Janet Box-Steffensmeier

Janet Box-Steffensmeier
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Political Science

Ph.D.

About

91
Publications
13,744
Reads
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5,563
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1993 - present
The Ohio State University
Position
  • Vernal Riffe Professor of Political Science & Sociology (courtesy); Dean for Social and Behavioral Sciences

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
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We demonstrate strong self-referential effects in county-level data concerning use of the death penalty. We first show event-dependency using a repeated-event model. Higher numbers of previous events reduce the expected time delay before the next event. Second, we use a cross-sectional time-series approach to model the number of death sentences imp...
Article
Central to the study of Congress is the study of relationships among members. Electoral collaboration is a function of a member's position in the broader congressional power network. It allows members to leverage their campaign resources to achieve the four classic goals of members of Congress: reelection, making good public policy, obtaining power...
Article
Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) are an increasingly common tool for inferential network analysis. However, a potential problem for these models is the assumption of correct model specification. Through six substantive applications (Mesa High, Florentine Marriage, Military Alliances, Militarized Interstate Disputes, Regional Planning, Brain...
Article
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Why do some pieces of legislation move forward while others languish? We address this fundamental question by examining the role of interest groups in Congress, specifically the effect of their legislative endorsements in Dear Colleague letters. These letters provide insights into the information that members use to both influence and make policy d...
Article
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Since 1976, the United States has seen over 1,400 judicial executions, and these have been highly concentrated in only a few states and counties. The number of executions across counties appears to fit a stretched distribution. These distributions are typically reflective of self-reinforcing processes where the probability of observing an event inc...
Article
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In the study of social processes, the presence of unobserved heterogeneity is a regular concern. It should be particularly worrisome for the statistical analysis of networks, given the complex dependencies that shape network formation combined with the restrictive assumptions of related models. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of explic...
Data
Supplementary information appendix. This document contains additional robustness checks and diagnostics associated with the manuscript “Event Dependence in U.S. Executions”. In particular, it contains an assessment of the proportional hazards assumption and residuals (Cox-Snell, Martingale, Deviance) for the presented Conditional Frailty Model. In...
Conference Paper
Interest groups use coalition strategies to exert influence, yet, like other political actors, they also withdraw from partnerships in the pursuit of other policy goals. We explore how interest group coalition strategies have changed over time and which factors determine whether interest groups relationships form and dissolve. Utilizing dynamic net...
Article
Interest groups coordinate to achieve political goals. However, these groups are heterogeneous, and the division of labor within these coalitions varies. We explore the presence of distinct roles in coalitions of environmental interest groups, and analyse which factors predict if an organization takes on a particular role. To model these latent dyn...
Article
In recent years, political science has seen a boom in the use of sophisticated methodological tools for time series analysis. One such tool is the general error correction model (GECM), originally introduced to political scientists in the pages of this journal over 20 years ago (Durr 1992; Ostrom and Smith 1992) and re-introduced by De Boef and Kee...
Article
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When, how, and under what conditions can individual legislators affect presidential appointments? Since the early 1900s, the senatorial norm of the blue slip has played a key role in the confirmation process of federal district and appeals court judges, and it is an important aspect of the individual prerogative that characterizes senatorial behavi...
Article
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Background: Recruitment and retention of talent is central to the research performance of universities. Existing research shows that, while men are more likely than women to be promoted at the different stages of the academic career, no such difference is found when it comes to faculty retention rates. Current research on faculty retention, howeve...
Article
We examine congressional cue-taking theory to determine its extent, conditionality, and various forms in the US Senate. Using a novel data-collection technique (timed C-SPAN footage), we focus on temporal dynamics via event history analysis. Examining the effects of senator characteristics across 16 votes from the 108th Congress, we find that commi...
Article
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We compare and contrast the network formation of interest groups across industry and issue area. We focus on membership interest groups, which by virtue of representing the interests of voluntary members face particular organizational and maintenance constraints. To reveal their cooperative behavior we build a network dataset based on cosigner stat...
Book
Time-series, or longitudinal, data are ubiquitous in the social sciences. Unfortunately, analysts often treat the time-series properties of their data as a nuisance rather than a substantively meaningful dynamic process to be modeled and interpreted. Time-Series Analysis for Social Sciences provides accessible, up-to-date instruction and examples o...
Article
Full-text available
Interest groups often make their preferences known on cases before the U.S. Supreme Court via amicus curiae briefs. In evaluating the case and related arguments, we posit that judges take into account more than just the number of supporters for the liberal and conservative positions. Specifically, judges’ decisions may also reflect the relative pow...
Article
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Jacob S. Hacker and Paul Pierson's Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class is both a work of political science and a contribution to broad public discussion of distributive politics. Its topic could not be more relevant to a US polity wracked by bitter partisan disagreements about taxes,...
Article
Central to traditionalist and revisionist perspectives of individual-level party identification is a debate about the stability of party identification. We revisit the debate about the dynamic properties and processes underlying party identification. We present a conceptual framework that defines heterogeneity and state dependence as endpoints of a...
Article
Estimators within the Cox family are often used to estimate models for repeated events. Yet, there is much we still do not know about the performance of these estimators. In particular, we do not know how they perform given time dependence, different censoring rates, and a varying number of events and sample sizes. We use Monte Carlo simulations to...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces how latent variables are handled in event history analysis, a popular method used to examine both the occurrence and the timing of events. We first emphasize why event history models are popular and what kinds of research questions the model can be used to answer. We also review the major estimation issues, briefly trace the...
Article
The present study evaluated individual and interactive influences of pork loin (n=679) ultimate ph (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and internal cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on trained sensory perception of palatability. Logistical r...
Article
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Scholars have long been interested in understanding how members of Congress make voting decisions, for this process is at the core of representative democracy. Existing literature investigating the nature of Congressional cue-taking identifies several sources that members of Congress may look to as a means of developing their own vote choices. Our...
Article
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The study evaluated the interactive and individual effects of fresh pork loin (n=679) ultimate pH (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), and four cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on consumer (n=2280) perception of eating quality (n=13,265 obser...
Chapter
Full-text available
Researchers are often interested in more than just the occurrence or non-occurrence of a political events; often the timing of events is of equal substantive importance, whether it is the dissolution of a government's cabinet (e.g., King et al. 1990; Warwick 1992; Diermeier and Stevenson 1999), the presence of international military disputes (Jones...
Article
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We present the first social network analysis of purposive and coordinated interest group relationships. We utilize a network measure based on cosigner status to United States Supreme Court amicus curiae, or friend of the court briefs. The illuminated structures lend insight into the central players and overall formation of the network over the firs...
Article
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Does law exhibit a significant constraint on Supreme Court justices' decisions? Although proponents of the attitudinal model argue that ideology predominantly influences justices' choices, “hybrid models” posit that law and ideology exhibit discrete and concurrent effects on justices' choices. I offer a new conceptualization of legal constraint exa...
Article
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Daily interactions between partisan elites, the media, and citizens are the driving dynamic of election campaigns and the central determinant of their outcomes. Accordingly, we develop a theory of campaign dynamics that departs from previous top-down models of campaign effects in its emphasis on the reciprocal campaign interactions between these ac...
Article
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I am pleased to report that our Association's financial condition remains healthy, providing a resource base sufficient to continue current operations, while expanding the Association's activities in new directions as needed. Since our last annual report, we have seen our endowment and real estate holdings grow in value to about $32.1 million (June...
Article
Time-varying relationships and volatility are two methodological challenges that are particular to the field of time series. In the case of the former, more comprehensive understanding can emerge when we ask under what circumstances relationships may change. The impact of context—such as the political environment, the state of the economy, the inte...
Article
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We introduce the conditional frailty model, an event history model that separates and accounts for both event dependence and heterogeneity in repeated events processes. Event dependence and heterogeneity create within-subject correlation in event times thereby violating the assumptions of standard event history models. Simulations show the advantag...
Article
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I develop a formal model of bureaucratic policymaking in which a legislature delegates authority to a bureaucratic agency that is subject to ex post review by an executive with diverse preferences. Equilibrium results identify conditions under which executive clearance of agency rulemaking can be pareto optimal for both branches of government, in c...
Article
Repeated events processes are ubiquitous across a great range of important health, medical, and public policy applications, but models for these processes have serious limitations. Alternative estimators often produce different inferences concerning treatment effects due to bias and inefficiency. We recommend a robust strategy for the estimation of...
Article
In this article, we discuss how donor and recipient characteristics affected the incidence and timing of political action committee (PAC) contributions to incumbent members of the U.S. House of Representatives during the 1993-94 election cycle. We contribute to the campaign finance literature by modeling the timing of contributions, which is import...
Article
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Gender differences in vote choice, opinion, and party identification have become a common feature of the American political landscape. We examine the nature and causes of gender differences in partisanship using a time series approach. We show that gender differences are pervasive—existing outside of the context of specific elections or issues—and...
Article
Gender differences in vote choice, opinion, and party identification have become a common feature of the American political landscape. We examine the nature and causes of gender differences in partisanship using a time series approach. We show that gender differences are pervasive-existing outside of the context of specific elections or issues-and...
Book
Here is an accessible, up-to-date guide to event history analysis for researchers and advanced students in the social sciences. The foundational principles of event history analysis are discussed and ample examples are estimated and interpreted using standard statistical packages, such as STATA and S-Plus. Recent and critical innovations in diagnos...
Article
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We examine factors that influence whether or not constituents know and like their representative in Congress, exploring how constituents respond to very different forms of political representation—descriptive, symbolic, and allocational—provided by House members. We compare the relative contribution that non-policy representational factors make to...
Article
Our research addresses how individual member behavior and institutional variables affect legislative success in the U.S. House of Representatives. Using new measures of activity from the 103d Congress (1993–94), a count dependent variable, and negative binomial regression, our analysis assesses member effectiveness. We find that a member's activity...
Article
The Macro Polity. By Robert S. Erikson, Michael B. MacKuen, and James A. Stimson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 469p. $90.00 cloth, $30.00 paper - - Volume 1 Issue 2 - Box-Steffensmeier Janet M.
Article
Full-text available
Event history models have become a dominant method of analysis in the study of international relations. Conventional event history models, however, retain the assumption that the effects of the covariates remain proportional to each other throughout the duration of the subject's phase. Nonproportional hazard (NPH) models are used, which allow for t...
Article
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Our discussion focuses on the importance of temporal dynamics in the study of international conflict and more specifically on the nature of those dynamics as they relate to interdependence. Our goal is to point out some areas in which the substantial achievements of international politics scholars may be further improved. In part because of the uni...
Article
An important feature of most political events is their repeatability: nearly all political events reoccur, and theories of learning, path dependence, and institutional change all suggest that later events will differ from earlier ones. Yet, most models for event history analysis fail to account for repeated events, a fact that can yield misleading...
Article
An important feature of most political events is their repeatability: nearly all political events reoccur, and theories of learning, path dependence, and institutional change all suggest that later events will differ from earlier ones. Yet, most models for event history analysis fail to account for repeated events, a fact that can yield misleading...
Article
There are many reasons to believe that political parties' fortunes and the ideological preferences of the electorate are tied together. Yet existing evidence finds no relationship between trends in the partisan and ideological identifications of the American electorate (Box-Steffensmeier, Knight, and Sigelman 1998). We argue that a portion of the e...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1978, the vote reported for House incumbents in the American National Election Studies (NES) has been significantly higher than the actual incumbents' vote in the districts surveyed; in NES surveys before 1978, the reported vote was much closer to the actual vote. The prime suspect for the source of this bias is the new question format introd...
Article
Full-text available
Ever since the late 1970s, women have been significantly more likely to identify with the Democratic Party than man. Explanations of the phenomenon usually link the rise of the gender gap to the political swing to conservatism and its attacks on the welfare state. We propose to study this linkage by way of examining time series data aggregated from...
Article
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Box-Steffensmeier and Smith (1996) suggest that heterogeneity in individuallevel party identification accounts for aggregate dynamics in macropartisanship. WileyWiley estimates of partisan persistence suggesting a very high degree of individuallevel partisan persistence have been made under the assumption of no heterogeneity. Stratifying panel data...
Article
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How one is represented should shape one's opinion about the incumbent's performance in office, one's opinion about Congress as an institution, and ultimately, one's underlying attitude toward democratic practices. In this paper, we develop and test a model in which voters evaluate members of Congress on the basis of their performance in office in a...
Article
In recent years political scientists have increasingly adopted a wide range of techniques for modeling duration data. A key assumption of all these approaches is that the hazard ratios (i.e., the conditional relative risks across substrata) are proportional to one another, and that this proportionality is maintained over time. Estimation of proport...
Article
We argue that fractional integration methods have the potential to unify and simplify time series analysis. Estimation of the d parameter in an ARFIMA (p, d, q) model is no longer difficult and multivariate extensions are proving useful. In particular, we discuss and illustrate the most promising route, fractional cointegration and the innovation o...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1978, the vote reported for House incumbents in the American National Election Studies (NES) has been significantly higher than the actual incumbents' vote in the districts surveyed; in NES surveys before 1978, the reported vote was much closer to the actual vote. The prime suspect for the source of this bias is the new question format introd...
Article
Full-text available
The investment theory of campaign finance posits that political action committees invest campaign funds in members who provide services at a low cost. We build on and directly test this theory, hypothesizing that PACs give to members who are effective legislators. Using data collected from the 103d and 104th Congresses and a direct measure of effec...
Article
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As increasing numbers of political scientists have turned to event history models to analyze duration data, there has been growing awareness of the issue of heterogeneity: instances in which subpopulations in the data vary in ways not captured by the systematic components of standard duration models. We discuss the general issue of heterogeneity, a...
Article
Full-text available
Voting analysts often make a distinction between "long-term" and "short-term" forces that influence the voting decision in presidential elections (Campbell et al. 1960). Long-term forces reflect information and considerations that are available to voter before the presidential campaign starts, such as party identification, demographic attributes, a...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable research focuses on explaining trends in party identification in the American public. Somewhat less attention has been devoted to trends in ideological identification, although such research has been on the increase. However, the potential relationship between macropartisanship and macroideology remains largely unexamined. We use alter...
Article
Theory: Many questions central to political science, such as the issue of stability and change in the United States party system, revolve around the degree of persistence or memory in a political process. Fractional integration techniques, which allow researchers to investigate dynamic behavior that falls between the stationary and integrated alter...
Article
Many questions of interest to political scientists may be answered with event history analysis, which studies the duration and timing of events. We discuss the statistical analysis of event history data - data giving the number, timing, and sequence of changes in a variable of interest. These methods are illustrated by examining three substantive p...
Article
Abstract Legislative socialisation has long been an important force for political deradicalisation in capitalist democracies worldwide. It remains barely explored, however, in large part because it is a process very difficult to track by conventional observational or survey methods. We circumvent these problems by taking advantage of an unusually p...
Article
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A critical element of decision making is the timing of choices political actors make; often when a decision is made is as critical as the decision itself. We posit a dynamic model of strategic position announcement based on signaling theories of legislative politics. We suggest that members who receive clear signals from constituents, interest grou...
Article
Full-text available
Despite extensive research on party identification, links between partisanship at the individual and aggregate level have largely been ignored. This leaves a gap in our understanding of the dynamics of aggregate partisanship. To remedy this, we identify a set of ideal types that capture the essential arguments made about individual-level party iden...
Article
War chest dynamics affect challenger entry. Large war chests deter challengers from entering. High quality challengers should be particularly influenced. Repeated measures analysis of variance and duration analysis with time varying covariates and temporally disaggregated war chest data are employed. The primary contribution of this paper is the em...
Article
Theory: War chest dynamics affect challenger entry. Hypotheses: Large war chests deter challengers from entering. High quality challengers should be particularly influenced. Methods: Repeated measures analysis of variance and duration analysis with time varying covariates and temporally disaggregated war chest data are employed. Results: The primar...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to conventional studies on campaign finance, which focus on the aggregate effect of money on the vote, we propose a more general dynamic model based on temporally disaggregated data. The model is supported by the substantive understanding that at different stages of the campaign process candidates have different goals, and their expendi...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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The study of campaign finance has been greatly informed by the use of economic models of the contributor-legislator relationship. Predominant among these is the investment theory of resource allocation which predicts that interest groups equate the marginal value of the last dollar provided across recipients. The model, however, is predicated on th...
Article
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Paper prepared for delivery at the 1996 annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, April 18-20, 1996, Chicago, Illinois. We thank Laura Arnold for her helpful suggestions. We also thank Laura Arnold, Lori Hausseger and Roy Wolf for their assistance in data collection. ABSTRACT Of the thousands of bills sponsored in any given Congr...
Article
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Campaigns are central events in the democratic life of the nation, periods when elites compete actively for citizens' support, the media emphasize political coverage and become both reporters and interpreters, and citizens evaluate candidates in response to changing events and information. As such, political campaigns have much to teach us about ho...
Article
In this manuscript we focus on event history analysis, noting several prominent applications to the study of politics. We begin by discussing different modeling strategies, along with problems and misconceptions common (and unique) to political survival research. We then introduce the Cox proportional hazards model, describing its logic, estimation...