Jan N Hughes

Jan N Hughes
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Educational Psychology

38.27
 · 
Ph.D

About

122
Publications
20,475
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,175
Citations

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
The Motivation for Educational Attainment (MEA) questionnaire, developed to assess facets related to early adolescents’ motivation to complete high school, has a bifactor structure with a large general factor and three smaller orthogonal specific factors (teacher expectations, peer aspirations, value of education). This prospective validity study i...
Article
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on dropping out of school by age 16. Participants were 538 (54% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into a longitudinal study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.58). Propensity score weighting successfully equated th...
Article
This 14-year prospective study investigated the effect of retention in Grades 1–5 on high school completion (diploma, GED, or drop out). Participants were 734 (52.7% males) ethnically diverse, academically at-risk students recruited from Texas schools into the study when they were in first grade (mean age = 6.57). Propensity score weighting success...
Article
Using piece-wise longitudinal trajectory analysis, this study investigated trajectories of teacher-reported warmth and conflict in their relationships with students 4. years prior to and 3. years following the transition to middle school in a sample of 550 academically at-risk and ethnically diverse adolescents. At the transition to middle school,...
Article
Full-text available
Mentoring relationships can have important effects on adolescents' psychosocial and academic outcomes; however, the transactions within mentoring relationships that may account for impact on psychosocial and academic outcomes are not well understood. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Mentor Support Provisions Scale (MSPS),...
Article
In a sample of 527 academically at-risk youth, we investigated trajectories of friends' and parents' school involvement across ages 12–14 and the joint contributions of these trajectories to adolescents' age 15 school engagement and academic achievement. Girls reported higher levels of friends' and parents' school involvement than boys. Both parent...
Article
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting co...
Article
Vandecandelaere, Vansteelandt, De Fraine, and Van Damme (this issue) described marginal structural modeling (MSM) and used it to estimate the effects of a time-varying intervention, retention (holding back) in school grades, on students' math achievement. This commentary supplements Vandecandelaere et al. (this issue) and discusses several topics i...
Article
Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies found different trajectories of conflicted relationships with teachers predictive of academic underachievement. However, little is known about what places children at risk for atypical conflict trajectories. This follow-up study examines whether African American ethnicity, IQ, and SES are unique predictors of teacher-student confli...
Article
Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling t...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we provide a tutorial on how to test for moderated effects of home–school relationships using different statistical approaches. We first provide a brief review of current research on moderated effects of home–school relationships to illustrate the theoretical and practical value of statistical testing of moderated effects. Next, wi...
Article
This study investigated the association between trajectories of school belonging across grades 6–8 and academic achievement in grade 8 in an ethnically diverse sample of 527 academically at-risk adolescents. Students reported annually on school belonging. Reading and math achievement were assessed at grade 5 (baseline) and grade 8. Interactive effe...
Article
This article reviews progress made since Hughes (2000a) criticized intervention research in school psychology for insufficient consideration of theory. A review of contemporary intervention research published in journals specifically identified with the specialty of school psychology supports the conclusion that current school psychology interventi...
Article
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=3...
Article
Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and u...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the longitudinal measurement invariance of the Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory (TNRI), a teacher-report measure of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), on a sample of 784 academically at-risk students across ages 6 to 15 years by comparing the model for each subsequent year with that of the previous year(s). The TNRI wa...
Article
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and...
Article
Participants were 204 academically at-risk Latino students recruited into a study when in first grade and followed for 9 years. Using piecewise latent growth curve analyses, we investigated trajectories of teacher-rated behavioral engagement and student-reported school belonging during elementary school and middle school and the association between...
Article
Full-text available
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including...
Article
The authors investigated the differential effect of retention on the development of academic achievement from grade one to five on children retained in first grade over six years. Growth Mixture Model (GMM) analyses supported the existence of two distinct trajectory groups of retained children for both reading and math among 125 ethnically and ling...
Article
The effect of retention in first grade (Year 1) on parents' educational expectations was tested in a sample of 530 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children. Participants attended one of three school districts in Texas. Of the 530 children, 118 were retained in first grade. Retention had a negative effect on parent expectations in Year 2...
Article
The authors investigated the effects of retention in grades 1 to 5 on students' reading and math achievement, teacher-rated engagement, and student-reported school belonging in middle school. From a multiethnic sample (N=784) of children who scored below the median on a test of literacy in grade 1, an average of 75 students subsequently retained in...
Article
This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1-5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or r...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary highlights the ways in which the articles in this special issue contribute to the second generation of research on teacher-student relationships. Second generation research aims to increase our understanding of the development of these relationships, and the processes responsible for their effects, as well as to evaluate theoretical...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24...
Article
Full-text available
This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = .39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict, low...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring cha...
Article
This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695...
Article
Full-text available
The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflic...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the construct validity of measures of teacher-student support in a sample of 709 ethnically diverse 2nd- and 3rd-grade academically at-risk students. Confirmatory factor analysis investigated the convergent and discriminant validities of teacher, child, and peer reports of teacher-student support and child conduct problems....
Article
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practice...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether students retained in first grade, relative to similarly low achieving students who were promoted, differed in the number of remedial educational services received by students in the year pre- retention year and in the repeat year. Study participants were 769 relatively low achieving first grade stu...
Article
The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1(st) grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic reputati...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher, peer, and student reports of the quality of the teacher-student relationship were obtained for an ethnically diverse and academically at-risk sample of 706 second- and third-grade students. Cluster analysis identified four types of relationships based on the consistency of child reports of support and conflict in the relationship with repo...
Article
Full-text available
The association between grade retention in first grade and passing the third grade state accountability tests, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and math, was investigated in a sample of 769 students who were recruited into the study when they were in first grade. Of these 769 students, 165 were retained in first grade and...
Article
Full-text available
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be...
Article
Full-text available
In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children wer...
Article
Full-text available
The present meta-analysis examined the effect of grade retention on academic outcomes and investigated systemic sources of variability in effect sizes. Using multi-level modeling, we investigated characteristics of 207 effect sizes across 22 studies published between 1990 and 2007 at two levels: the study (between) and individual (within) levels. D...
Article
Participants were 664 relatively low achieving children who were recruited into a longitudinal study when in first grade. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1...
Article
Full-text available
We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70) progr...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a sample of 480 academically at-risk first graders, we used a cluster analysis involving multimethod assessment (i.e., teacher-report, peer-evaluation, and self-report) of behavioral and psychological engagement to identify subtypes of academic engagement. Four theoretically and practically meaningful clusters were identified and labeled a...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 784 children with below-median literacy performance in kindergarten or at the beginning of grade 1 was assessed in 5 areas of psychological and social variables: academic competence, sociodemographic characteristics, social/emotional/behavioral characteristics, school context, and home environment. We examined the contribution of academ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closel...
Article
We investigated the effects of grade retention in first grade on the growth of the Woodcock-Johnson broad mathematics and reading scores over three years using linear growth curve modeling on an academically at-risk sample. A large sample (n=784) of first grade children who were at risk for retention was initially identified based on low literacy s...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), effortful engagement, and achievement in reading and math were collected once each year for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in 1st grade, for a sample of 671 (53.1% male) academically at-risk children attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. In separate latent variabl...
Article
The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1(st) grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1(st) grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the factor structure of the parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; R. Goodman, 1997) with a sample of first-grade children at risk for educational failure. The 5-factor model previously found in studies using exploratory factor analysis was fit to the data for both parent and teacher qu...
Article
This study examined the effects of classroom indegree for ability (the degree to which peer nominations as academically capable show high consensus and focus on a relatively few number of children in a classroom) on first grade children's peer acceptance, teacher-rated classroom engagement, and self-perceived cognitive competence. Participants were...
Article
Full-text available
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model positing that grade retention has a positive effect on children's teacher- and peer-rated academic competencies and on sociometric measures of peer acceptance. We also expected that the positive effect of grade retention on peer acceptance would be mediated by childre...
Article
Full-text available
Participants were 443 (52.6% male, 47.4% female) ethnically diverse, 1st-grade, lower achieving readers attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. Using latent variable structural equation modeling, the authors tested a theoretical model positing that (a) the quality of teachers' relationships with students and their parents mediates the associati...
Article
This study investigated a measurement model of personality resilience and the contribution of personality resilience to lower achieving first grade students' academic achievement. Participants were 445 ethnically diverse children who at entrance to first grade scored below their school district median on a test of literacy. Participants were admini...
Article
Mentoring programs attempt to foster a relationship that is too often missing from the lives of disadvantaged children and youth. However, in view of both the power and the limitations of mentoring programs, it is important to understand how mentoring occurs naturally. Assuming an ecological perspective, we examine mentoring in four contexts: class...
Article
Full-text available
Many family crises and grave crimes occur in society when stresses and feelings (e.g., anger, disappointment, rage, and jealousy) are extreme and children or adults act on these emotions without regulating the nature and strength of their response. Emotional dysregulation can lead to horrendous acts that result in severe legal consequences. Of crit...
Article
A sample of 283 Hispanic children with literacy performance at entrance to first grade below the median for their school district was studied as part of a larger research project on the predictors of grade retention in grade 1. Following retention decisions, 51 Hispanic students were retained in first grade. Low literacy skills, being young at entr...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined ethnic and language group differences on dimensions of parent-rated and teacher-rated parent involvement after adjusting for the influence of family socioeconomic factors. A total of 179 teachers and 481 parents provided information on parent school involvement for a sample of ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade ch...
Article
This study used hierarchical linear modeling to predict first grade students' peer acceptance, classroom engagement, and sense of school belonging from measures of normative classroom teacher-student support and individual teacher-student support. Participants were 509 (54.4% male) ethnically diverse, first grade children attending one of three Tex...
Article
Participants were 360 (52.2% male) ethnically diverse and academically at-risk first-grade children attending one of three school districts in southeast and central Texas. Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model positing that the quality of the teacher-student relationship in first grade predicts children's...
Article
This study examined the associations among child demographic variables, teacher perceptions of parent-teacher and student-teacher relationship quality, and teacher perceptions of children's academic abilities in an ethnically diverse sample of 607 academically at-risk first grade children. Relative to relationships with African American children an...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on social ecological theory and empirical studies on the role of school context in aggression, the authors argue that school adversity is an important consideration in choosing selective interventions for aggressive children. The moderating role of school adversity on intervention effectiveness is illustrated with data from a randomized cli...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested a dual-mediation model of the relations among harsh parenting, hostile social information processing, and level of child aggression in a sample of 239 (150 male, 89 female) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The theoretical model posited that harsh parenting has both direct and indirect effects on child level of aggression, with the indi...
Article
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social-Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive So...
Article
We replicated and extended Wootton, Frick, Shelton, and Silverthorn's (1997) finding that children's callous/unemotional (C/U) traits moderated the association between poor parenting and children's externalizing problems. C/U traits were indexed (a) as dichotomous scores (D-C/U) above or below a cut score on the original C/U subscale and (b) as con...
Article
Full-text available
This 2-year prospective investigation examined the association between the quality of teacher-student relationships and children's levels of aggression in a sample of 140 second- and third-grade aggressive children (M age = 8.18). Consistent with the proposed dual-risk compensatory hypothesis, positive teacher-student relationships were more benefi...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the construct of perceived containment, defined as children's beliefs about adults' capacity to impose firm limits and to prevail if there is a conflict in goals. We propose that children's containment beliefs represent an important but understudied factor in the development and maintenance of childhood aggression. Children's ratings o...
Article
A meta-analysis of 38 studies of social skills training interventions with antisocial youth was performed. Also examined were treatment effects for interventions that differed in group composition. The intervention studies yielded an overall effect size of .62 at posttreatment. As predicted, skills training interventions delivered in the context of...
Article
This study provides preliminary evaluation data on Responsive Systems Consultation (RSC), a model of home-school consultation based on social-ecological and contextual systems theories of children's adjustment to school. Evaluation data are provided for 64 cases seen by a total of 44 consultants enrolled in a doctoral training sequence in school co...
Article
Sociometric nominations and ratings assessed peers' perceptions of supportive and conflicted teacher–student relationships, evaluations of children's positive and negative attributes, and peer-rated liking. Participants were 993 third- and fourth-grade children. Girls obtained higher Teacher Support and lower Teacher Conflict scores compared with b...
Article
This study examines the relations between aggressive children's perceived levels of peer acceptance at Time 1 and actual levels of social preference and aggression 30 months later. Participants were 49 children nominated for one of two interventions by teachers for their aggressive behaviors in second or third grade at Time 1. This study used longi...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the tendency of aggressive children to generalize the positive bias in their perceptions of relatedness across different interpersonal relationships. Secondly, it examined the implications of distorted perceptions of relatedness for quality of aggressive children's future relationships. Subjects included 62 second and thi...
Article
This study investigated differences in social cognitive processing between two subtypes of aggressive children: those rejected by their peers and those not rejected. Children in Grades 2–4 classified as aggressive–rejected (AR; n = 34), aggressive–nonrejected (AN; n = 55), or nonaggressive–nonrejected (NN; n = 64) on the basis of teacher ratings of...
Article
The central tenet of this article is that theory plays an essential role in the development and evaluation of interventions for children's psychosocial problems. Recent efforts to identify efficacious treatments have paid insufficient attention to the role of psychological theory in intervention development, evaluation, and application. Six princip...
Article
The central tenet of this article is that theory plays an essential role in the development and evaluation of interventions for children's psychosocial problems. Recent efforts to identify efficacious treatments have paid insufficient attention to the role of psychological theory in intervention development, evaluation, and application. Six princip...
Article
This response article points out areas of agreement and disagreement among the target article and commentaries comprising this special issue. Whereas all authors acknowledge the value of theory for psychosocial intervention with children and families, they approach theory from different epistemologies. I argue that a utilitarian action-oriented app...
Article
Teacher-identified aggressive children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, both of which involved college student mentors. The experimental condition (PrimeTime) combined therapeutic mentoring, training in problem-solving skills, and consultation with parents and teachers. The comparison treatment (Standard Mentoring) relied...
Article
Reviews efforts to delineate training needs for psychologists who are providing clinical services to children, adolescents, and families. In particular, this article (a) describes efforts of clinical child and other psychologists who work with children, adolescents, and families to develop education and training guidelines; (b) discusses the overla...
Article
This study applies metaanalytic techniques to the empirical literature on social cognitive correlates of childhood aggression. Purposes of the study were to synthesize the large and expanding body of research on social cognitive deficits and distortions in aggressive children and to compare effect sizes for four different stages of information proc...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to identify clinically relevant subtypes of aggressive children based on measures of children's self-systems and significant others' perceptions of relationship quality. In a sample of aggressive second- and third-graders, a cluster analysis of these children's perceptions of support and significant others' (mot...
Article
Recent research has suggested potential harmful effects of group-based skill training for children and adolescents with externalizing problems. This article reviews four types of evidence from published literature that supports the conclusion that grouping deviant youth for treatment may produce unintended, harmful effects. The evidence includes li...
Article
Peer perceptions of relational and overt aggression and peer evaluations of social competencies were obtained for 461 boys and 443 girls in second and third grades. In contrast to Crick and Grotpeter (1995), boys obtained higher relational and overt aggression scores than girls, and the relation between both types of aggression and peer evaluations...
Article
Initial problem identification interviews of 41 consultant-consultee dyads were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded with respect to three dimensions of consultant questions: format, process, and response. The occurrence of three question categories (open-ended questions, inference questions, and accepted questions) were expected to be positively rel...
Article
Understanding the formation and change of attitudes is important to the practice of school psychology. We review a contemporary theory of attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (ELM, Petty & Cacioppo, 1981, 1986), and address its relevance to school psychology. The ELM provides an integrative framework for understanding the...
Article
This article reviews the scientific and public opinion debate on the impact of television violence in America on aggression and violence. This body of research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Developmental and social-cognitive explanations of how t...
Article
Expanded upon W. Erchul and T. Chewing's study (see record 1990-26247-001) which examined the relational communication aspects of behavioral consultation. It is hypothesized that the more a consultee follows the lead of a consultant by not making requests of that consultant, the more favorable the outcomes of consultation. 26 school psychology stu...
Article
Although research pertaining to alcohol and drug use by children clearly is very important for our field, it also presents a number of difficult ethical and legal challenges. In this article we react to Havey and Dodd's research (1995, this issue), commenting specifically on their use of a passive consent procedure. Problems with this aspect of the...
Article
According to the reviewer, Olweus's small book Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do (see record 1994-97361-000 ), is perfectly suited to the purpose of this series, which aims to translate the work of developmental psychologists for teachers, doctors, and other persons responsible for caring for and teaching children and their famili...
Article
This study investigated the effectiveness of behavioral consultation in changing children's and teachers' behaviors in consultation cases that involved children identified by teachers as manifesting symptoms characteristics of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Twenty teachers of inattentive and disruptive students were randomly assigned to...
Article
Fifty-five elementary teachers were presented with 12 vignettes describing chronic, persistent classroom behavioral problems. Teachers were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the causes of students' problems, their control over the problem, their self-efficacy for resolving the problem on their own, and their choice of intervention: child r...