Jan P.L. Schoormans

Jan P.L. Schoormans
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Product Innovation Managment

Prof. Dr

About

101
Publications
127,462
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,540
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Although environmental awareness is increasing every year, and most people say they prefer to buy more sustainable products, many still do not act on their promise at the cash counter. Sustainable products are often still perceived to have lower quality or reduced performance. Recommendations of sustainable buyers might reduce this perceived risk o...
Article
Full-text available
Access-based product-service systems (AB-PSS) are business models that can potentially decouple the satisfaction of consumer needs from environmental impacts. Hence, they have been promoted for the circular economy. Their sustainability potential has not yet been realised because consumer adoption is lagging. Although this challenge has been studie...
Article
Product care is defined as all activities initiated by consumers that encourage an extension of product lifetimes, such as repair, maintenance, and/or careful handling. A product care scale was developed and validated in a set of four related studies. In study 1, we asked experts to examine the face validity of a set of 35 items. In study 2, we red...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Access-based product-service systems are frequently suggested as innovative business models that could enable sustainable consumption, by allowing consumers to access products' functionalities without purchasing the products. This can reduce the number of idle products and incentivise the providing organisation to extend product lifetimes through m...
Article
Full-text available
Access-based product-service systems (AB-PSS) allow consumers to use products for a fee and might support the transition towards a circular economy. This type of business model could decrease negative impacts of consumption by reducing the number of products needed; either by extending products’ lifetimes or by intensifying the use of products. Man...
Article
Full-text available
Mind-sets are expected to influence the process of designing, which require designers to successfully integrate complex decision-making processes into good design solutions. The study reported here analyses whether differences in mind-sets shown by design students can influence their design processes and impact the quality of the design solutions t...
Article
Full-text available
Styles in design have a strong evocative power. This article describes the style elements and the associations related to a contemporary style in graphic design: the 'neo-retro style'. We argue that this style is linked to the hipster subculture but used in a broader context. Complementary methods were used to progressively determine the styling el...
Article
This research examines proximity as a new interesting strategy to include in the design of more sustainable products. Drawing from the construal level theory, we posit that the environmental sustainability of a product embedding a form of proximity to an environmental solution in its design will be perceived as more concrete and will trigger higher...
Article
Full-text available
A study to understand the experience of autonomy with durable products was undertaken based on qualitative research. The study involved thirteen participants, who selected a durable product that enhanced autonomy. Using in-depth interviews, the map of experience and interaction properties the experience was studied. Our findings indicate that there...
Article
This research investigates consumers’ responses to products made of recycled ocean plastic. A quantitative study was conducted online with 258 Dutch consumers in which attitudinal and behavioural responses to products made of ocean plastic were investigated. The most important predictors of consumers’ purchase intention were anticipated conscience,...
Article
Full-text available
Access-based product-service systems (AB-PSS) have the potential to lower environmental impacts. Currently, a lack of consumer acceptance and, consequently, low adoption levels of AB-PSS are challenges preventing the realisation of their sustainability potential. This study proposes temporary product customisation to lower barriers for the acceptan...
Article
Providing online design education offers a unique opportunity for learning, by providing high quality learning experiences to distributed audiences for free. It has its challenges as well, particularly when the aim is use ‘active learning’ strategies (Biggs & Tang, 2011), which are necessary when teaching design. In this paper, we report on the dev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Service designers and organizations are struggling to understand and change customer behaviour since it is complex, dynamic, multidimensional and very often not considered to be rational. Knowledge from behavioural sciences can provide service designers with the ability to more fundamentally understand, predict and guide customer behaviour. A combi...
Article
Full-text available
Although most people claim to prefer a more sustainable product, only a limited number of ‘green buyers’ act on their words at the moment of purchase. To find out how to get mainstream buyers to buy more sustainable products, we used data on 950 Western European buyers of 32 different vacuum cleaner models. The issue was why three out of four consu...
Article
Product care is defined as all activities initiated by the consumer that lead to the extension of a product's lifetime. This research contributes to the literature by taking a consumer's perspective on product care, which is essential to postpone product replacement. We used Fogg's behaviour model as a theoretical framework to understand consumers'...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To contribute to a more sustainable way of consumption, products should stay usable as long as possible. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of products. Product care should be understood as any action that helps prolonging the lifetime of a product, such as maintenance, repair etc. These product care activities can be conducted by the consumer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design learning can be improved by understanding the differences between individual characteristics of students and its connection with their learning processes and outcomes. This paper focusses on the differences between discerning and opportunistic mind-sets. 91 students from industrial, product or automotive design courses participated in a quas...
Article
Consumers often purchase consumer durables without using these products beforehand. Product appearance is then one of the factors that consumers use to form inferences about the experience and credence attributes of consumer durables. For companies, it is important to successfully manage these inference processes of consumers to create a competitiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research examines proximity as a new interesting strategy to include in the design of more sustainable products. Drawing from the construal level theory, we posit that the environmental sustainability of a product embedding a form of proximity to an environmental solution in its design will be perceived as more concrete and will trigger higher...
Article
Full-text available
The success of environment-friendly packages is highly dependent on consumers' understanding and acceptance of these packages. In an experiment using a 3 × 2 between-subject design, this study tests how style elements (i.e. the material and the colour) influence perceptions of packaging environment-friendliness when an environmental claim is either...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we test the influence of packaging sustainability on consumers’ perceived quality of food products using two experiments featuring raisins, chocolate bars and coffee. First, the results show that the perceived quality of a food product is more positive when it is packed in a sustainable packaging than when it is packed in a conventio...
Article
Purpose Previous research in the context of feature fit has examined the effects of congruence (i.e. more specifically, the extent to which a new feature and the product are similar in the hedonic-utilitarian benefits they provide to consumers). The purpose of this paper is to examine a second dimension of feature fit: complementarity (i.e. the ext...
Article
In this paper, we study the design activity of styling and its performance assessment within style-sensitive manufacturing companies. Based on interviews with industry professionals at such companies, we analyze how the contribution of styling and expressive products is perceived and assessed. We delineate how these companies stimulate sales and pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Managers that want to incorporate a pre-defined product meaning in a design need to know how consumers relate product properties to product meanings. In past research the proposed relationships between physical properties and meanings are implied to be robust. This study showed that the physical property ‘curvature’ has a positive effect on the per...
Article
Full-text available
More and more companies are developing sustainable packaging. In two studies on detergent and mixed nuts packages, we manipulated their visual appearance and verbal sustainability claims that communicate eco-friendliness, and tested the influence of these elements on consumers' affective attitudes and purchase intention. Drawing on two non-student...
Article
Today’s major developments in the production and demand of electricity in domestic areas make it increasingly important that domestic electricity demand can respond to the availability of electricity. Energy management systems and smart appliances can facilitate this by supporting the user to shift electricity demand of appliances to moments in tim...
Article
Full-text available
Smart Product-Service Systems (Smart PSSs) integrate smart products and e-services into single solutions. Smart products make use of information and communication technology (ICT) to collect, process and produce information, while e-services are web portals, apps and means alike, which facilitate the communication between service providers and cons...
Article
Several studies have shown that real-time feedback by energy management systems (EMSs) supports households' energy-saving behaviours by making the relationship between daily activities and energy use more clear. However, acquired savings vary, which may be caused by variations in the design of EMSs. In this paper, we investigate the influence of th...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of design fixation hinders designers from creating original designs. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of presenting partial photographs of product examples as a new strategy for reducing design fixation by testing its effect on designers' performance. Presenting partial photographs is intended to break the ‘path of l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Residential smart grid projects can be evaluated by a design-driven approach, which focuses on gaining insights for successful product and service development by taking the end-users as a starting point. Because only little experience exists with this design-driven approach, this paper addresses how four pilot projects with smart energy households...
Article
Designers use product attributes (e. g., trendiness) to design aesthetically appealing products. The relationships of physical properties (e. g., shape) of product designs with product attributes and aesthetic appraisal are often considered to be generalizable over product categories and markets. However, in line with an interactionist view, we sho...
Article
Purpose ‐ Retailers' new product acceptance in base of pyramid (BoP) markets is crucial to marketers in this segment. This paper seeks to develop propositions for research on factors that affect retailers in new product introduction. The propositions also aim to make a distinction between urban and rural BoP markets. Design/methodology/approach ‐ T...
Article
The authors investigate the benefits of using a narrative (i.e., a storyline featuring a protagonist) to convey product information in the evaluation of really new product concepts by consumers. In the context of early product evaluation, the imagination of consumers can be guided by a narrative about a protagonist who uses the new product in a ser...
Article
Unlabelled: To make optimal use of sustainable energy, domestic electricity consumption should shift to match local supply conditions. Energy management systems (EMS) are a new sustainable technology that can help to disrupt consumers' habits concerning electricity consumption, whilst reinforcing desired behaviours. This research examined the fact...
Article
Full-text available
Styling is plagued by prejudice in the literature on the management of design – making it a taboo to talk about styling and designers as stylists. At the same time, the ability of designers to shape the look and feel of products still represents the most defining work of designers. However, reduced to superficial changes in form, styling has been m...
Article
Early customer input on applications that use radically new technologies is crucial for gaining an understanding of the benefits and value of these new technologies. Potential customers should have a clear understanding of a new technology application before they give their input on it. Prototypes provide a clear picture to the customer, but are se...
Article
This research enhances our understanding of the relationship between aesthetics and usability by investigating the effects of novelty in product appearance on the apparent usability of a product. In two experimental studies using washing machines and digital cameras as stimuli, we systematically manipulated the level of novelty (low vs. high) in th...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we study to what degree older consumers differ from middle-aged consumers with respect to the appreciation of new product designs. We asked respondents from both age groups to evaluate innovative designs that were shown repeatedly, replicating a regular market situation by using the Repeated Evaluation Technique (RET). The results sh...
Article
Theories differ on how typicality and arousal influence aesthetic appraisal and whether these processes together interact or have independent effects on aesthetic appraisal. This research investigates the simultaneous effects of typicality and arousal on aesthetic appraisal for product designs by manipulating both processes separately: typicality b...
Article
Although recent research has explored consumers’ reactions towards mass customization (MC) in general, these studies have considered aesthetic and functional MC as one and the same. In the present article, we focus specifically on consumer response to aesthetic MC because there are some unique factors that influence this type of MC. Providing insig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Durable products are often described by users relying on personality traits, e.g. serious or happy. Understanding the relationships between product attributes and personality traits has the potential to influence product consumption. This article explores the possibility of designing product appearance with predefined personalities. An approach to...
Article
This paper investigates the effect of R&D-marketing integration in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in growing economies. In particular, the effects of integration mechanisms (formalisation, centralisation and organisational climate) on cross-functional integration gap and new product development (NPD) success are analysed. Data from Slove...
Article
Geographical isolation, unavailable healthcare professionals, and insufficient government investments in healthcare severely constrain health services access in rural Bottom of the Pyramid markets. Social franchising offers a solution to this issue. It combines commercial franchising principles with social marketing to offer a sustainable business...
Article
Franchisee selection is a major input for franchising success. In this article, we argue that franchisee selection criteria do not differ between social and commercial franchising. They may be even more relevant for obtaining social franchising success. We discuss criteria for franchisee selection and present details of our multiple case study rese...
Article
Full-text available
There is abundant evidence that people derive meaning from signs (Krippendorff, 1989 Design Issues 5 9-39) and that signs influence attitudes (Landau et al, 2010 Psychological Bulletin 136 1045 - 1067). We put to a test whether the use of crosshairs in a map can be viewed as representing violence. In a fictive scenario describing a plague of foxes,...
Article
Understanding how consumers perceive products based on their appearance is of great importance to designers. In this article, we explore the level of novelty of a product appearance as a general design guideline to evoke positive associations about the product's performance quality. Novelty implies the deviation in a product appearance from the cur...
Article
Generally, radical innovations are not easily adopted in the market. Potential adopters experience difficulties to comprehend and evaluate radical innovations due to their newness in terms of technology and benefits offered. Consequently, adoption intentions may remain low. This paper proposes bundling as an instrument to address these problems. Mo...
Article
Scandinavia is famous throughout the world for its design savvy. But the flip side of this enviable situation is the inevitable commoditization of design. How do companies like Marimekko and Kosta Boda manage to hang on to their premium brands? The answer: creative equity.
Article
Purpose – Product design is an important marketing variable. Most literature about consumer preference for product design focuses on aesthetic product value. However, the appearance of a product also influences consumer perception of functionalities, quality, and ease of use. This paper therefore, seeks to assess how preference for visual complexit...
Article
Purpose – Past research on consumers' post‐purchase behavior has focused on understanding satisfaction. However, the consumer‐product relationship is much broader. This paper aims to deal with another aspect of post‐purchase behavior: the emotional bond consumers experience with their durables during ownership. The paper contributes to the literatu...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a three-step method for the systematic design of a package's structural characteristics that visualizes product attributes and brand values. This method was tested in an initial pilot study. In step 1, the structural characteristics of a package which consumers' associate with product attributes were defined; this step require...
Article
Full-text available
The appearance attributes of designed products noted in the literature often reflect what designers themselves perceive in a product design. This present research, however, provides knowledge on how consumers perceive product appearance by identifying appearance attributes that consumers use to distinguish the appearances of durable products. Descr...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effect of personalising a product's appearance on the emotional bond with a product. We present a conceptual model for the relationships between the effort invested during the process of product personalisation, the degree of self-expression, and the degree of emotional bonding. Data from a questionnaire study in which r...
Article
Product personalisation gives individual consumers the opportunity to act as co-designers and partly determine the appearance or functionality of the product they buy. Whether product personalisation can provide a competitive advantage depends on how it is implemented in new products and to which target group it is aimed. This article presents a cl...
Article
Full-text available
Product personality refers to the set of personality characteristics that people use to describe a specific product. Product personality can affect users' interaction with and evaluation of a product. Accordingly, it may be desirable to design products with a predetermined personality. In this research, the authors develop a 20-item scale that can...
Article
A better understanding of consumer responses to mass customization can help companies to more successfully introduce mass customization strategies in new products. Only if consumers believe that the value of the mass-customized product significantly exceeds that of an off-the-shelf product, consumers are willing to mass customize a product. In this...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with why people develop strong relationships to certain products and how designers may influence the degree of attachment through product design. An attachment is an emotion-laden target-specific bond between two persons. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a spec...
Article
The possibility of designing physical human–product interactions with predefined personalities was explored in two studies. In the first study, 60 participants reported the personality of two devices that were developed to be identical in terms of appearance and different in terms of interaction style, i.e. dominant versus elegant. In the second st...
Article
Academics and practitioners argue for the importance of making decisions on styling more strategic. We propose that styling strategies unfold according to three dimensions: decisions about the present product portfolio, the succession of product generations, and the products of competitors. On each of these dimensions, a key decision is to strive f...
Article
Product styling holds several commercial benefits for companies. Still, managers often struggle in managing the styling process, giving it sufficient priority in company strategy, and coordinating it with other company activates. To support coordination in the decision-making process, we identify a number of intermediary goals of styling based on i...
Article
The value of early customer input has long been recognized by companies. However, especially when breakthrough technologies are involved, more insight in valuable methods for collecting early customer input is needed. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate a breakthrough technology with customers. First, a creative process should point out...
Article
Full-text available
Product attachment is the emotional bond a consumer experi-ences with a product. This study examines the effect of congruity between the personalities of a person and a product on attachment and product lifetime. A scenario study shows that consumers develop stronger attachments to products with a personality that is congruent to their own. Althoug...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how the emotional bond a consumer experiences with ordinary durables varies over time. We found that product attachment is affected by the degree of self-expression, memories, and perceived pleasure. Over time, the determinants of product attachment can be added or lost, or their impact on product attachment can change. Our...
Article
Brand image, product- and brand-personality play an important role in the decision to buy a product. Websites are one of the media a brand may use to communicate its image and personality. In comparison with visual imagery, the use of sound as a carrier of brand-identity, and -personality in websites is hardly used and research in this field is ver...
Article
From an environmental perspective, the early replacement of durables is generally detrimental. This article examines 'ensuring a strong person-product relationship' as a design strategy to postpone product replacement. If a person experiences a strong relationship with his/her product, this can result in more protective behaviours towards this prod...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product‐user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also carries symbolic meaning. That part of the symbolic...
Article
Full-text available
Product design has been recognized as an opportunity for differential advantage in the market place. The appearance of a product influences consumer product choice in several ways. To help product development managers in optimizing the appearance of products, the present study identified the different ways in which the appearance of a product plays...
Article
Diffusion of many successful communication technologies, like telephony and television technology, follows an almost perfect S-shaped curve. This curve implies that, after their introduction, subsequent sales of products on the basis of these technologies can be predicted accurately. However, the diffusion of other breakthroughs in communication te...
Article
It is argued that the abstract product attributes that consumers mention in a research setting should not be interpreted as combinations of the more concrete attributes consumers mention. Results from a laddering study show that a majority of elicited abstract product attributes are unrelated to concrete attributes. Furthermore, these unrelated abs...
Chapter