foods has not been widely studied. The aim of this paper is to systematically characterise empirical lite...
Article
A major determinant of healthy growth and development is good nutrition during infancy and early childhood. The high level of marketing and wide-spread availability of commercially available complementary foods (baby foods) have led to various concerns about the nutritional content and potentially problematic marketing strategies used to promote th...
Article
Objectives To investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and age of natural menopause. Study design and main outcome measures Menopausal status was reported at two time points 4 years apart in the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS). Diet of participants was measured using a 217-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Princip...
Article
Full-text available
The UK government plans to limit price-based and location-based promotions for products high in saturated fat, salt and sugars. The 2004/5 UK nutrient profile model (NPM) is the proposed legislative basis, but may be superseded by the draft 2018 NPM. This study develops an algorithm to apply both NPMs to a large food composition database (FCDB), an...
Article
Importance: Early menarche and early menopause are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in midlife, but little is known about the association between reproductive life span and the risk of CVD. Objective: To investigate the association between the length of reproductive life span and risk of incident CVD events, while a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Iodine insufficiency may result in poorer cognitive or child educational outcomes but current evidence is sparse and inconsistent. Objectives: To quantify the association between maternal iodine status and child educ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to determine whether commercial baby foods marketed within Europe (up to 36 months of age) have inappropriate formulation and high sugar content and to provide suggestions to update European regulations and recommendations as part of a nutrient profile model developed for this age group. The latter was produced following recommended Wor...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of adults report that perceived taste affects food choices and intake, which in turn may have an impact on health. However, corresponding evidence on adolescents is limited. Our aim was to summarize current evidence of the impact of taste perception on food choice preferences or dietary intakes among adolescents (mean age 10–19.9 years). Sy...
Article
Full-text available
Background Few potentially modifiable risk factors of male infertility have been identified and while different diets and food groups have been associated with male infertility, evidence linking dietary factors including phytoestrogens and semen quality is limited and contradictory. Objectives To study the associations between phytoestrogen intake...
Article
Associations between dietary factors and general cognition in the elderly have been documented; however, little is known about reaction time ability in relation to midlife diet. This study aimed to investigate associations between reaction time and midlife dietary factors, specifically foods, nutrients, and Mediterranean diet (MeDi) pattern. The UK...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe iodine insufficiency in pregnancy has significant consequences, but there is inadequate evidence to indicate what constitutes mild or moderate insufficiency, in terms of observed detrimental effects on pregnancy or birth outcomes. A limited number of studies have examined iodine status and birth outcomes, finding inconsistent ev...
Article
Obesity is a major health problem facing the European population; over two thirds (67%) of UK adult men and 58% women are overweight or obese ⁽¹⁾ . The positive association between on-pack serving-size and food intake is known as the ‘portion size effect’. However, although direct links with obesity remain unproven, evidence suggests that limiting...
Article
Full-text available
Online dietary assessment tools can reduce administrative costs and facilitate repeated dietary assessment during follow-up in large-scale prospective studies. We developed an online 24-h recall (myfood24) with automated estimation of associated nutrient intake, and assessed validity against reference recovery, predictive and concentration biomarke...
Article
Dietary pattern analyses have most commonly used food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data for large population studies, whilst food diaries (FD) tend to be used with smaller datasets and followed up for shorter terms, restricting the possibility of a direct comparison. Studies comparing dietary patterns derived from two different assessment methods,...
Article
WHO guidelines on sugars strongly recommend reducing free sugar intake to below 10% of total energy, also their guidance on ‘Ending the inappropriate promotion of foods for infants and young children (IYC)’ recommends avoiding free sugars. Information on the sugar content of commercially available complementary foods (CACFs) for infants is limited,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives In the largest study of its type, we tested for associations between red meat consumption and cognitive function using data from half a million participants enrolled into the UK Biobank cohort study. Methods Baseline data was obtained from the UK Biobank cohort, comprising half a million participants aged 37–73 years recruited between 2...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other forms of dementia are increasing in prevalence worldwide, while global dietary patterns are transitioning to a ‘western type’ with increasing meat consumption. Studies which have explored the associations between cognitive function and meat intakes have produced inconsistent findings. The aim of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malnutrition linked to noncommunicable diseases presents major health problems across Europe. The World Health Organisation encourages countries to conduct national dietary surveys to obtain data to inform public health policies designed to prevent noncommunicable diseases. Methods Data on 27334 participants aged 19-64y were harmonised...
Article
Full-text available
Study question: How does the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary with type and age of menopause? Summary answer: Earlier surgical menopause (e.g. <45 years) poses additional increased risk of incident CVD events, compared to women with natural menopause at the same age, and HRT use reduced the risk of CVD in women with early surgical menop...
Article
Full-text available
The British Nutrition Foundation held a 1‐day roundtable event to gather views from a wide range of stakeholders on the relevance and importance of the concept of nutrient density in supporting and motivating people to make healthier dietary choices. The opportunities and barriers associated with the use of this concept were also explored. The roun...
Article
Context: Overestimation or underestimation of portion size leads to measurement error during dietary assessment. Objective: To identify portion size estimation elements (PSEEs) and evaluate their relative efficacy in relation to dietary assessment, and assess the quality of studies validating PSEEs. Data selection and extraction: Electronic da...
Article
Full-text available
The WHO encourages countries to conduct national dietary surveys (NDS) to inform preventative policies targeting malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases. Previous reviews have found inadequate nutrient intakes and survey provision across Europe. This research is the first to provide an updated review of NDS provision within the whole WHO European...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Mandatory school meal standards were introduced in 2006 in England; however, no legislation exists for packed lunches. This study analyses provision of foods and nutrients in packed lunches in 2016 to highlight differences in diet and nutrient quality since 2006. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of children’s packed lunches were conduc...