Jana Sanyova

Jana Sanyova
Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage | KIK/IRPA · Department of Laboratories

PhD
Head of Laboratory of Polychromed Artifacts

About

74
Publications
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762
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1990 - present
Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage
September 1990 - July 2019
Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Four panel paintings depicting episodes related to the birth of Christ and attributed to the Portuguese mannerist painter Francisco João (doc. 1558–1585) were found to exhibit a muted palette that had no correspondence with the traditionally vivid colors used in the sixteenth century to represent joyful biblical events. Complementing previous resea...
Chapter
The Ghent Altarpiece by Hubert and Jan van Eyck has always attracted both admiration and curiosity. A major research and restoration campaign of the lower register of the open altarpiece, which includes the famous Adoration of the Lamb, was carried out by KIK-IRPA between 2016 and 2020. Interdisciplinary collaboration with laboratory scientists, ar...
Article
Between 2001 and 2011 a comprehensive study project was conducted at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage of Brussels (IRPA-KIK) on the artistic technique of “applied brocades” used in the southern Netherlands of the 1400s and 1500s. This comprehensive study resulted in a published work entitled “Imitation and Illusion, Applied Brocade in the...
Article
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The formation of metal oxalates in paintings has recently gained a great deal of interest within the field of heritage science as several types of oxalate compounds have been identified in oil paintings. The present work investigates the formation of metal oxalates in linseed oil in the presence of the artists’ pigments zinc white, calcite, lead wh...
Article
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The ongoing conservation treatment program of the Ghent Altarpiece by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, one of the iconic paintings of the west, has revealed that the designs of the paintings were changed several times, first by the original artists, and then during later restorations. The central motif, The Lamb of God, representing Christ, plays an essent...
Article
This paper reports the dry and wet synthetic procedures and characterization by Raman spectroscopy of amorphous arsenic sulfide reference pigments. Reference spectra of two amorphous materials obtained by wet process methods and four dry process references of amorphous arsenic sulfide pigments of known composition are presented and discussed. While...
Article
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in: Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung 38, no. 2 (2018) Der Text beschreibt die Werktechnik sowie die Konservierung und Restaurierung einer lebensgroßen Christusskulptur, die im Rahmen des International Conservation Workshop Lopud durchgeführt wurde. Die hohl gefertige Skulptur besteht aus einer Gruppierung von Maisstengeln. Die Ve...
Article
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An analytical study of the painted folding doors at Herlev Hospital in Denmark has been performed in connection with the creation of new doors. The hospital which construction was completed in 1976 is one of the first polychrome hospitals in the world. The building has achieved international awareness not only as a piece of architecture but also as...
Article
Although it is now relatively straightforward to identify protein binders in works of art, their proper localization within the corresponding layer still represents a significant analytical challenge. Until now, the identification of proteins has mainly been performed by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometric methods and their localiz...
Article
In this paper, we used the semiconducting and lightfastness properties of synthetic and mineral arsenic sulfide pigments to study their stability by means of electrochemical and microfadometric techniques. A combination of these techniques shows that in the early stage of the degradation process, amorphous arsenic sulfides are more stable than both...
Article
In this study, a combination of elemental analytical techniques (MA-XRF and SEM-EDX) were used to localize arsenic sulfide pigments within a 17th-century Dutch painting and in the stratigraphy of an 18th-century Flemish polychrome sculpture. Once located, Raman spectroscopy was used to obtain the vibrational signature of the arsenic sulfide pigment...
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An analytical study of two paintings by P. S. Krøyer and the tube colours found in his painting cabinet has been carried out in order to investigate the artists' materials used by Krøyer in the latter part of his oeuvre. The study has given a valuable knowledge about Krøyer's choice of materials and their composition that may be helpful in e.g. pre...
Article
The artists' pigment zinc yellow is in general described as a complex potassium zinc chromate with the empirical formula 4ZnCrO4·K2O·3H2O. Even though the pigment has been in use since the second half of the 19th century also in large-scale industrial applications, the exact structure had hitherto been unknown. In this work, zinc yellow was synthes...
Cover Page
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G. Van der Snickt et al. describe how they used large-and microscale elemental imaging (EI) to obtain compositional maps for the surface of the verso wing panels of the altarpiece, which allowed visualization and assessment of the original paint layers below the overpainting. Thus, EI provided objective arguments supporting the decision for full re...
Article
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A combined Raman and electrochemical study of natural orpiment (As2S3), an arsenic sulfide pigment, was used to assess the quick formation of oxidized species such as arsenic oxide (As2O3) upon exposing the pigment to 405 nm or 532 nm monochromatic light while simultaneously recording the Raman spectra of the exposed sample. During this process, a...
Article
Der Genter Altar von van Eyck …… gilt vielen als Höhepunkt der mittelalterlichen Malerei in Europa. In der Zuschrift auf S. 4875 ff. beschreiben G. Van der Snickt et al., wie sie mithilfe von Elementbildgebung (EI) im Groß- und Mikromaßstab die Zusammensetzung der gesamten Farboberfläche der Flügelrückseiten erhielten, was die übermalten originalen...
Article
Van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece is considered by many to be the pinnacle of European mediaeval paintxting. In their Communication on page 4797 ff., G. Van der Snickt et al. describe how they used large- and microscale elemental imaging (EI) to obtain compositional maps for the surface of the verso wing panels of the altarpiece, which allowed visualizat...
Article
A combination of large-scale and micro-scale elemental imaging, yielding elemental distribution maps obtained by, respectively non-invasive macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) and by secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and synchrotron radiation-based micro-XRF (SR μ-XRF) imaging was employed to reorient and...
Article
In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s. However, in one of the tube colours labelled “Jau...
Article
A combination of large-scale and micro-scale elemental imaging, yielding elemental distribution maps obtained by, respectively non-invasive macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) and by secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and synchrotron radiation-based micro-XRF (SR μ-XRF) imaging was employed to reorient and...
Article
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the characterization of materials and is of valuable use in archaeometrical research in general. Green compounds of natural or synthetic origin are found in many research areas, ranging from mineralogy, to pigment identification, to corrosion studies. However, a detailed and comprehensive database of s...
Article
Orpiment and realgar, both arsenic sulfide pigments respectively used for their vivid yellow and red-orange hues, are two of many artists' pigments that appear not to be stable upon light exposure, quickly degrading to arsenic trioxide and arsenate. This often results in whitening or transparency in the painted surfaces. While conventional techniqu...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we used a multi-technique approach in order to identify the arsenic sulfide pigment used in the decorative panels of the Japanese tower in Laeken, Belgium. Our attention was drawn to this particular pigment because of its relatively good conservation state, despite its known tendency to fade over time when exposed to light. The pigme...
Article
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The present study concerns the technology of Tibetan wall painting i.e. the pigments, binding medium and stratigraphic build-up. Original Tibetan materials were brought to the School of Conservation in Denmark by two Tibetan artists. Pigments and binding medium were analysed by Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier-transformed Infrared Spectroscopy...
Article
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Surface preparation with gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering was performed on paint cross-sections, which belong to the collection of the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIKIRPA), Brussels, Belgium. Superficial cleaning of cross sections with residual embedding resin surface contamination was studied with different sputtering times in ord...
Article
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Prussian blue, a hydrated iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) complex, is a synthetic pigment discovered in Berlin in 1704. Because of both its highly intense color and its low cost, Prussian blue was widely used as a pigment in paintings until the 1970s. The early preparative methods were rapidly recognized as a contributory factor in the fading of the...
Article
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Trouver un matériau inhabituel dans l'oeuvre d'un grand maître tel que Rembrandt van Rijn est exceptionnel. Bien que cet artiste ait produit un grand nombre d'oeuvres, la majorité d'entre elles ont déjà été étudiées et les couches préparatoires de ses peintures, surtout, ont été analysées par des laboratoires de grande renommée, tels que le Doer-ne...
Article
In recent years, the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) on tryptic digests of cultural heritage objects has attracted much attention. It allows for unambiguous identification of peptides and proteins, and even in complex mixtures species-specific identification becomes feasible with minimal sample consumption. Determin...
Chapter
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Restauration de L'Assomption de la Vierge (MRBAB inv. 229), de L'Adoration des bergers (MRBAB inv. 228) et de La Vierge et l'Enfant entre saint Jean-Baptiste et saint Jean l'Évangéliste (MRBAB inv. 6146) offrait l'occasion idéale d'examiner la technique picturale de Van Loon, et de vérifier dans quelle mesure l'artiste demeura à la tradition des an...
Conference Paper
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In the framework of the research project on the works attributed to the Master of Elsloo, the materials and techniques used in polychromy were studied. Seven sculptures have been examined: the Crucified Christ and an Apostle from Ellikom, St Quirinus from Gerdingen, St Anthony Abbot from Neeroeteren, the Crucified Christ from Meeuwen, the Virgin an...
Conference Paper
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L'aventurine, une technique de décoration peinte de l'époque baroque rarement documentée. En restauration de sculptures et d'objets polychromes, on est très souvent confronté à une superposition de plusieurs couches picturales rendant la compréhension de l'original ou d'une autre intervention délicate. La compatibilité des matériaux et techniques d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
L'aventurine, une technique de décoration peinte de l’époque baroque rarement documentée. En restauration de sculptures et d'objets polychromes, on est très souvent confronté à une superposition de plusieurs couches picturales rendant la compréhension de l'original ou d'une autre intervention délicate. La compatibilité des matériaux et techniques d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
AbstrAct A regular dotted pattern, suggesting the im-print of a cloth, was found on the red glazes of three panel paintings from the second half of the 16th century, attributed to the Portuguese painter Francisco João (active 1562–1595). The materials and stratigraphy of the red glazes were analysed in one of these paintings using OM, µ-FTIR, SEM-E...
Article
Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613–2494 bc) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 a.d., it disappeared from...
Article
Proteomics techniques are increasingly applied for the identification of protein binders in historical paints. The complex nature of paint samples, with different kinds of pigments mixed into, and degradation by long term exposure to light, humidity and temperature variations, requires solid analysis and interpretation methods. In this study matrix...
Article
Full-text available
The fading of modern laboratory-synthesized and commercial Prussian blue, iron(III) hexacyanoferrate (II), based pigments in a linseed oil medium during exposure to light has been investigated. The Prussian blue pigments were painted with linseed oil, as a pure pigment and mixed with white lead, (PbCO 3) 2 Pb (OH) 2 , zinc white, ZnO, or titanium w...
Article
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The painting materials of the Portrait of Nicolaes van Bambeeck (Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels, inv. 155) painted by Rembrandt van Rijn in 1641 has been studied using high resolution cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging. In the first step, a moderate spatial resolution (2 μm) was used to characterize the layer structure and the chemical compo...
Conference Paper
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Man of sorrows on a console with an angel bust and with an inscription tablet from the Old Town City Hall in Prague was created by the Master of the Týn Calvary, which was shortly after the Hussite wars one of the most important sculptors in Prague. Despite of that his work remains permanently discussed by experts and here described work of art has...
Article
A proteomics approach was used for the identification of protein binders in historical paints: the proteins were digested enzymatically into peptides using trypsin before being separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Mascot (Matrix Science) was used to analy...
Conference Paper
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The Entombment of Christ in the Collegiate Church of St Vincent of Soignies which probably can be dated between 1435 en 1440, is an undisputed masterpiece of the Late Gothic style. More precisely it represents the basis of the Late Gothic style of Tournai, as introduced to the Brussels area by Delemer and Van der Weyden. A style which will become o...
Conference Paper
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One of the most important paintings in the Leuven museum is without a doubt the Holy Trinity (before 1450): our new study situates this panel in the context of other representations of the Trinity in Leuven, in various media. Though the painting had already been restored and examined with various techniques in 1951, a new cleaning and conservation...
Conference Paper
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Jean Delemer’s Annunciation(c. 1426-1428), Tournai sculpture group was examined in IRPA-KIK. Meticulous observation of the sculpted stone and of the different polychromy layers, and the laboratory analysis, led to several discoveries such as the former presence of an original applied brocade and of coloured glazes. Traces of two different restorati...
Article
Proteins in works of art are generally determined by the relative amounts of amino acids. This method, however, implies a loss of information on the protein structure and its modifications. Consequently, we propose a method based on the analysis of trypsin digests using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) UV diode array detection (DAD) fo...
Article
The paper demonstrates the broad applicability of a mild extraction method, based on the use of HF and organic solvents, for dyestuffs in lakes. Originally developed for acid-labile components of madder lakes, such as pseudopurpurin and glycosides of alizarin and purpurin, this method has shown its efficiency for virtually all mordant-type dyestuff...
Article
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The structures of the complexes of alizarin and other anthraquinones (purpurin and quinizarin) with aluminium, responsible for the properties of madder lakes, have been studied using different spectrometric methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES–MS). FTI...
Article
A mild extraction approach using HF, a weak acid but a strong aluminum-complexing agent, was investigated as an alternative to usual methods such as treatment by strong acid solutions (HCl or H 2 SO 4) at high temperature, or methylation by BF 3 in MeOH, for the extraction of alizarin and other colorants from their aluminum complexes in madder lake...
Poster
Full-text available
Three pre-Eyckian painted objects have been chosen for a non-destructive study with micro-Raman (MRS) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to enlarge the knowledge on the palette and techniques used by the pre-Eyckian masters. The results are compared with those obtained by destructive means – cross sections studied with optical microscopy, SE...
Thesis
Proefschrift Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculté des Sciences Appliquées Service de Chimie Organique. Proefschrift. Met lit. opg.