Jana Jarecki

Jana Jarecki
University of Basel | UNIBAS · Division of Economic Psychology

phd

About

19
Publications
1,342
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36
Citations
Introduction
Jana Jarecki currently works at the Department of Economic Psychology, University of Basel. Jana does research in Experimental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology and Cognitive Psychology. One current project is 'Into the Black Box: Tracing Information About Risks Related to ten Evolutionary Problems'.

Publications

Publications (19)
Article
Full-text available
Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference probl...
Article
Human behavioral risk-seeking tendencies differ across content domains. How can such behavioral differences be reliably produced by the cognitive system? This article resents an explorative analysis of the reasons for and cognitive mechanisms underlying different risk propensities across 10 evolutionary domains. We investigate three cognitive proce...
Article
The high prevalence of underpowered empirical studies has been identified as a centerpiece of the current crisis in psychological research. Accordingly, the need for proper analyses of statistical power and sample size determination before data collection has been emphasized repeatedly. In this commentary, we argue that—contrary to the opinions exp...
Article
Full-text available
The term process model is widely used but rarely agreed upon. This paper proposes a framework for characterizing and building cognitive process models. Process models model not only inputs and outputs but also model the ongoing information transformations at a given level of abstraction. We argue that the following dimensions characterize process m...
Conference Paper
Decision making under risk is often studied as a preferential choice governed by stable individual personality characteris-tics, but risky choice can also be viewed as a dynamic prob-lem of resource accumulation to survive. When decision-makers aim to accumulation a particular resource in limited time, such as “earn at least 32 in five choices,” ri...
Article
Common theories of multiattribute preferential choice predict that people choose options that have on average better attribute values than alternative options. However, following an alternative memory-based view on preferences people might sometimes prefer options that are more similar to memorized options that were experienced positively in the pa...
Article
People often learn from experience about the distribution of outcomes of risky options. Typically, people draw small samples, when they can actively sample information from risky gambles to make decisions. We examine how the size of the sample that people experience in decision from experience affects their preferences between risky options. In two...
Article
Full-text available
Digital contact-tracing applications (DCTAs) can help control the spread of epidemics, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. But people in Western societies fail to install DCTAs. Understanding the low use rate is key for policy makers who support DCTAs as a way to avoid harsh nationwide lockdowns. In a preregistered study in a representat...
Preprint
This work compares two types of psychological similarity in categorization. Similarity is a central component of categorization theories. Exemplar theories, for instance, assume that people categorize new exemplars based on their similarity to previous category members. Traditionally, the underlying psychological similarity is based on the sum of t...
Preprint
Evidence has shown that goals systematically change risk preferences in repeated decisions under risk. For instance, decision makers could aim to reach goals in a limited time, such as “making at least $1000 with ten stock investments within a year.” We test whether goal-based risky decisions differ when facing gains as compared to losses. More spe...
Preprint
Digital contact-tracing applications (DCTAs) can control the spread of epidemics, like the COVID-19 pandemic. But people in Western societies fail to accept DCTAs. Understanding the low acceptance is key to policymakers who support DCTAs to avoid harsh nationwide lock-downs. In a preregistered study in a representative Swiss sample(N=757), we compa...
Preprint
We introduce cognitivemodels—a free software package for formal cognitive modeling in the statistical programming environment R. The package offers novice modelers a collection of models and offers experienced modelers a backend for model development. This paper introduces the syntax of the package by example. The models in the software package inc...
Conference Paper
In risk-research, there are two traditions of measurement: the attribute-based and the vignette-based tradition. The attribute-based approach focuses on the impact that the at-tributes (probabilities and outcomes) of risky options have on the processing of risk-related information. The vignette-based approach focuses on responses to questions about...
Preprint
In risk-research, there are two traditions of measurement: the attribute-based and the vignette-based tradition. The attribute-based approach focuses on the impact that the at-tributes (probabilities and outcomes) of risky options have on the processing of risk-related information. The vignette-based approach focuses on responses to questions about...
Preprint
Decision making under risk is often studied as a preferential choice governed by stable individual personality characteris-tics, but risky choice can also be viewed as a dynamic prob-lem of resource accumulation to survive. When decision-makers aim to accumulation a particular resource in limited time, such as “earn at least 32 in five choices,” ri...
Data
This paper investigates the role of the assumption of classconditional independence of object features in human classification learning. This assumption holds that object feature values are statistically independent of each other, given knowledge of the object’s true category. Treating features as classconditionally independent can in many situatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the role of the assumption of classconditional independence of object features in human classification learning. This assumption holds that object feature values are statistically independent of each other, given knowledge of the object’s true category. Treating features as classconditionally independent can in many situatio...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
According to traditional theories of preferential choice people prefer options because the attribute values of an option are in sum better than the attribute values of alternative options. Unlike this, we hypothesize that people construct preferences by using previous experiences as comparison standards. We propose that people compare novel options to memorized experiences and prefer options that are similar to past liked options. The data of two experimental studies support this memory-based value theory. Computational modeling and predictive model comparison among three models with data from two incentivized preferential choice experiments showed that only a few participants relied on sums of subjectively weighted attribute values when the experience was available. Most participants in both experimental studies showed preferences consistent with a memory-based theory, which bases preferences on experience and the similarity between novel and old options. Further, people whose experience consisted of direct sensory exposure, like tasting a food, were also those with higher likelihoods of memory-based value construction, compared to people whose exposure was indirect. These results highlight the central role of memory and experiences in preference formation, and provide novel avenues for theories of preferences, showcasing the path dependency of human preferences.
Project
Human risk-seeking tendencies differ across content domains. How can such behavioral differences be reliably produced by the cognitive information-processing system?